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The Roaring 20’s    An era of prosperity,     Republican power,        and conflict
• 1920s collectively known as the "Roaring 20s", or the  "Jazz Age"• in sum, a period of great change in American Society ...
The 20’s is The Jazz Age                      The Flappers                        make up                        cigarette...
• 1920s also brought about  great changes for women...• 1920 - 19th Amendment gave  them the federal vote• after 1920, soc...
The Dance Craze• The Charleston• Has a quick beat• Dancers kick out their  feet• Popular dance for  Flappers: Women who  w...
A New Generation of American Writers• Depressed about their awful experiences in  World War I• Criticized Americans for be...
Ernest Hemingway• Wrote about  experiences of  Americans during  WWI and in Europe• Wrote A Farewell to  Arms, The Sun Als...
F. Scott Fitzgerald          • Wrote about wealthy            young people who go            to constant parties but      ...
Sinclair Lewis• Grew up in a small  town in Minnesota  and moved to New  York City• He wrote books about  rural people fro...
Harlem Renaissance•   originally called    the New Negro    Movement.•   fostered a new    black cultural      • an outpou...
Boom Time?– The years between World War I and the Great  Depression were "boom times" in the United  States.– A "boom" is ...
Why Leave the South?– Between 1920 and 1930, almost 750,000 African  Americans left the South for political, social, and  ...
The Great Migration– At the beginning of the period, particularly in  the South, racism was rampant, and economic  opportu...
Causes of Migration– new farm machinery drove thousands of tenant  farmers off the land.– 1915 - severe boll weevil infest...
Children in the Silent Protest Parade, 1917Page from The Brownies Book, published by NAACP
Reaction of White Southerners– Promised better pay and improved  treatment.– Intimidation– Some even boarded northbound tr...
The New Negro Has no Fear  – After centuries of abuse in the South, many    African Americans were "voting with their feet...
The North: Home Sweet Home?–The North was a step up from the South, but it was no paradise.– Segregation in housing and hi...
The North: Home Sweet Home?–New arrivals could land only low- paying jobs as janitors, elevator operators, domestics, and ...
Why "Harlem" Renaissance?• Of the almost 750,000 African  Americans who moved North,  nearly 175,000 moved to  Harlem.• Ha...
Triggers of Harlem Renaissance•   the end of World War I and the return of    black veterans•   the formation of civil rig...
Mets     Yankees Buy         Giants                                               Lose    Pennant Here!!          Stink   ...
1920       19111930
ImpactThe Harlem section of New York City was transformed from a deteriorating area into a thriving middle class community...
Modernism & the Harlem Renaissance• Blacks view surge in art, music and literature as the  creation of a new cultural iden...
Authors and Works•   Creative expression was   • African-American-owned    one of the few avenues      magazines and    av...
Harlem Renaissance PoetsClaude McKay: From  Jamaica, wrote the  poem, “If We Must  Die” that condemned  lynchingsCountee C...
Zora Neale Hurston• Write novels, short essays,  short stories• Traveled throughout the  South in a battered car  collecti...
Langston Hughes• Most well-known of the  Harlem Renaissance  poets• Also wrote plays, short  stories, and essays• First po...
“The night is beautiful,        So the faces of my people.         The stars are beautiful,         So the eyes of my peop...
Lafayette       Theatreopening night of Shakespeares         "Macbeth"• also known as the "House Beautiful“• probably the ...
Edward Kennedy (Duke) Ellington(1899-1974) composer, musician, band leader
Heroes of the 1920s• Athletes:  – Bobby Jones: Won nearly every golfing    championship  – Jack Dempsey: Heavyweight boxin...
Babe Ruth• Grew up in an  orphanage• Often in trouble as a  boy• Hit 60 homeruns in  one season, and 714  overall• Called ...
Charles Lindbergh• The greatest hero of the  1920s• The first person to fly an  airplane across the Atlantic  Ocean alone•...
