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1.3 PRINCIPIOS PARA EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES - PROBLEMATICAS EDUCATIVAS.ppt

  1. PRINCIPIOS Y PROBLEMÁTICAS EDUCATIVAS EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES LADY VIVIANA CUERVO ALZATE
  2. AGENDA Tipos de actividades para enseñar los componentes y las habilidades comunicativas de la lengua. Principios y procedimientos para el diseño de materiales ¿Cómo identificar un problema educativo para el diseño de materiales? Aspectos a evaluar en el diseño de materiales Efectos, problemas y causas Recursos sugeridos
  3. COMPONENTES DE LA LENGUA VOCABULARIO GRAMÁTICA PRONUNCIACIÓN
  4. PRONUNCIATION Drilling Chaining • Back chain • Front chain Open-pair drilling Substitution drilling Minimal pairs and related activities Pronunciation and spelling activities Taping students’ language Listening activities Reading activities PRONUNCIATION
  5. VOCABULARY Highlighting the form Involving students Explaining meaning Decision-making tasks Illustrating meaning Production tasks Using translation Drilling Nominating Personalizing Association network Information gaps Peer-teaching Identifying Selecting Matching •Pelmaninsm Sorting Gap-fills
  6. GRAMMAR RULES • Rules – explanations • Translations • Grammar worksheet • Self-study EXAMPLES • Through actions • Realia • Generative situation • Teaching differences through minimal pairs • Concordance data TEXTS • Scripted dialogues • Authentic texts • Students language • Dictogloss • Genre analysis
  7. HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS INPUT OUTPUT Escritura Habla – producción oral Lectura Escucha
  8. SPEAKING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES •Sharing information with restrictive cooperation •Discovering identical pairs •Discovering sequences or locations •Discovering missing information •Discovering missing features •Discovering secrets •Sharing information with unrestrictive cooperation •Communicating patterns and pictures •Communicating models •Discovering differences •Following directions •Sharing information with unrestrictive cooperation •Reconstructing story sequences •Pooling information to solve a problem •Processing information SOCIAL INTERACTION ACTIVITIES •Classroom as a social context •Conversation or discussion sessions •Basing dialogues and role-plays on school experience •Simulation and role-playing •Role playing controlled through cues and information •Role playing controlled through situations and goals •Role playing in the form of debate or discussion •Large-scale simulation activities •Improvisation
  9. READING AFTER WHILE BEFORE Brainstorm learner’s feelings /experiences Introduce essential vocabulary using visuals, sketches and realia Discussions Focused questions Prediction activities Sequencing pictures Sequencing a series of key words Reading for gist Reading for main ideas • Answer true/false questions • Answer multiple choice questions • Predict the ending • Sequence the pictures/check before • reading sequencing • Sequence events • Summarizing a text Reading in detail • Identify the following vocabulary/realia • sequence them • Follow written instructions • Complete a cloze activity • Categorizing texts • Skeleton texts • Retelling the story • Working out the meaning of unfamiliar • words, Offering personal opinions about the text Completing the sentences Choosing characters from a set of visuals. Which one is Maria? Why? Telling the story from another perspective; Retell/comprehend the story in another language form Who said what? A series of statements that link to particular characters Read similar texts independently andsilently.
