Chapter 14

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Know about brain and brain injury.

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Chapter 14

  1. 1. Brain Injury http://www.newyorkcitypersonalinjurylawyersfirm.com .
  2. 2. Brain <ul><li>Longitudinal fissure - cerebral hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gyri = folds; sulci = grooves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cortex = surface layer of gray matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclei = deeper masses of gray matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tracts = bundles of axons (white matter) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Lateral View of the Brain
  4. 4. Insula of Dissected Brain
  5. 5. Median Section of the Brain
  6. 6. Median Section of Cadaver Brain
  7. 7. Gray and White Matter <ul><li>Gray matter = neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms cortex over cerebrum and cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms nuclei deep within brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White matter = bundles of axons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms tracts that connect parts of brain </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Meninges <ul><li>Dura mater -- outermost, tough membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outer periosteal layer against bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supportive structures formed by dura mater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>falx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Arachnoid and pia mater – as in spinal cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subarachnoid and subdural spaces </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Brain Ventricles
  10. 10. Ventricles of the Brain
  11. 11. Blood-Brain and Blood-CSF Barriers <ul><li>Blood-brain barrier is endothelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>permeable to lipid-soluble materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol, O 2 , CO 2 , nicotine and anesthetics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circumventricular organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in 3rd and 4th ventricles are breaks in the barrier where blood has direct access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monitors glucose, pH, osmolarity and others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>route for HIV virus to invade the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood-CSF barrier at choroid plexus is ependymal cells joined by tight junctions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hindbrain - Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>3 cm extension of spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Ascending and descending nerve tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei of sensory and motor CNs (IX, X, XI, XII) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids and olive visible on surface </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hindbrain - Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>Cardiac center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adjusts rate and force of heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vasomotor center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adjusts blood vessel diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control rate and depth of breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflex centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, movements of tongue and head </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Medulla Oblongata
  15. 15. EEG and Brain Waves <ul><li>Electroencephalogram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>records voltage changes from postsynaptic potentials in cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 types distinguished by amplitude and frequency </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Brain Waves <ul><li>alpha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur when awake; resting with eyes closed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>beta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eyes open; performing mental tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>theta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sleep or emotional stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>delta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deep sleep </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Somesthetic Sensation <ul><li>Receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for touch, pressure, stretch, temperature, and pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gracile and cuneate fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ascending signals decussate, go to thalamus, to cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somatosensory area in postcentral gyrus </li></ul>
  18. 18. Language <ul><li>Includes reading, writing, speaking and understanding words </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>permits recognition of spoken and written language and creates plan of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generates motor signals for larynx, tongue, cheeks and lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmits to primary motor cortex for action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective language area lesions produce aprosodia </li></ul>
  19. 19. Language Centers
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Its better to take proper treatment if you have any brain injury. For more information visit at : Personal injury attorney nyc

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