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The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2017.1297015
Effect of finishing resins on m...
2   N. LITIM ET AL.
of the fabric to resist and recover this deformation after releasing
this load to the initial wrinkle...
THE JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE   3
different specifications such as: yarn count, weft composition,
breaking strengt...
4   N. LITIM ET AL.
the more even the fabric surface is. Evidently, more SMD values
are high; the touch of the fabric is ...
THE JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE   5
fabric F1 are significant. It is apparent that the breaking strength
decreases w...
6   N. LITIM ET AL.
(2007) cited that the major disadvantage associated with the use
of cellulase is the loss of mass and...
THE JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE   7
Relationship between finishing conditions and fabrics
composition
In this part, ...
8   N. LITIM ET AL.
Ibrahim, N. A., Abo-Shosha, M. H., Elnagdy, E. I., & Gaffar, M. A. (2002).
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Effect of finishing resins on mechanical and surface properties of cotton denim fabrics, / Nasr Litim 2017

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Effect of finishing resins on mechanical and surface properties of cotton denim fabrics, / Nasr Litim 2017

  1. 1. Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tjti20 Download by: [154.106.129.94] Date: 06 March 2017, At: 00:28 The Journal of The Textile Institute ISSN: 0040-5000 (Print) 1754-2340 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjti20 Effect of finishing resins on mechanical and surface properties of cotton Denim fabrics Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun, Foued Khoffi, Mohamed Hamdaoui, Saber Ben Abdessalem & Bernard Durand To cite this article: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun, Foued Khoffi, Mohamed Hamdaoui, Saber Ben Abdessalem & Bernard Durand (2017): Effect of finishing resins on mechanical and surface properties of cotton Denim fabrics, The Journal of The Textile Institute, DOI: 10.1080/00405000.2017.1297015 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2017.1297015 Published online: 05 Mar 2017. Submit your article to this journal View related articles View Crossmark data
  2. 2. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2017.1297015 Effect of finishing resins on mechanical and surface properties of cotton Denim fabrics Nasr Litima   , Ayda Baffounb , Foued Khoffic , Mohamed Hamdaouib , Saber Ben Abdessalema and Bernard Durandc a Laboratory of Textile Engineering (LGTex), University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia; b Energy and Thermal Systems Laboratory (LESTE), University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia; c Laboratory of Textile Physics and Mechanics (LPMT), University of Haute Alsace, Monastir, France ABSTRACT The effect of two famous finishing resins; acrylic resin (Resacryl M), and Glyoxal resin (Resinol AM), applied by the same Pad Dry Cure Process PDC but according to various conditions, on the mechanical and surface properties of different cotton denim fabrics is studied in this paper. The treated samples which are characterized at two steps of the treatment process: before and after washing (BW and AW) were characterized in terms of surface morphology observations by SEM, geometrical roughness measurements with Kawabata Evaluation System KES, thickness and Dry crease recovery angle DCRA measurements, and mechanical testing properties. It resulted that Resinol AM improves dry crease recovery angle, but causes a loss of strength in the warp direction. Nevertheless, Resacryl M improves handless and preserves the mechanical properties fabric before and after washing. Studying the effect of resins type, concentrations and curing temperature on the mechanical behavior and surface of the cotton fabrics is very important in textile laundering, because it allows choosing the best finishing agents and conditions. Furthermore, the results of this report will be in workable data to predict the properties of the treated fabrics after resin finishing. Introduction Resin finishing has been able to maintain its position in the finishing of textiles based on cellulosic fibers despite various disadvantages, such as strength losses, shade changes, reduced whiteness, and controversy about formal dehyde content. In fact, recently there has been resurgence in its importance, because it allows textile finishers to stand out from the competitors by producing fabrics with enhanced quality (Azmary & Azim, 2014).The crosslinking agents that result in the permanent press finish are often derivatives of urea. The most popular agent is DMDHEU (dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea) (Fischer et al., 2002). The application of