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Fiber Optic Connectors, Designs, Applications, Choices

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Fiber optic connectors have been around for many years, nearly since the creation of optical fiber itself. A key component of optical fiber is its ability to transmit light signals over long distances without attenuation, in other words without light lost along the optical path. There are many types of connectors to choose from as well as methods to connectorize fiber cables.

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Fiber Optic Connectors, Designs, Applications, Choices

  1. 1. Fiber Optic Connectors Designs, Applications, Choices November 21, 2013 Dave Cook – RCDD Product Marketing Manager Communication Markets Division
  2. 2. Fiber Optics Technology Consortium • Overview: • Part of the Telecommunications Industry Association (www.tiaonline.org) • Formed 19 years ago as the Fiber Optics LAN Section • Mission: to provide current, reliable, and vendor neutral information about fiber optics and related technologies for advancing new and better communications solutions. www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium
  3. 3. Fiber Optics Technology Consortium Current Members • 3M • AFL/Noyes Fiber Systems • Berk-Tek, a Nexans Company • Corning • CommScope • Fluke Networks • General Cable • Leviton • OFS • Ortronics/legrand • Panduit • Sumitomo Electric Lightwave • Superior Essex • TE Connectivity • Tellabs www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium
  4. 4. Fiber Optics Technology Consortium • Recent Webinars Available on Demand – Standards-based design & testing of Passive Optical LAN Solutions – The Future VSCEL-LOMMF landscape in data centers – Optical Fiber & Cabling Standards for tomorrow’s data center • Visit www.tiafotc.org or our channel on BrightTalk Webinars are eligible for CEC credit for up to two years after they are first broadcast. Email liz@goldsmithpr.com if you have completed a webinar and want to receive your CEC. www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium
  5. 5. Outline of Topics • Introduction • Intro to optical fiber construction • Parameters of a clear fiber connection • Methods to achieve an acceptable fiber end face • Alphabet Soup, the popular connectors used in the US • Methods of termination • The tools and training required • Testing and acceptance of the connector • Summary www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium
  6. 6. Core 900 micron Tight Buffered Fiber Introduction to Optical Fiber Construction • Light transmits down the core, within the cladding • Fibers are protected by a primary coating • Cable protects the fiber with buffer, aramid yarn and jacketing www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium CORE / CLADDING (microns) 62.5 / 125 50 / 125 50 / 125 Laser-optimized 9 / 125 Multimode Singlemode Fiber Buffer Yarn Jacket
  7. 7. www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium TIA-568-C Recognized Fibers and Supported Distances Source TIA-568-C.0-2 August 2012 Application 850 1300 850 1300 850 1300 850 1300 1310 1490 1550 Ethernet 10/100BASE-SX 300 (984) - 300 (984) - 300 (984) - 300 (984) - Ethernet 1000BASE-LX - 550 (1804) - 550 (1804) - 550 (1804) - 550 (1804) 5,000 (16405) - - GPON Class B+ (ITU-T G.984) Ethernet 10GBASE-S 33 (108) - 82 (269) - 300 (984) - 400 (1312) - Ethernet 10GBASE-LX4 - 300 (984) - 300 (984) - 300 (984) - 300 (984) 10,000 (32810) - - TIA 492CAAA (OS1) and TIA 492CAAB (OS2) 20,000 (65620) Dispersion unshifted singlemode and low-water- peak 50/125 um62.5/125 um TIA 492AAAA (OM1) TIA 492AAAB (OM2) TIA 492AAAC (OM3) TIA 492AAAD (OM4) SupportableDistancem(ft) Fiber Type Fiber Standard (ISO Category) Nominal Wavelength (nm) 850 nm laser-optimized 50/125
  8. 8. Parameters of a clear fiber connection • The optical fiber end face finish • Impediments to clear light transmission – Fiber alignment is most critical – Air gap results in a 0.35 dB loss at least, growing worse from there www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium / CRACK Issues affecting splice performance Issues affecting connector performance
  9. 9. Methods to Achieve Acceptable Fiber End Face • Optical fiber cleaving (splice) • Optical fiber polishing (connector) • End face finishes – Physical Contact (PC) – Ultra Physical Contact (UPC) – 8 Angled Physical Contact (APC) www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium UPC end face APC end face Cleaver Field Polish Factory Machine Polish
  10. 10. Connector Ferrule and Fiber End-Face Geometry • Geometry is critical to the fiber to fiber connector interface • Connector spring force with proper geometry provides optical contact • Assures contact in extreme conditions, -40C to +85C • Geometry of ferrule is factory produced www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium End-Face Dome Ferrule Undercut FiberProtruding Fiber Apex Offset Radius Fiber Center Dome Center
  11. 11. Main Components in Connector Anatomy Ferrule Ferrule / Collar Assembly Yarn and / or cable strain relief Strain relief boot Fiber capillary Connector Body Outer Coupling Shell • Ferrule to Ferrule connection for low loss fiber alignment. Support of fiber for end face finishing. • Connector body materials chosen for stable temperature performance • Body and Coupling shell provides robust connection to equipment and coupling/adapter • Cable strain relief for robust cable tensile load, and twist resistance • Strain relief boot for side pull bend control • Consider size and type of cable to be terminated to chose proper part number – 900 um Buffered, 1.6 mm to 3.0 mm jacketed with Aramid Yarn
