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Hg7electurech07 237275-150912222358-lva1-app6891


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Hg7electurech07 237275-150912222358-lva1-app6891

  1. 1. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7: Interpreting Places and Landscapes Chapter 7 Lecture Katie Pratt Macalester College © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Relationships between people and space • Environmental behavior • Territoriality • Cognitive images • Landscapes • Place-making • Modernity • Globalization Key Concepts Figure: Chapter 7 Opener - Tourists visit the construction site of the National September 11 Memorial and Museum.
  3. 3. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Interdependence between people and places • Understanding environmental perception and knowledge • Cindy Katz: Growing up Global Behavior, Knowledge, and Human Environments Figure 7.1: People’s Climate March in New York City. Apply your knowledge: Scrutinize how globalization has shaped the environment you operate in as a student. How has it shaped you—the buildings, the people, the climate, the social life, etc.—and how do you shape it by interacting with it?
  4. 4. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Behavior, Knowledge, and Human Environments (cont’d) Figure 7.2: A Shepard's map, drawn by a 10-year-old Sudanese boy, illustrating his detailed environmental knowledge.
  5. 5. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.3: Graffiti as territorial markers. • Places are socially constructed • Territoriality – Social and cultural needs • Ethology • Proxemics • Insiders and outsiders • Sociospatial dialectic Place-Making Apply your knowledge: Describe the relationship between ethology and territoriality. Evaluate examples that you experience in everyday life of proxemics as a territorializing force.
  6. 6. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • territoriality refers to the persistent attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or territory. • ethology the scientific study of the formation and evolution of human customs and beliefs. • proxemics the study of the social and cultural meanings that people give to personal space.
  7. 7. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.4: (a) Public art pieces serve as an important cultural hub in San Francisco's Mission District (b) Banksy art, London (c) Pepsi-Cola World Cup branding by street artist Jaz (d) Black Hand street art, Iran. • Street art is used in place-making in a variety of ways Place-Making (cont’d)
  8. 8. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Outsider Art Figure 7.A: Nek Chand’s Rock Garden, Chandigarh, India. Apply your knowledge: What makes outsider art “outside”? What are other cultural expression that are “outside” the mainstream forms? What does this tell you about cultural and social categories?
  9. 9. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Cognitive images • Paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks • Distortions Place-Making (cont’d) Figure 7.6: Cognitive image of Boston. Apply your knowledge: Use the five elements to map out your image of the college campus.
  10. 10. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Paths: The channels along which they and others move; for example, streets, walkways, transit lines, canals. • Edges: Barriers that separate one area from another; for example, shorelines, walls, railroad tracks. • Districts: Areas with an identifiable character (physical and/or cultural) that people mentally "enter" and "leave"; for example, a business district or an ethnic neighborhood. • Nodes: Strategic points and foci for travel; for example, street corners, traffic junctions, city squares. • Landmarks: Physical reference points; for example, dis- tinctive landforms, buildings, or monuments.
  11. 11. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Images and behavior Place-Making (cont’d) Figure 7.7: Images of Los Angeles as seen by residents of different communities. Apply your knowledge: What is cognitive imagery? How do cognitive images direct us to “learn” an environment? How is cognitive imagery built differently by each of us?
  12. 12. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Topophilia Place-Making (cont’d) Figure 7.8: Preference map of the United States held by a group of Virginia Tech students, based on the perceived attractiveness of cities and states as places to live.
  13. 13. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Humanistic approach in geography • Derelict landscapes • Ordinary landscapes Landscapes as Human Systems Figure 7.11: Vulgaria: size and ostentation are the dominant factors in upscale U.S. residential development.
  14. 14. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Landscapes as Human Systems (cont’d) Figure 7.9: Some cities are immediately recognizable because of their famous landmarks.
  15. 15. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Landscapes as Human Systems (cont’d) Figure 7.10: These ordinary landscapes in New England and Middle America have become symbolic of the United States.
  16. 16. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Route 66 Figure 7.1: Historic Route 66 was created as part of the National Highway System Program.
  17. 17. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Wigwam Motel Rialto Route 66 © 20## Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Landscapes of national identity Trafalgar Square and British National Identity Figure 7.B: Nelson’s column.Figure 7.C: Trafalgar Square. Apply your knowledge: What is a place that you consider to be of special symbolic significance in your own country?
  19. 19. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Landscape and art • Art offers insight on humans’ relationships with the environment Landscapes as Human Systems (cont’d) Figure 7.12: The Cornfield, a painting by John Constable (1776–1837) is a representation of the Romantic tradition.
  20. 20. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Funerary landscapes Trafalgar Square and British National Identity Figure 7.13: Funerary landscapes.
  21. 21. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Landscape as text • Semiotics – The practice of writing and reading signs is known as semiotics. • Commercial spaces – “Palaces of consumption” Coded Spaces Figure 7.14: Aeroville shopping mall, Paris. Apply your knowledge: Apply what you have learned about codes and provide a description of the systems of signification that operate in your neighborhood.
  22. 22. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Spread of Modernity to peripheral regions • Cyberspace – With its own “landscape” (or technospace) • Commonalities of a shared, global consciousness Globalization and Place-Making
  23. 23. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Going slow – Slow food and slow city movements • Rallying against globalization and effort to recover a sense of place Globalization and Place-Making (cont’d) Figure 7.15: Slow food festival, Bra, Italy. Figure 7.16: Simjicheon, South Korea, one of the first officially designated “slow cities” in Asia.
  24. 24. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Places as Objects of Consumption Figure 7.17: Venice, Las Vegas, the boundaries between the heritage industry and the leisure industry and entertainment industries have become increasingly blurred.
  25. 25. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Places as Objects of Consumption (cont’d) Figure 7.18: Chinese mimicry: (a) The village of Hallstatt, Austria, and (b) a copy-cat version in China’s southern city of Huizhou. Apply your knowledge: How have places become objects of consumption? Define what David Harvey means by the term” degenerative utopia” and think of an example.
  26. 26. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. • Homogenization of culture • Cosmopolitanism Future Geographies Figure 7.19: Western pop culture: Hollywood movies dominate the schedule at the Gaumont cinema in Paris. Apply your knowledge: Think of three example of how globalization of cultures shapes places and landscapes. Compare the values of the Cittaslow movement to globalization of culture, and analyze how homogenization can change place and landscapes.