the resin which is a well-known process, aims to improve the smoothing performance of cotton fabrics. However, the crosslinking of the cellulose chains under the action of the resin application causes loss of fabric strength, which is an essential parameter to be checked in the finishing application. Textile finishers are trying to find a balance between improved smoothing and the retention of fabric resistance. (Wei & Yang, 2000; Xu & Shyr, 2001). Indeed, the incorporation of the softener is known through helping a certain strength retention fabric, usually at the cost of crease recovery performance. For ‘distress effects ‘, the application of the finish is followed by a shaping step in which the garment has the characteristic shape. The training step is to introduce the folds in the areas in which they could form during wear. The folds are formed manually or using air or articulated mannequins that simulate natural folds. The forming step must be followed by a drying step so that the folds are set. Then, the clothing must undergo a crosslinking or a post during step which leads out of the water and active chemicals. This is a crucial operation to ensure that the effects will resist future industrial and domestic washing, and is usually performed in static ovens or furnaces convey or belt. Zanetta, Chiozza, Cappellini, and Bonalumi (2013). The loss of strength was the major concern for the industry after this type of finishing resin (Li, Jiang, Wang, Meng, & Qing, 2007; Lickfield et al., 2001). In this paper, we study the effect of two types of resins Resinol AM and Resacryl M, usually used to permanent wrinkle treat- ments and 3D effects of denim fabrics. To determine the resin effects during the finishing process Pad Dry Cure ‘PDC’ with the two selected resins, we characterize the samples treated at two phases of the finishing process; before washing BW and after washing AW. In particular, the treatment was performed on textile supports which are three denim cotton fabrics that have different weft yarns composition: 100% cotton, a combination of (24% PES + 71% Cot + 5% Elasthanne) and (95% Cot + 5% Elasthanne). Finishing resins have been used to impart crease recovery properties in a process. Many factors, such as the type of resin, the concentration, and curing temperature were studied. These factors should have a remarkable effect on surface mor- phology of treated fabrics on the geometrical roughness, on dry crease recovery angle DCRA, on fabric thickness, and especially on the mechanical properties (strength, elongation, SRS). This © 2017 The Textile Institute KEYWORDS Glyoxal resin; acrylic resin; mechanical properties; roughness; DCRA; surface morphology; curing temperature ARTICLE HISTORY Received 26 February 2016 Accepted 15 February 2017 CONTACT  Nasr Litim  l_naceur@yahoo.fr
  3. 3. 2   N. LITIM ET AL. of the fabric to resist and recover this deformation after releasing this load to the initial wrinkle-free surface is expressed as the crease recovery property. The initial state of the fabric capabil- ity to recover is measured by the angle between the pre-folded halves, and it is designed as the crease recovery angle. The crease recovery properties were determined for dried finished fabric according to the standard norm ISO 2313 NFG 07–110 using a crease recovery tester model M003A SDL Atlas. The used load was 0.5 kg for 5 min, at temperature room. The samples for crease recovery measurements were typically cut according to a special standard rectangular shape. The recorded value of crease recov- ery angle is the average of five measurements. The mechanical properties, including breaking strength and elongation to break of treated samples are evaluated in warp direction with the MTS Criterion™ Universal Testing Systems after conditioning dur- ing 24 h in the relaxed state (22 °C, 60% HR) according to the norm ISO 13,934–1, NFGS 07–129-1. Thereafter, we calculated for every tested sample the Strain Recovery Strength SRS (%) according to the following formula: Methods Treatment application Two types of resins used frequently in industry are the subject of this study: a glyoxal and acrylic resins. More details about them are briefly presented in Table 1.Heterocyclic crosslinking agents are based on urea, formaldehyde, and various other substances, such as di-amines. Glyoxal crosslinking agents that are formal- dehyde-free and only the products made from dimethylurea and Glyoxal have gained a big share of the market, (Vigo, 1994, p. 229). Acrylic resin, which is a special crosslinkers agents, has a particular value in finishing cotton. It bonds well to textile fibers forming films on surface. It is more used for cotton fabric or mixed cotton/polyester finishing. To study the influence of the finishing resin in terms of type and concentration and curing temperature, three different fabrics F1, F2, and F3 having