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  1. 1. Personality<br />A Psychological Perspective on what makes us Human<br />
  2. 2. What is Personality?<br />What shapes it? <br />How do we develop our personalities?<br />Can our personalities change?<br />How important is personality in defining who we are?<br />What are personality traits?<br />-Brainstorm as many as <br /> you can with a partner?<br />
  3. 3. Personality TraitsCharacteristics & behaviours that make us unique. Predispositions to behave in a certain way in various situations<br />
  4. 4. Case Study<br />Mark & Tony are two students who attend the same school. They come from the same neighbourhood, are the same age and have similar family backgrounds. Mark has a girlfriend, but few other close friends. Mark does not talk much to others and gets angry easily if questioned about his behaviour. Tony has a range of friends. He is witty and outgoing, likes parties and is a leader in his group of friends. Both of these students have the same biological drives and live in similar social environments, yet they are quite different. This difference is “personality”. <br />List words that might describe Tony or mark.<br />Any others?<br />
  5. 5. What forms our Personality?<br />Nature vs. Nurture<br />-The debate over the role [importance] of our biology vs. our environment<br />Nature = genetics, biology, gender, hormones<br />Nurture = environment, experiences, conditioning, socialization<br />
  6. 6. Concept of Personality<br />From the Greek- “persona” meaning mask<br />Today we define it as those characteristics that account for consistent patterns of behaviour<br />Personality Type Theory attempts to classify people into categories [introvert vs. extrovert]<br />Personality Trait Theory places people on a continuum [range from introvert to extrovert]<br />
  7. 7. Theories on Personality Development<br />PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT[Freud-Austria, 1856-1939]<br />-the force behind our personality = the unconscious<br />3 Parts of the Unconscious:<br />1. The ID<br />primitive part of the personality that pursues only pleasure/instant gratification<br />
  8. 8. Freud cont’d…<br />2. EGO <br />Is aware of reality & is in contact w/the outside world. Considers the consequences of an action.<br />3. SUPEREGO<br />Your conscience. Guides towards morally acceptable behaviour<br />
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  10. 10. Freud’s Developmental Stages:Psychosexual<br />ORAL stage<br />Infants fixated on objects in the mouth<br />Traced to nursing<br />Difficulties at this stage can lead to oral fixation- over eating, smoking, biting nails, etc..<br />
  11. 11. Psychosexual Development…<br />ANAL stage<br />Toddler stage, potty training<br />Inability to resolve conflicts of this stage can result in anal retentive or expulsive fixations<br />PHALLIC stage<br />Ages 4-6<br />Oedipus (and Electra) complex<br />Penis envy<br />
  12. 12. Carl Jung: 1875-1961<br />A student of Freud, later a rival<br />Father of “Type Theory”<br />Personalities categorized according to 4 different pairs of traits<br />You will take a Jung Typology test to determine your personality type…<br />
  13. 13. Jungian Type Theory<br />Extraversion/Introversion [E/I]<br />-describes interaction with others<br /> and if we prefer to spend time <br /> alone or w/others<br />Sensing/Intuition [S/N]<br />-describes whether we are more observant or introspective (pay more attention to outer or inner world)<br />
  14. 14. Thinking/Feeling [T/F]<br />-determines whether we think with our head or our heart<br />Judging/Perceiving [J/P]<br />-determines how we run our lives<br />-perceivers keep options open, don’t like schedules, judgers like routine<br />**the result of your type test <br /> will give you 4 letters. <br /> For example Hewitt = ENFJ<br />
  15. 15. Cognitive Theory [Piaget]<br />Personality develops in stages as we learn<br />Stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational<br /><ul><li>Cognition = learning</li></ul>Looking Glass Self[Cooley]<br /><ul><li>Form our sense of self [self concept] based on how we think others see us, their reactions to us
  16. 16. Part of social learning and ongoing(beyond childhood)</li></li></ul><li>Psychosocial Stages [Erikson]<br />Challenges must be overcome at each life stage<br />Personality develops over the course of our life<br />Stages:<br />-trust v. mistrust (infancy)HOPE family<br />-autonomy v. shame & doubt (toddler)WILL family<br />-initiative v. guilt (pre-schooler)PURPOSE family/daycare<br />-industry v. inferiority (6-puberty)COMPETENCE<br /> family/ peers/ school/community<br />-identity v. role confusion (teens)FIDELITY family/ peers/ school/comm.<br />-intimacy v. isolation (young adult)LOVE family/ peers/school/comm.<br />-generativity v. stagnation (middle age)CARING peers/fam./comm.<br />-integrity v. despair (old age)WISDOM peers/fam./comm<br />
  17. 17. Pseudo-Scientific Theories<br />These theories are not scientific, but many people believe in them…<br />Ancient Greece-Galen’s 4 Humors<br />Personality first studied by Hippocrates & Galen<br />Their ideas dominated the Western & Islamic worlds for thousands of years<br />
  18. 18. The 4 Humors<br />Personality (and mental & physical health) set by a balance of 4 body liquids:<br />-blood[too much makes you sanguine; lustful careless, friendly]<br />-yellow bile [choleric = decisive, dynamic, deceitful]<br />-black bile[melancholy = moody, depressed, self-conscious & sensitive]<br />-phlegm [phlegmatic = peaceful, faithful, prone to sloth]<br />
  19. 19. The Zodiac<br />Astrological signs-what’s your sign???<br />Chinese Zodiac<br />Do you believe that you are like your sign?<br />
  20. 20. Birth Order<br />Personality affected by the relationships we develop with parents/siblings as we grow up<br />
  21. 21. Body Type[Sheldon]<br />Personality determined by our build (seriously!)<br />3 body types<br />1. Endomorph:<br />-round & soft<br />-enjoys food, comfort, relaxation, people<br />-needs acceptance<br />
  22. 22. Body Type Theory…<br />2. Mesomorph<br />-hard body, muscular<br />-assertive, loves action, energetic, direct<br />3. Ectomorph<br />-thin, slender, fragile<br />-private, self-aware, nervous, sensitive, shy<br />
  23. 23. What other factors influence personality?<br />Media<br />Toys<br />Peers<br />Parents<br />Genes<br />Religion<br />Culture<br />Ourselves<br />*Which of these factors are environmental and which are genetic?<br />