  10. WRITING Recognition Production Extensive reading • Disguised word copying • Copying from the board • Making notes • Whisper writing Copying • Sentence production • Paired sentences • Paragraph construction • Controlled text construction • Free text construction Sentence, paragraph and text
  11. LISTENING LISTENING SOURCES AND TASKS •Photos •Firsts •Childhood anecdotes •Chat show •Biographies •Jigsaw tasks with an information gap •Reposting back •Making a presentation •Secretaries •Guests speakers •Textbook recordings •Television, video, DVD and radio •Songs •The internet •Favorites •Anecdotes •Five things in common •Business venture •News
  12. PRE • Activating schemata/predicting (33) • Establishing reasons for listening • Generating questions • Pre-teaching vocabulary WHILE • Listening for gist • Listening for detail (6) • Inferring (3) • Participating actively (4) • Note taking (4) • Dictation (9) • Listen and do (8) POST • Reflecting • Checking and summarising • Discussion (5) • Creative responses (6) • Critical responses • Information Exchange • Problem solving (7) • Deconstructing the listening text • Reconstructing the listening text (4)
  13. PRINCIPIOS PARA EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES
  14. TOMLINSON (1998) Materials should: • Expose the learners to language in authentic use • Help learners to pay attention to features of authentic input • Provide the learners with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes • Provide opportunities for outcome feedback • Achieve impact in the sense that they arouse and sustain the learners’ curiosity and attention • Stimulate intellectual, aesthetic and emotional involvement
  15. LENGUA MATERIALES Cada principio del diseño de material debe estar derivado de un principio de adquisición de la lengua.
  16. ¿CÓMO IDENTIFICAR UN PROBLEMA EDUCATIVO PARA EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES?
  17. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  RATIONALE: Why was the book written in the first place, and what gaps is it intended to fill? - Are you given information about the Needs Analysis or classroom piloting that were undertaken? - Are the objectives spelt out?  AVAILABILITY: - Is it easy to obtain sample copies and support material for inspection? - Can you contact the publisher’s representatives in case you want further information about the content, approach, or pedagogical
  18. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  USER DEFINITION: -Is there a clear specification of the target age range, culture, assumed background, probable learning preferences, and educational expectations? - Are entry/exit language levels precisely defined, e.g. by reference to international ‘standards’ such as the ELTS, ACTFL or Council of Europe scales, or by reference to local or country-specific examination requirements? - In the case of an ESP textbook, what degree of specialist knowledge is assumed (of both learners and teacher)?  LAYOUT/GRAPHICS: - Is there an optimum density and mix of text and graphical material on each page, or is the impression one of clutter? - Are the artwork and typefaces
  19. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  ACCESSIBILITY: - Is the material clearly organized? - Can the student find his or her location in the material at any point, i.e. is it possible to have a clear view of the ‘progress’ made, and how much still needs to be covered? - Are there indexes, vocabulary lists, section headings, and other methods of signposting the content that allow the student to use the material easily, especially for revision or self-study purposes? - Is the learner (as opposed to the teacher) given clear advice about how the book and its contents could be most effectively exploited?  LINKAGE: - Do the units and exercises connect in terms of theme, situation, topic, pattern of skill development, or grammatical/lexical ‘progression’? - Is the nature of such connection made obvious, for example by placing input texts and supporting
  20. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  SELECTION/GRADING: - Does the introduction, practice, and recycling of new linguistic items seem to be shallow/steep enough for your students? - Is there a discernible system at work in the selection and grading of these items (e.g. on the basis of frequency counts, or on the basis of useful comparisons between the learner’s mother tongue and English)? - Is the linguistic inventory presented appropriate for your purposes, bearing in mind the L1 background(s) of your learners?  PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: - Is there space to write in the book? - Is the book robust? too large? too heavy? - Is the spine labelled? - Is it a book that could be used more than once, especially if it is marked by previous students?
  21. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  APPROPRIACY: - Is the material substantial enough or interesting enough to hold the attention of learners? - Is it pitched at the right level of maturity and language, and (particularly in the case of ESP situations), at the right conceptual level? - Is it topical?  AUTHENTICITY:- Is the content obviously realistic, being taken from L1 material not initially intended for ELT purposes? - Do the tasks exploit language in a communicative or ‘real-world’ way? - If not, are the texts unacceptably simplified or artificial (for instance, in the use of whole-sentence dialogues)?