the same weight per unit area 390 (g/m2 ) woven on the same machine were used. They have Strain recovery strength SRS (%) = Breaking strength After treatement Breaking strength Before treatement × 100 study provides important idea about the relationship between the characteristic of denim fabric and processing conditions. Experimental Materials and methods Materials The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of resin char- acteristic and finishing conditions on mechanical and surface properties of cotton Denim fabrics. For this purpose, surface morphology of untreated and resin-finished cotton fabrics was examined by SEM, before and after washing. The micrographs were taken with a SEM Hitachi SU 3500. A sputter coater was used to pre-coat conductive gold onto the surface before observ- ing the microstructure at 22 Kv. The surface properties, especially the roughness geometrical SMD, was determinated by one of the testers of KES-FB series Kawabata’s Evaluation System. This characteristic is closely related to the hand feeling of fabrics. The detection of the surface roughness is very sensitive, and the precision is about 0.5 μm. The thickness of the treated fabric was evaluated with the special device Kroeplin 67 (for a precision of 0.5 μm).Ten measures were taken for every sample. In principle, when a rectangular piece of fabric was folded under the pressure of a certain load for a certain time, the ability Table 1. Finishing resin properties [to be inserted in the paragraph named Methods]. Product Commercial name pH (20 °C) Density (20 °C) Aspect Composition & description Glyoxal resin Resinol AM 3.5–5 1.2 Transparent liquid Modified DMDHEU: (diethylene glycol 15 – 22% and Formaldehyde <0.1%, and Methanol <0.5%) crosslinks at 140 °C Acrylic resin Resacryl M 5.5–7.5 1.05 Milky liquid Co-polymer self crosslinked, crosslinks at 100 °C Table 2. Fabric’s specifications [to be inserted in the paragraph named Methods]. Fabric Count Warp Warp compo- sition Count Weft Weft compo- sition Density (Warp/ Weft) Breaking strength (N) CV (%) Breaking elon- gation (%) CV (%) F1 12.5 100% Cotton 20 100% Cotton 26/20 1332.876 4 21.808 4.5 F2 12.5 100% Cotton 20 24% PES +71%Cotton +5% Elast- hanne 26/17 1427.474 5 19.192 5 F3 14 100% Cotton 24 95% Cotton +5% Elasthanne 25/19 1574.920 4.6 28.722 4.2 Table 3. Conditions of finishing process [to be inserted in the paragraph named Methods]. Sample N° Commercial resin name Curing temperature (°C) Resin con- centration (g l−1 ) Pick up (%) Fabric F1 S1 Resinol AM 110 60 63 S2 Resinol AM 110 120 65 S3 Resinol AM 110 150 69 S4 Resacryl M 110 60 74 S5 Resacryl M 110 120 102 S6 Resacryl M 110 150 110 S7 Resinol AM 140 60 86 S8 Resinol AM 140 120 88 S9 Resinol AM 140 150 90 S10 Resacryl M 140 60 87 S11 Resacryl M 140 120 90 S12 Resacryl M 140 150 92
  4. 4. THE JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE   3 different specifications such as: yarn count, weft composition, breaking strength and elongation; which are summarized in Table 2. In the experimental application, Resinol AM and Resacryl M resin have undergone the same method of application, namely by impregnation. The resins are dissolved into cold water at various concentrations as described in Table 3 and this at room temper- ature. A catalyst named MG (Magnesium chloride MgCl2 ) was added to 20% by weight to the Resinol AM solution. The bath pH varied between 4 and 5. A catalyst named PAZ was added to 20% by weight to the Resacryl M finishing solution. The bath pH varied between 5.5 and 7. Fabric to liquor ratio used was 1:20. The fabrics to be treated were allowed to remain in solution for 10 min at 24 °C. The treated samples were automatically wrung for 15 s and dried at 90o C for 10 min. After that, they are cured at 110 °C or 140 °C during the same curing time 15 min. After resin treatment, the fabrics samples were desized with amylase ‘Ecoprep’ 2 g l−1 and softened with ‘CHTTACC’ 1 g l−1 for 10 min at 50 °C, washed with enzyme ‘Novasi ultra MC/M’ 2 g l−1 for 20 min at 50 °C. Fabric to liquor ratio used was 1:20. Finally, they are dried for 20 min at 90 °C and conditioned. Results and discussion Effect of resin’s characteristic and finishing conditions on surface morphology of F1 (SEM) SEM micrographs show the morphological surface of treated cotton fabrics F1, before washing. SEM images noted (b, c, d, and k) show fabric treated with the same concentration of resin 150 g l−1 and SEM images noted (e, f, g, and h) are treated with a Figure 1. Surface Morphology. (a) Morphology of untreated fabric F1. (b, e) Morphology of F1 treated with Resinol AM and cured at140 °C. (c, f) Morphology of F1 treated with Resacryl M and cured at 110 °C. (d, g) Morphology of F1 treated with Resacryl M and cured at 140 °C. (h, k) Morphology of F1 treated with Resinol AM and cured at 110 °C. All samples have 1500 times magnification.
