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3003 3 321_powerpoint_2-skin


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3003 3 321_powerpoint_2-skin

  1. 1. Unit 321: Apply microdermabrasion The skin  The dermis and appendages  The subcutaneous layer  Functions of the skin
  2. 2. The dermis Where is the dermis located? It is located beneath the epidermis and above the subcutaneous layer It is the largest layer, and varies from 1.5 mm to 4 mm in thickness What are the functions of the dermis? The main functions of the dermis are to regulate temperature, and to protect, support and nourish the skin. Much of the bodys water supply is stored within the dermis 2
  3. 3. What is the structure of the dermis? It is composed of two layers of areolar connective tissue and contains: Sensory receptors/nerve endings Sweat glands: - Eccrine: found all over the body - Apocrine: found in the groin and axillae Sebaceous glands Hair follicles/hair shaft/hair bulb Arrector pili muscle Blood and lymphatic vessels Handout 17
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  5. 5. The dermis consists of two layers: 1. 1. The papillary layer 2. 2. The reticular layer The papillary layer The upper, papillary layer, contains small cone– shaped projections called papillae, which contain looped blood capillaries carrying blood and lymph. There are also tactile corpuscles and nerve endings. The papillary layer supplies nutrients to the epidermis and regulates temperature. 5
  6. 6. The reticular layer The lower, reticular layer, is thicker and contains fibroblast cells, which are responsible for the formation of collagen fibres and elastin. Yellow elastin fibres give the skin its flexibility and elasticity. White collagen fibres plump the skin and give strength and firmness. Specialised cells are also found in the reticular layer: Macrophages destroy bacteria and tissue debris Mast cells secrete histamine, which causes vasodilation, and heparin, which stops blood clotting (anti-coagulant). The reticular layer supports other components of the skin, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. Handout 17
  7. 7. Nerve endings of the dermis  Meissner's corpuscles are for light touch and lie immediately beneath the basement membrane of the epidermis  Pacinian corpuscles are for deep pressure, and lie deeper in the dermis Free nerve endings are for pain and temperature, and these endings lie at the superficial aspect of the dermis 7
  8. 8. Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) The deepest layer lying directly above the muscles of the body and below the dermis of the skin. It is made up of two main types of connective tissue: Adipose tissue forms a network of fat cells providing the body with insulation, as well as acting as a source of energy Areolar tissue gives strength to protect underlying structures. Elasticity to cope with increases in size, and support for blood vessels and nerve endings found in this layer 8
  9. 9. Learner activity Label the cross section diagram of the skin 9 Arrector Pili muscle Sensory Nerve Sweat Duct Endings Hair shaft Epidermis Subcutaneous Layer Adipose Tissue Dermis Sweat gland Blood & Lymph Vessels Nerve Sebaceous gland Hair Follicle Muscle
  10. 10. Functions of the skin • SECRETION • HEAT REGULATION • ABSORPTION • PROTECTION • EXCRETION • NUTRITION – Production of Vitamin D • SENSATION 10
  11. 11. Any questions?