  12. 12. Connector Performance Requirements ANSI/TIA-568-C.3 • Attenuation (Light Loss) – Multimode and Singlemode maximum 0.75 dB • Return Loss (Reflection) – Multimode minimum 20 dB – Singlemode minimum 26 dB – Singlemode broadband analog video minimum 55 dB • Low Temperature -10 C (14 F) • Temperature Life +60 C (140 F) • Humidity • Impact • Strength of coupling mechanism • Durability • Cable Retention • Flex • Twist Fiber to Fiber End Face Alignment Ferrule Ferrule / Collar Assembly Yarn and / or cable strain relief Strain relief boot Fiber capillary Connector Body Outer Coupling Shell
  13. 13. www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium Typical Connector Types Field Termination • ST connector, 2.5mm ceramic ferrule, bayonet • SC connector, 2.5mm ceramic ferrule, push/pull • LC connector, 1.25mm ceramic ferrule, push/latch – ½ size of SC for greater density • MPO connector, rectangular ferrule for typ. 12/24 fibers, push/pull • UPC – Ultra Physical Contact < -55dB reflection • APC – Angle Physical Contact < -65dB reflection SC / UPC SC / APCLC / UPC ST MPO
  14. 14. Methods of Field Termination • Adhesive polish • Fusion splice-on • Mechanical splice-on • Cleave and Crimp www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium
  15. 15. Connector Termination Methods • SC Adhesive and Polish • Two part Epoxy injected with syringe • Hot Melt adhesive factory injected • Two part Anaerobic adhesive Press button by thumb to activate splice Figure-eight Polish Adhesive Strain relief boot Cable Crimp Field cable with stripped and cleaved fiber Ceramic Ferrule and Collar Adhesive bead
  16. 16. • SC Fusion Splice-On AFL FuseConnectCleaver Connector Termination Methods Pre-polished ferrule and fiber Factory cleaved fiber Splice protection sleeve Fusion splice point Yarn and / or cable strain relief Field cable with stripped and cleaved fiber Strain relief boot
  17. 17. Grip cable jacket with screw on, hard shell boot • SC Mechanical Splice-On Grip aramid fiber in boot threads Press button by thumb to activate splice Connector Termination Methods Pre-polished ferrule and fiber Factory cleaved fiber Mechanical splice element Mechanical splice point Yarn and / or cable strain relief Strain relief boot Buffer Clamp Field cable with stripped and cleaved fiber
  18. 18. • SC Mechanical Crimp - On Cleaver Connector Termination Methods Fast field finish Mechanical gripping element No splice No adhesive Strain relief boot Buffer Clamp Field cable with stripped and cleaved fiber
  19. 19. The Tools and Training Required • Connector tool kits – Most often kits are specific to the vendor’s connector products – Usually contain common fiber prep tools and vendor specific tools www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium
  20. 20. The Tools and Training Required • Termination training – Read and follow the instruction manual – Many times different vendors have similar processes but likely also have differences • Training – FOTC Seminar – BICSI Cert. Trainers – Independent Schools – Vendors – On-line videos
  21. 21. MPO Connectors o Multimode and Singlemode o Multi-fiber backbone cable o Data Center o Parallel Optics o 10 G Fibre Channel o 40 G and 100 G IEEE standard www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium FerruleBoot Key Alignment Pins Adapter Sleeve 12 Fiber End Face
  22. 22. TIA568-C.3 Standards MPO Polarity Patch cords shown are unpinned on both ends www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium Key Up Key UpKey Up Key Up Key Down Key Down Fiber Position Fiber Position 1 12 1 12 1 12 1 12 1 12 Type A Type B Type C 2 1 4 3 6 5 8 7 10 9 12 11
  23. 23. Pre-terminated Cable Assemblies ADVANTAGES o Factory built and tested o Factory test results included o No field tools required o Minimal training / skill o Efficient installation FEATURES o Various lengths available o Factory terminated without splicing o Usually include pulling eye and protection sock over connectors o Multi-fiber backbone cable, Data Center o Parallel Optics o 10 G Fibre Channel o 40 G and 100 G IEEE standard MPO to SC/APC MPO to MPO
  24. 24. Clean and Inspect • Cleaning kits with specialized fluids and wipes • Inspection scopes • Always before testing and connecting www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium www.TIAFOTC.org Preventing Network Failure by Inspecting and Cleaning Fiber Optic Connectors
  25. 25. Testing and Acceptance of the Connector • OLTS – Optical Loss Test Set – Measure attenuation (light loss) • OTDR – Optical Time Domain Reflectometer – Measure distance, attenuation and return loss of fiber events (connectors and splices) www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium www.TIAFOTC.org Tier 1 and Tier 2 Testing, Troubleshooting and Documentation
  26. 26. Testing and Acceptance of the Connector www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium TIA Accepted Performance Vendors Typical Performance Attenuation (Light Loss) Multimode Max 0.75 dB 0.20 to 0.30 dB Singlemode Max 0.75 dB 0.20 to 0.30 dB Return Loss (Reflection) Multimode Min 20.0 dB 30.0 dB Singlemode Min PC Field Mount PC 26.0 dB 40.0 to 55.0 dB Factory UPC 26.0 dB 55.0 dB APC Field Mount APC 26.0 dB 55.0 to 65.0 dB Factory APC 26.0 dB 65.0 dB
  27. 27. Summary • Choose the connector ST, SC, LC, MPO • Singlemode or Multimode – Multimode 62.5, 50, 50 laser optimized • Termination Method and Tools – Adhesive, Splice-on, Crimp-on • Pre-terminated (factory termination) • TIA -568-C.3 performance compliance • Clean, Clean, Clean • Test www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium Dave Cook Communication Markets Division ddcook@mmm.com
  28. 28. Q&A • Please ask your questions using the tab at the top of your screen. • You can download a copy of this presentation from the attachments tab. To receive your CEC, please email Liz@goldsmithpr.com www.tiafotc.org TIA Fiber Optics Technology Consortium

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