  5. 5. 4   N. LITIM ET AL. the more even the fabric surface is. Evidently, more SMD values are high; the touch of the fabric is rougher. The SMD value of the untreated fabric F1 was 2.086 μm. Figures 2 and 3 show that for Resinol AM resin and at differ- ent curing temperature, before washing and after washing, SMD values decrease when the resin concentration increases. While, for Resacryl M, before washing, at low curing temperature 110° C,SMD values are stable and near the value of untreated fabric F1 and decreases when the resin concentration increases. On the other hand, for a curing temperature of 140 ° C, we can observe that SMD values decrease when the resin concentration increases before washing. But, after washing, SMD value increases slightly when the resin concentration increases. The increase in the SMD corresponds to a decline of the fabric surface evenness and this could be explained by the presence of the resin on the treated fabric surface, leading to a rougher surface. After washing, the SMD values increased slightly even after the action of softening auxiliaries which normally promotes a best handless. This can be explained by the roughness fabric effect, which may be increased due to a high curing temperature of 140 ° C as the final roughness is a sum of roughness due to the resin and the roughness due to the fabric itself. Effect of resin’s characteristic on the fabric thickness Table 4 presents the variation of the thickness of treated fabrics before and after washing. The obtained results are in agreements with previous stud- ies (Schindler & Hauser, 2004). In fact, the fabric thickness increases when the concentration of finishing agent increases. Referring to Table 4, it is clear that for all the fabrics, the thickness decreases significantly after washing. For the fabric F1 treated with Resinol AM the thickness is more important (16%) before washing that after washing, whatever the finishing condition. It can be explained by the creation of resin crosslinking network with cellulose before being altered by the action of water after washing. For the action of Resacryl M on the thickness of fabric, before washing is slightly greater than that after washing. Effect of resin’s characteristic on DCRA fabrics The Figures 4 and 5 show, respectively, the effect of resin on DCRA of F1 (warp / weft). It is clear that at the two stages of finishing processes: before and after washing, the Dry Crease recovery angle values enhance after resin treatment (compared to untreated fabrics).Moreover, the increase in the resin concen- tration induces a proportional raise of the DCRA values. (Wang, Chen, Yao, & Chen, 2006) confirmed this evaluation. The effect of Resinol AM is more important than Resacryl M ones on the DCRA before and after washing, especially if the sam- ple was subjected to a higher curing temperature 140 °C. Despite resin type, DCRA values BW are higher than those obtained AW. It can be explained by the effect of washing additives that reduces the ability of fabric to wrinkle, because of the elimination of the rest of non-fixing resin on the surface of cellulosic fibers. In addi- tion, it is possible that water leads to the relaxation of the strength of the fiber and inter- and intra-fiber that it helps to reduce the ability to crumpling .Resinol AM has a more significant effect on DCRA compared to resin Resacryl M (Figures 4 and 5). DCRA concentration of resin of 60 g l−1 . It is clear that the diameter of the fiber forming the fabric structure became larger after treat- ment. The resin fills the inter fiber space and acts as a cement improving adhesion between fibers. It is well known that the hydroxyl groups of the modified resin DMDHEU (Resinol AM) react with the hydroxyl groups of two cellulose chains. (Cooke & Weigmann, 1982); Petersen, 1987). At a curing temperature of 140 °C, it can be observed that the space inter-fiber is compacted by the insertion of Resinol AM, compared with one cured at a lower temperature 110 °C with the same high concentration of resin 150 g l−1 . The analysis of sur- face (b), show that the resin Resinol AM affects the fibers by the creation of the cracks on the surface that can be at the origin of breaking strength change. Whereas, the resin Resacryl M covers the totality of the fibers and the space inter- fiber (Figure 1(c) and (d)), that can be at the origin of changes on the mechanical property which will be discussed later. Acrylic resin seems to be a coating film on the surface of the fibers and between the fibers. (Cheriaa & Baffoun, 2015) Effect of resin’s characteristic and curing temperature on roughness SMD SMD measures the geometrical roughness of a fabric surface that is the fabric surface evenness characteristics. The lower the value, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S1 S2 S3 S7 S8 S9 SMD (BW) SMD (AW) Figure 2. Effect of Resinol AM concentration and curing temperature on fabric Roughness F1. 0 1 2 3 4 S4 S5 S6 S10 S11 S12 SMD (BW) SMD (AW) Figure 3.  Effect of Resacryl M concentration and curing temperature on fabric Roughness F1.