CelebritiesBabe Ruth &Ty Cobb                     Charles Lindbergh                     The Spirit of St. Louis   Jack Dem...
New York Black Yankees, 1939    Photo credit: Morgan & Marvin Smith
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1920s and harlem

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1920s and harlem

  1. 1. The Roaring 20’s An era of prosperity, Republican power, and conflict
  2. 2. • 1920s collectively known as the "Roaring 20s", or the "Jazz Age"• in sum, a period of great change in American Society - modern America is born at this time• for first time the census reflected an urban society - people had moved into cities to enjoy a higher standard of living
  3. 3. The 20’s is The Jazz Age The Flappers make up cigarettes short skirts Writers MusiciansF. Scott Fitzgerald Louis ArmstrongErnest Hemingway Duke Ellington
  4. 4. • 1920s also brought about great changes for women...• 1920 - 19th Amendment gave them the federal vote• after 1920, social circumstances changed too as more women worked outside the home• and more women went to college and clamoured to join the professions• women didnt want to sacrifice wartime gains - amounted to a social revolt• characterized by the FLAPPER/ "new woman" – (bobbed hair, short dresses, smoked in public...)
  5. 5. The Dance Craze• The Charleston• Has a quick beat• Dancers kick out their feet• Popular dance for Flappers: Women who wore short skirts (to the knees), bright red lipstick, hair cut short, smoked and drank in public, and drove fast cars
  6. 6. A New Generation of American Writers• Depressed about their awful experiences in World War I• Criticized Americans for being obsessed with money and fun• Many became expatriates (people who leave their own country to live in a foreign land) and moved to Europe
  7. 7. Ernest Hemingway• Wrote about experiences of Americans during WWI and in Europe• Wrote A Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises, The Old Man in the Sea
  8. 8. F. Scott Fitzgerald • Wrote about wealthy young people who go to constant parties but cannot find happiness • He wrote The Great Gatsby • His characters had flappers, bootleggers, and movie makers
  9. 9. Sinclair Lewis• Grew up in a small town in Minnesota and moved to New York City• He wrote books about rural people from a city person’s perspective (making them look stupid)• Wrote Main Street and Babbitt
  10. 10. Harlem Renaissance• originally called the New Negro Movement.• fostered a new black cultural • an outpouring of identity. creative expression• 1920s through that had long been mid-40s. bottled up by the constraints of segregation.
  11. 11. Boom Time?– The years between World War I and the Great Depression were "boom times" in the United States.– A "boom" is a time of rapid, widespread expansion of economic opportunity, during which jobs are plentiful.– Jobs were plentiful in cities, especially in the North.
  12. 12. Why Leave the South?– Between 1920 and 1930, almost 750,000 African Americans left the South for political, social, and economic reasons.– Why go North? • wider opportunities for prosperity • more racially tolerant environments • a sense of actual (as opposed to theoretical) citizenship– Mass exodus from the South called The Great Migration.
  13. 13. The Great Migration– At the beginning of the period, particularly in the South, racism was rampant, and economic opportunities were scarce.– At this time in the South, African Americans were restricted to "colored" facilities clearly inferior to those reserved for white citizens.– Lynching was used to instill fear in entire African American communities in the South.
  14. 14. Causes of Migration– new farm machinery drove thousands of tenant farmers off the land.– 1915 - severe boll weevil infestation– Southern states had fewer schools and higher rates of illiteracy than Northern states.– Northern states also had more cultural attractions and booming industries.
  15. 15. Children in the Silent Protest Parade, 1917Page from The Brownies Book, published by NAACP
  16. 16. Reaction of White Southerners– Promised better pay and improved treatment.– Intimidation– Some even boarded northbound trains to attack African American men and women in an attempt to return them forcibly to their homes.
  17. 17. The New Negro Has no Fear – After centuries of abuse in the South, many African Americans were "voting with their feet"UNIA ParadeOrganized inHarlem, 1924
  18. 18. The North: Home Sweet Home?–The North was a step up from the South, but it was no paradise.– Segregation in housing and hiring were the norm.–Northern racism sometimes took on a brutality that equaled anything in the South.
