Training pm jan 11 part b


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Presentation for Fast Forward and COnnect Trainees Saxion, 14, 28 January 2011

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  • To plan a project in detail - essential when you need to allocate funding or resources - you will need to analyse it in detail. The drill down technique enables you to do this. It is a simple technique for breaking complex problems down into progressively smaller parts. To use the technique, start by writing the project aim down on the left-hand side of a large sheet of paper. A little to the right of this, write down a list of points relating to the project. These may be reasons for doing the project, ideas about methodology, plans for evaluation. This process of breaking the problem down into its component part is called 'drilling down'. For each of these points, repeat the process. Keep on drilling down into points until you fully understand the factors contributing to the project. If you cannot break them down using the knowledge you have, then carry out whatever research is necessary to understand the point. Alternatively, discuss this with your supervisor - you will have a focus for your early research meetings. Drilling into a question helps you to get a much deeper understanding of it. The process helps you to recognise and understand the factors that contribute to it. Drill Down prompts you to link in information that you had not initially associated with a problem. It also shows exactly where you need further information.
  • Drill down is useful for identifying all the tasks involved, but one of the most difficult elements of project planning is the allocation of time to each task. It is important to get time estimates right for two main reasons: Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines for delivery of projects, and hence peoples' assessments of your reliability They often determine the allocation of resources and hence their efficiency. Usually people vastly underestimate the amount of time needed to implement projects. This is true particularly when they are not familiar with the task to be carried out. They forget to take into account unexpected events or unscheduled high priority work. People also often simply fail to allow for the full complexity involved with a job. At this stage you are learning the skills of research management so ask for input from more experienced researchers about your plan.
  • Work package is a subset of a project that can be assigned to a specific party for execution. Derived from a work breakdown structure, a work package is part of a Plan Breakdown Structure, representing a collection of work actions necessary to create a specific result.
  • From the previous session - to revise Gantt Charts are useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects. They: help you to lay out the tasks that need to be completed give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project, help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date. When a project is under way, Gantt charts help you to monitor whether the project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows you to pin-point the remedial action necessary to put it back on schedule.
  • Once the project is under way it is important to monitor progress. Benefits: you can fine tune or reschedule tasks if your time estimates were not realistic you can see which tasks are falling behind and allocate extra resources or investigate why you can report on progress at any time as well as reviewing the project, you are reviewing your plan, so you can improve your planning skills for next time
  • If you discover or anticipate a delay it is essential to take action Report the implications of delays - other projects or work may be depending on the outcome of your project so give people time to react Discuss changes in plans - involve others so they can make suggestions Direct resources - use the CPA to see what tasks need to be completed Avoid persecution - if someone else is telling you about problems, be constructive - or next time they may not tell you until it is too late Respond early - so there is time to get back on track or re-think Be flexible - use your project plans to find alternatives Involve the client and stakeholders - they may have ideas or be prepared to be flexible too
  • (Read Definition from slide) Scope creep occurs when additional requirements, sometimes minor, are identified and added to the project. Overtime, these collectively may result in scope change and cause cost and schedule overruns. OFTEN DON’T RECOGNIZE IT BECAUSE IT HAPPENS WHEN EVERYONE IS AGREEING! Delineate between requirements and enhancements. You need buy-in from all of the stakeholders to add enhancements.
  • Stop! Ask these questions? Have a change control process that involves all of your stakeholders, so you know you have their buy-in, particularly if the change significantly impacts the budget or timeline.
  • Monitor project spending to ensure it stays within the baseline plan for spending rates and totals When spending varies, determine the cause. Change the execution of the project to bring the spending back in line within the budget, or recognize the original estimate was incorrect or you require additional funding due to variances in scope or time and either submit an APDU to request approval of additional funding or reduce the scope of the project Keep your stakeholders, particularly executive sponsors in the loop. Prevent unapproved changes to the project
  • Training pm jan 11 part b