  6. 6. THE JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE   5 fabric F1 are significant. It is apparent that the breaking strength decreases with Resinol AM resin and affect the mechanical prop- erties of the fabric. Moreover, when the concentration of Resinol AM resins increased, the breaking strength decreases until 40%. Furthermore, for the same concentration, when the curing tem- perature increases, a strong decrease on mechanical properties of the treated fabrics is observed. The Resinol AM resin, provokes a decrease in the mechani- cal properties of the treated fabric F1 before and after washing. Whereas, the decrease of breaking strength is more important after washing for high curing temperature as 140 °C. Resacryl M resin induces a slight increase in the mechanical properties of fabric F1, mainly after washing. These results can be explained by the fact that resin forms a film that covers cotton fiber sur- face. The fabric which is treated with this resin became more resistant as the inter and intra fiber voids spaces are occupied by the resin. It is clear that the breaking strength is weaker after washing than before washing. In fact, during the washing, treated fabrics undergone several constraints that can decline the inter- nal strengths of cellulosic fibers. Therefore, the quantity of resin after washing in the surface of fiber decreases which can induce a more swollen and less resistant structure. Other researchers, also, state acrylic resin treatments improved tensile and reduced fabric extensibility after washing (Sun & Stylios, 2012). In cel- lulosic and cellulosic blend fabrics finishing, crosslinking agent like modified DMDHEU (Resinol AM) penetrates into the fibers and reacts readily with the hydroxyl groups of adjacent cellu- lose chain. This resin can create links with free hydroxyl groups. Consequently, this reduces the shrinkage and swelling and thus, improves the crease resistance properties of fabrics. On the other hand, this finishing imparts a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the finished fabric, such as tensile strength con- firmed by Ibrahim et al. Ibrahim, Abo-Shosha, Elnagdy, & Gaffar, (2002), Tomsic, Simoncic, Orel, Vilcnik, and Spreizer (2007); Naujokaityte and Strazdiene (2007). In the case of Resinol AM resin, according to its technical data sheet and referring to thermal characterization tests, its optimum crosslinking temperature is around 140 °C. Thus, at 110 ° C and for a period of 15 min, we can consider that this duration is insufficient for the crosslinking with the cellulosic chains to be complete at this temperature and that Self-crosslinking is rather favored. After washing and despite the enzymatic attack of the cellulose chains and which is supposed to reduce the mechanical properties, the latter improve slightly. It is believed that dur- ing the washing process and in view of the swelling state of the material in the presence of water, wetting agent and under the effect of the temperature (60 °C for 30 min) the self-crosslinked resin is removed from the support thus reducing the stiffness of the support and thus improving its breaking strength which is less than that of the untreated support because there has been crosslinking. So, the effect of this phenomenon is greater than the inverse effect of the enzymatic treatment For a curing temperature of 140 °C, the polymerization rate of the Resinol AM is more important and consequently the crosslinking reaction would be more important which will induce, systematically a decrease of the breaking strength. After Washing, the resin well fixed by the chemical bridges cannot be eliminated. Breaking strength decrease is only due to the enzyme effect. (Khedher, Dhouib, Msahli, & Sakli, 2009) was found that can reaches higher values (180 °C), when applying significant concentrations 150 g l−1 and, especially with a curing temperature of 140 °C. In fact, the large size of Glyoxal resin molecule plays an important role after having crosslinked with cellulose chains of cotton; this promotes the ability of finished fabric to wrinkle at the two phases: AW and BW, Glyoxal molecules intervene to block the vacant sites in place of water acting as a lubricant for cellulose. Consequently, Resinol AM reduces the force at break (explained in the next paragraph), and affects the fabric surface condition that becomes rougher compared with untreated fabric (seen in paragraph surface morphology). Effect of resin’s characteristic on the mechanical behaviors of fabric F1 The Figures 6 and 7, show that the effects of Resinol AM and Resacryl M on the mechanical properties of the treated denim Table 4. Thickness of treated fabrics [to be inserted in the paragraph named Results and Discussion; Effect of resin’s characteristic on the fabric thickness]. Untreated fabric Sample N° Resin F1 F2 F3 0.690 0.580 0.813 BW AW BW AW BW AW S1 Resinol AM 0.763 0.745 0.621 0.616 0.855 0.843 S2 Resinol AM 0.848 0.755 0.624 0.618 0.910 0.825 S3 Resinol AM 0.804 0.766 0.647 0.627 0.857 0.851 S7 Resinol AM 0.813 0.712 0.621 0.618 0.855 0.802 S8 Resinol AM 0.866 0.734 0.631 0.622 0.853 0.844 S9 Resinol AM 0.893 0.735 0.635 0.626 0.876 0.856 S4 Resacryl M 0.854 0.762 0.640 0.632 0.882 0.829 S5 Resacryl M 0.818 0.789 0.654 0.643 0.869 0.855 S6 Resacryl M 0.788 0.781 0.666 0.652 0.889 0.860 S10 Resacryl M 0.749 0.731 0.687 0.677 0.839 0.822 S11 Resacryl M 0.796 0.788 0.714 0.701 0.858 0.826 S12 Resacryl M 0.800 0.791 0.725 0.712 0.849 0.839 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 UntreatedF1 S1 S3 S4 S7 S8 S9 BW AW Figure 4. Effect of Resinol AM concentration and curing temperature on DCRA of Fabric F1.