  19. 19. The North: Home Sweet Home?–New arrivals could land only low- paying jobs as janitors, elevator operators, domestics, and unskilled laborers.–Despite the challenges, most of those who went North never returned.
  20. 20. Why "Harlem" Renaissance?• Of the almost 750,000 African Americans who moved North, nearly 175,000 moved to Harlem.• Harlem is a section of Manhattan, which covers three square miles; therefore, Harlem became the largest concentration of black people in the world.
  21. 21. Triggers of Harlem Renaissance• the end of World War I and the return of black veterans• the formation of civil rights organizations (NAACP) and black solidarity movements (UNIA)• the ascendance of Harlem as the "Negro capital of the world"• a new sense of economic, social, and cultural potential
  22. 22. Mets Yankees Buy Giants Lose Pennant Here!! Stink Here!! Here!Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was thecenter of the African American political, cultural,and artistic movement in the 1920s and early 1930s. Can you see any evidence from this map that this is an African American community?
  23. 23. 1920 19111930
  24. 24. ImpactThe Harlem section of New York City was transformed from a deteriorating area into a thriving middle class community. Before After
  25. 25. Modernism & the Harlem Renaissance• Blacks view surge in art, music and literature as the creation of a new cultural identity.• Whites see it as another new, exotic, and trendy form of entertainment.
  26. 26. Authors and Works• Creative expression was • African-American-owned one of the few avenues magazines and available to African newspapers flourished Americans• Common bond: They dealt with African Countee American life from an Cullen African American (1903-1946) perspective. poet, novelist, playwright
  27. 27. Harlem Renaissance PoetsClaude McKay: From Jamaica, wrote the poem, “If We Must Die” that condemned lynchingsCountee Cullen: Taught high school in Harlem, wrote of the experiences of African Americans
  28. 28. Zora Neale Hurston• Write novels, short essays, short stories• Traveled throughout the South in a battered car collecting folk tales, songs, and prayers of black southerners• Published these in her book, “Mules and Men”• Most famous- There Eyes Were Watching God
  29. 29. Langston Hughes• Most well-known of the Harlem Renaissance poets• Also wrote plays, short stories, and essays• First poem, “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”• Encouraged African Americans to be proud of their heritage• Protested racism and acts of violence against blacks
  30. 30. “The night is beautiful, So the faces of my people. The stars are beautiful, So the eyes of my people. Beautiful also, is the sun.Beautiful also, are the souls of my people.” -Langston Hughes, “In My People”
  31. 31. Lafayette Theatreopening night of Shakespeares "Macbeth"• also known as the "House Beautiful“• probably the first New York theater to desegregate• as early as 1912, African-American theatergoers were allowed to sit in orchestra seats instead of only the balcony.
  32. 32. Edward Kennedy (Duke) Ellington(1899-1974) composer, musician, band leader
  33. 33. Heroes of the 1920s• Athletes: – Bobby Jones: Won nearly every golfing championship – Jack Dempsey: Heavyweight boxing champion for 7 years – Bill Tilden and Helen Willis: Tennis champions – Gertrude Ederle: 1st woman to swim the English Channel
  34. 34. Babe Ruth• Grew up in an orphanage• Often in trouble as a boy• Hit 60 homeruns in one season, and 714 overall• Called the “Sultan of Swat”
  35. 35. Charles Lindbergh• The greatest hero of the 1920s• The first person to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean alone• Flew from New York to Paris• Called “Lucky Lindy” because he had to fly for 33 ½ hours and didn’t carry a parachute, a radio, or a map
  36. 36. CelebritiesBabe Ruth &Ty Cobb Charles Lindbergh The Spirit of St. Louis Jack Dempsey
  37. 37. New York Black Yankees, 1939 Photo credit: Morgan & Marvin Smith

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