  22. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  SUFFICIENCY: - Is the book complete enough to stand on its own, or must the teacher produce a lot of ancillary bridging material to make it workable? - Can you teach the course using only the student’s book, or must all the attendant aids (e.g. cassettes) be deployed?  CULTURAL BIAS: - Are different and appropriate religious and social environments catered for, both in terms of the topics/situations presented and of those left out? - Are students’ expectations in regard to content, methodology, and for- mat successfully accommodated? - If not, would the book be able to wean students away from their preconceived notions? - Is the author’s sense of humour or philosophy obvious or appropriate? - Does the course book enshrine stereotyped, inaccurate, condescending or offensive images of gender, race, social class, or nationality? - Are accurate or ‘sanitized’ views of the USA or Britain presented; are uncomfortable social realities (e.g. unemployment, poverty, family
  23. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  EDUCATIONAL VALIDITY: - Does the textbook take account of, and seem to be in tune with, broader educational concerns (e.g. the nature and role of learning skills, concept development in younger learners, the function of ‘knowledge of the world’, the exploitation of sensitive issues, the value of metaphor as a powerful cognitive learning device)?  STIMULUS/PRACTICE/REVISION: - Is the course material interactive, and are there sufficient opportunities for the learner to use his or her English so that effective consolidation takes place? - Is the material likely to be retained/remembered by learners? - Is allowance made for revision, testing, and on-going evaluation/mark ing of exercises and activities, especially in large-group situations; are ready- made achievement tests provided for the course
  24. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  FLEXIBILITY: - Can the book accommodate the practical constraints with which you must deal, or are assumptions made about such things as the availability of audio-visual equipment, pictorial material, class size, and classroom geography; does the material make too many demands on teachers’ preparation time and students’ homework time? - Can the material be exploited or modified as required by local circumstances, or is it too rigid in format, structure, and approach? - Is there a full range of supplementary aids available?  GUIDANCE:- Are the teacher’s notes useful and explicit? - Has there been an inordinate delay between the publication of the student’s and teacher’s books which has meant that teachers have had to fend for themselves in exploiting the material? - Is there advice about how to supplement the course book, or to present the lessons in different ways? - Is there enough/too much ‘hand-holding’? - Are typescripts, answer keys, ‘technical notes’ (in the case of ESP textbooks), vocabulary lists, structural/functional inventories, and lesson summaries provided in the Teacher’s Book? - Is allowance made for the perspectives,
  25. ASPECTOS A EVALUAR EN EL DISEÑO DE MATERIALES  OVERALL VALUE FOR MONEY: - Quite simply, is the course book cost-effective, easy to use, and successful money in your teaching situation, in terms of time, labour, and money? - To what extent has it realized its stated objectives?
  26. ÁRBOL DE PROBLEMAS
  27. RECURSOS DEL DÍA  MAPAS MENTALES: POPPLET: http://popplet.com/ BUBBL: https://bubbl.us/ SPIDERSCRIBE: https://www.spiderscribe.net/
  28. REFERENCIAS  Belloch, Consuelo (2013). Diseño Instruccional. Unidad de Tecnología Educativa (UTE). Universidad de Valencia http://cmapspublic.ihmc.us/rid=1MXBYRSF8-1Y2JTP7-RM/EVA4.pdf  Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing your coursebook. Oxford: Heinemann.  Rowntree, D. (1994) . Preparing Materials for Open, Distance and Flexible Learning. London:Kogan Page  Sheldon, L. (1988). Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. ELT Journal,42 (4), 237-246  Tomlinson, B. (ed.) 1998. Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  29. SIGUIENTES SEMANAS  SIGUIENTE SEMANA: - ENCUENTRO VIRTUAL 2: (22 DE AGOSTO) - ACTIVIDAD 1 (INDIVIDUALMENTE) Y ACTIVIDAD 2 (GRUPOS DE TRABAJO) (15 – 22 AGOSTO Y 24 AGOSTO )  DOS SEMANAS: ACTIVIDAD 3 (22-29/31 AGOSTO) -ENCUENTRO VIRTUAL 3: (29 AGOSTO) - ENCUENTRO PRESENCIAL 2: (AGOSTO 31)

Editor's Notes

  1. Activity: Evaluating materials
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