  7. 7. 6   N. LITIM ET AL. (2007) cited that the major disadvantage associated with the use of cellulase is the loss of mass and a reduction in the fabric tensile strength. The only way to reduce the strength loss is to choose a less aggressive cellulase mixture or monocomponent solution. It was established that the reduction in breaking strength was smaller for cotton fabrics treated with endoglucanases than with total cellulase. In the case of the acrylic resin Resacryl M, and regardless of the polymerization temperature, the breaking strength decreases after washing. Indeed, this resin crosslinks at around 100 ° C. Therefore at the two studied temperatures, the crosslinking with cellulose is favored over to the self-crosslinking. Thus, only the enzymatic attack occurs during washing. The effect of finishing Resinol AM resin at various condi- tions, on the breaking elongation properties are demonstrated in Figure 8. We distinguished that before washing, the elonga- tion to the rupture of treated samples decreases compared to the values of the standard fabrics; In fact, there is creation of a network between Resinol AM resin and cellulosic chains. This crosslinking is responsible for the decrease of breaking elon- gation after finishing treatment and BW. While after washing, more decrease in breaking elongation particularly at a curing temperature of 140 °C compared to 110 °C, is observed. In addition, the concentration of resin has an important effect on breaking elongation properties, more than that, more the concentration of resin increases, the extensibility of fabrics decreases. This variation is joined to the breaking strength that decreases following the interaction of crosslinking agent and cellulose in the amorphous zone. This zone becomes more frag- ile to the mechanical solicitation. DMDHEU is a crosslinking agent. When the cellulose is crosslinked, it becomes inherently less able to spread the stresses and strains imposed on the fiber during the mechanical deformation, (Vigo, 1994, p. 229). In addition, the introduction of crosslinks confers dimensional stability of the fibrous material and makes it resistant to creas- ing, which limits the movement between the fibers and yarns. All these phenomena contribute to the decrease of strength and tensile extensibility, (Chaudhari, 1997). Tensile strength loss of cotton fabric treated with DMDHEU is due to both the crosslinking of cellulose and the degradation of cellulose caused by the catalyst. The selection of the catalyst system and its concentration is crucial for optimizing the tensile strength retention of the finished fabrics, (Jang, Sheu, Sheu, & Chen, 1993) and (Chaudhari, 1997). In our study, the catalyst pro- portion is 20% of resin weight, which is chosen according to the supplier datasheet. The Figure 9 shows the effect of finishing Resacryl M resin at various conditions on breaking elongation. The value of this parameter remains unaltered and for some concentration of resin it increases in relation to the value of standard fabrics. It can be suggested that, Resacryl M preserves the extensibility of fabrics that has undergone the stress in finishing process. The effect of Resacryl M on the elongation at break can be explained by the reaction between the resin and the fiber sur- face and the space inter fibers already filled by resin and which improves the strength and the elongation at break as seen in the SEM images. washing processes reduce the mechanical properties, especially of the warp yarns of the fabrics. Also, Cavaco-Paulo, Cortez, and Almeida (1997) and Arumugam, Verenich, Shim, and Poreyhimi 0 50 100 150 200 250 UntreatedF1 S3 S4 S5 S10 S11 S12 BW AW Figure 5. Effect of Resacryl M concentration and curing temperature temperature on DCRA of Fabric F1. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 S1 S2 S3 S7 S8 S9 BW AW Figure 6. Effect of Resinol AM concentration and curing temperature on breaking strength (N). 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 S3 S4 S5 S10 S11 S12 BW AW Figure 7. Effect of Resacryl M concentration and curing temperature on breaking strength (N).