    1. 1. Training Project Management Fast Forward Connect Siep Littooij Manager International Project Desk 14, 28 January 2011
    2. 2. Program Reader, presentation Alternatives to the waterfall 1615 14 JANUARY Closing 1700 Discussion, questions 1645 Assignment 2: -Team this project 1545 Project manager skills 1500 Assignment 1: -Do you see a project? 1430 Project management defined 1330 Start, acquaint 1300 PM Tools 5: Performance tracking 1600 28 JANUARY Closing 1700 Discussion, questions 1630 Assignment 5 -Risk Debate 1545 PM Tools 4: Risk 1530 Assignment 4 -Present the Gantt chart 1445 PM Tools 2,3 1430 Assignment 3 -Describe the logframe 1345 PM Tools 1 : LFA 1305 Start 1300
    3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Defining project management </li></ul><ul><li>The skills of the project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for project management </li></ul>
    4. 4. Project Management: 5 essential Tools <ul><li>Logframe approach </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Map, identifying details </li></ul><ul><li>WBS & Gantt Chart planning </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Tracking </li></ul>YOU bring structure to the project
    5. 5. Tool 1 Logical Framework Approach
    6. 6. LFA analysis visualisation
    7. 7. Logframe logical linkages
    8. 8. Log ical Frame work
    9. 9. Logical links between levels
    10. 10. Tool 2 Mind Map <ul><li>Useful at the earliest stage of a project </li></ul><ul><li>Set out all possibilities and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Helps gives structure to project </li></ul><ul><li>Makes linkages more evident </li></ul>
    11. 11. Drill Down <ul><li>A technique to identify all tasks associated with a project </li></ul><ul><li>Start on the LHS with the project objective </li></ul><ul><li>Identify obvious tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Break these down into smallest parts </li></ul><ul><li>List questions or points to clarify </li></ul>
    12. 13. Tool 3 Breakdown <ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is used for breaking down a project into easily manageable tasks/plan elements </li></ul><ul><li>The work breakdown structure (WBS) describes the details of each activity . The basis for </li></ul><ul><li>Project budget </li></ul><ul><li>Time Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>NB When multifunctional teams are used to plan complex projects their work must be integrated and coordinated. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Timebound relations in the project <ul><li>Use list of tasks (activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify time relationships between tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimate time needed ( duration) for each task and all tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>include: project management, detailed planning, liaison with experts, meetings, information gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check with all and get feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Re-iterate until it works </li></ul>
    14. 15. Work packages/sub-projects <ul><li>The lowest level of the WBS where one single party can achieve a given output within the budget & duration </li></ul><ul><li>Work packages statements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Effort and Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interface maps are a useful way of identifying the interdependencies that must be managed </li></ul>
    15. 16. Gantt Chart time planning <ul><li>Lay out the tasks that need to be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Show when these tasks should be carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date </li></ul>
    16. 18. Gantt Chart for Monitoring Progress Complete Behind Complete Ahead Behind Time Now Activity A Activity B Activity C Activity D Activity E Activity F Activity G Activity H Actual Anticipated
    17. 19. When Reality beats the Schedule? <ul><li>Report the implications of delays </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss changes in plans </li></ul><ul><li>Direct resources </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Respond early </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Involve your supervisor(s) and others </li></ul>
    18. 20. Tool 4 Risks Analysis <ul><li>4 Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify sources of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Assess likelyhood of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Assess magnitude of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Develop response </li></ul>
    19. 21. Risk examples <ul><li>Running out of time </li></ul><ul><li>Set quality levels too expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Materials unavailable, not accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation not forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders change their mind </li></ul>
    20. 22. Risk Management: redefine to mitigate and reduce risk Likelyhood Impact low low high high
    21. 23. Tool 5 Performance tracking Results/Scope Time Money Monitoring performance indicators
    22. 24. Results Monitoring <ul><li>Baseline data collected and compared to actual status </li></ul><ul><li>Set indicators for results and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data on results and how and whether they contribute toward achievement of outcomes, both qualitative and quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Include strategic partners/customers and their perceptions of change among stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Report and analyse performance (gap) </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Gradual, progressive increase in the project’s scope that is not noticed immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when additional requirements result in scope change and can cause cost and schedule overruns </li></ul>Mind the scope creep
    24. 26. Change to be managed? Ask these questions! <ul><li>What are you trying to achieve in your project? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you clear on the limits? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you know when the project is complete? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ‘the new thing’ a must? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the customer/user do the job without it? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it contribute to the viability of the system? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it add value as a feature/function to the system? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it worth the additional cost? </li></ul>
    25. 27. Budget/Cost Management <ul><li>Administration! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control project spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a variance occurs, determine the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the execution of the project, reduce scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent unapproved changes to the project </li></ul></ul>
    26. 28. Performance visualised