  8. 8. THE JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE   7 Relationship between finishing conditions and fabrics composition In this part, we will attempt to deduce a correlation between finishing conditions, type of resin and fabric compositions. SRS (%) variation of three treated fabrics according to finishing con- ditions is presented in Table 5. In order to verify the effect of resin types and finishing con- ditions on mechanical properties of various denim fabrics, the SRS value is established. Table 5 shows SRS of the fabric F1. It has a more important decline with Resinol AM of 15% while passing from the value of 60 to 150 g l−1 , before washing for a curing temperature of 110 °C, on the other hand, a decrease of 20% in the same conditions with a curing temperature of 140 °C after washing. The effect of Resacryl improves a little increase between 5% and 10% for the two values of curing temperature before washing. After washing, one will have a light decline of 10% at curing temperature of 140 °C that can be explained by the resin removal on the surface of treated fabric. Whereas, for the Resacryl M a light increase of 10% and 15% of SRS, respectively before and after washing, it can be explained by the interaction between Resacryl M and surface cotton yarn, reinforcing the structure and general seals of fabric, this can be due to an increase in the resin fiber adhesion regardless of finishing condition. From Table 5, it can be noted that the variation of SRS for the three fabrics having different composition in the weft yarn and the same composition in the warp yarn is similar after treatment with Resinol AM or Resacryl M although the strength loss trans- lated by SRS ≤ 85% at high curing temperature and specially, in the case of glyoxalic resin. So, it can be claimed that the resin effect on the weft yarn is insignificant in our study. And as cellu- lose is the main element that makes contact with the crosslinking agent, this may explain the resin effect, especially on the warp yarn in the Denim structure. We could say that all three fabrics behave in the same way overlooked the action of finishing agent for the same finishing condition. Conclusion To summarize, before washing, Resinol AM improves crease recovery for all cotton fabrics, thickness, and slightly geometri- cal roughness SMD for the low curing temperature with a higher concentration. While, consequently, Resinol AM affects the mechanical properties (strength, elongation) of fabrics, especially at higher concentration and curing temperature. After washing, crease recovery is improved, while breaking strength loss more than 40% compared to untreated fabric. This decline is confirmed by Surface morphology images of fabric F1 which show cracks on the surface of treated fibers. However, before washing, the Resacryl M improves slightly the crease recovery and preserves the mechanical properties at defined finishing conditions. The treated fabrics become more reinforced under the effect of Resacryl M. Besides, the geometrical roughness is improved at a higher curing temperature. After washing, Resacryl M resin improves SMD for a lower curing temperature and a lower resin concentration. Finishing conditions are independent of 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 S1 S2 S3 S7 S8 S9 BW AW Figure 8. Effect of Resinol AM concentration and curing temperature on breaking elongation (%). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 S3 S4 S5 S10 S11 S12 BW AW Figure 9. Effect of Resacryl M concentration and curing temperature on breaking elongation (%). Table 5. Relationship between finishing conditions and fabric composition [to be inserted in the paragraph named Results and Discussion; Relationship between finishing conditions and fabrics composition]. Phase treat- ment Curing tem- pera- ture °C SRS (%) of Fabric Resacryl M Resinol AM F1 F2 F3 F1 F2 F3 BW 110 110.92 108.48 98.43 90.40 89.84 89.70 BW 110 115.58 115.06 101.52 83.97 88.71 87.33 BW 110 116.80 116.09 105.39 82.85 74.41 75.48 BW 140 99.48 107.58 99.22 91.80 82.85 86.28 BW 140 106.25 111.91 101.09 71.35 70.87 71.04 BW 140 110.22 113.57 102.68 61.24 59.22 48.97                 AW 110 75.65 92.70 83.14 94.28 87.07 83.82 AW 110 103.03 102.68 88.39 91.51 85.41 76.83 AW 110 102.45 104.16 93.56 88.89 71.41 75.37 AW 140 93.42 108.66 92.26 88.11 77.31 76.11 AW 140 100.81 109.77 92.54 68.10 66.01 63.14 AW 140 104.25 111.35 93.02 58.40 49.87 48.56
  9. 9. 8   N. LITIM ET AL. Ibrahim, N. A., Abo-Shosha, M. H., Elnagdy, E. I., & Gaffar, M. A. (2002). Eco-friendly durable press finishing of cellulose-containing fabrics. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 84, 2243. doi:10.1002/app.10467 Jang, Tyng-Ruey, Sheu, Tzyh-Chyang, Sheu, Jer-Jia, & Chen, Cheng- Chi (1993). Crosslinking of cotton fabrics premercerized with different alkalis part III: crosslinking and physical properties of DMDHEU-treated fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 63, 679–686. doi:10.1177/004051759306301110 Li, Zheng-Rong, Jiang, Wang-Chao, Wang, Lian-Jun, Meng, Wei-Dong, & Qing, Feng-Ling (2007). Synthesis and application of novel aqueous anionic polyurethane as a durable press finishing agent of cotton fabrics. Textile Research Journal., 77, 227–232. doi:10.1177/0040517507078027 Lickfield, G. C., Yang, C. Q., Drews, M. J., Aspland, J. R, Chen, W., Feng, N., & Hu, C. (2001). Abrasion resistance of durable press finished cotton (National Textile Center Annual Reports). London. Retrieved September 16, 2003, from http://www.ntcresearch.org/pdf-rpts/ AnRep01/C00-01-A1.pdf Naujokaityte, L., & Strazdiene, E. (2007). The effect of finishing upon textile mechanical properties at low loading. Materials Science Medziagotyra, 13, 249–254. Petersen, H. (1987). The chemistry of crease-resist crosslinking agent. Review of Progress in Coloration and Related Topics, 17, 7–22. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.1987.tb03747.x Schindler, W. D., & Hauser, P. J. (2004). Chemical finishing of textiles. Cambridge: CRC Press, pp. 51–73. Elsevier Store ISBN-9781845690373 Sun, D. & Stylios, G. K. (2012). Cotton fabric mechanical properties affected by post-finishing processes. Fibers and Polymers, 13, 1050– 1057. doi:10.1007/s12221-012-1050-7 Tomsic, B., Simoncic, B., Orel, B., Vilcnik, A., & Spreizer, H. (2007). Biodegradability of cellulose fabric modified by imidazolidinone. Carbohydrate Polymer, 69, 478–488. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.01.003 Vigo, T. L. (1994). Textile processing and properties. New Orleans: Elsevier. p. 229. http://store.elsevier.com/Textile-Processing-and-Properties/T_ L_-Vigo/isbn-9780444882240/ Wang, Chang, Chen, Jui-Chin, Yao, Wei-Hua, & Chen, Cheng-Chi (2006). Crosslinking of cotton cellulose in the presence of alpha-aminoacids part III: Pore structures. Textile Research Journal., 76, 336–342. doi:10.1177/0040517506060140 Wei, W., & Yang, C. Q. (2000). Polymeric carboxylic acid and citric acid as a nonformaldehyde durable press finish. Textile Chemist and Colorist, 32, 53–57. Xu, W. & Shyr, T. (2001). Applying a nonformaldehyde crosslinking agent to improve the washing durability of fabric water repellency. Textile Research Journal, 71, 751–754. doi:10.1177/004051750107100901 Zanetta, T., Chiozza, F., Cappellini, L., & Bonalumi, A, (2013). U.S. Patent, 0055485 A1. the composition of our fabrics regardless of the resins type used Resinol AM or Resacryl M. The results of this report can be a workable data to predict the properties of the treated fabrics after resin finishing. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Funding This work was supported by the nasr litim. ORCID Nasr Litim   http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7767-3137 References Arumugam,K.,Verenich,S.,Shim,E.,&Poreyhimi,B.(2007).Pretreatment of bleached cotton fibres with whole and monocomponent cellulases for nonwoven applications. Textile Research Journal, 77, 734–742. doi:10.1177/0040517507078807 Azmary, A., & Azim, A. Y. M. A. (2014). Effects of resin finish on cotton blended woven fabrics. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, 3, 983–990. http://ijset.com/ijset/publication/v3s7/ IJSET_2014_735.pdf Cavaco-Paulo, A., Cortez, J., & Almeida, I. (1997). The effect of cellulase treatment in textile washing processes. JSDC, 113, 218–222. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.1997.tb01902.x Chaudhari, R. (1997). Wrinkle resistance finishing: Ironing out the concepts. Journal of Textile Association, 3, 19–21. Cheriaa, R. & Baffoun, A. (2015). Effects of cross linkers combination, for three dimensional effects, on denim garment properties. Fibers and Polymers, 16, 1150–1155. doi:10.1007/s12221-015-1150-2 Cooke, T. F., & Weigmann, H. D. (1982). The chemistry of formaldehyde release from durable press fabric. Textile Chemist and Colorist, 14, 100– 106. Khedher F., Dhouib S., Msahli S., & Sakli F. (2009). The influence of industrial finishing treatments and their succession on the mechanical properties of denim garment. AUTEX Research Journal, 9. http://www. autexrj.com/cms/zalaczone_pliki/7_0311.pdf Fischer, K., et al. (2002). Textile auxiliaries encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 227. doi:10.1002/14356007. a26_227

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