BEYOND TEACHING CREATIVELY:     ENCOURAGING STUDENTS TO   BECOME CREATIVE CONTRIBUTORS                          Lisa DaVia...
Agenda                          Making Creative Thinking a Priority                            Analogical        Creative ...
CREATIVITY’S SIGNIFICANCE                     AND OPPORTUNITIESMonday, February 13, 12
CREATIVITY IN THE                               CLASSROOM                          Westby	  &	  Dawson,	  1995            ...
Monday, February 13, 12
Monday, February 13, 12
OPEN-ENDED                                    QUESTIONS              • In general, how creative do you consider yourself? ...
GENERAL RATING                  Positive Response (208, 66%)                    Products (66, 21%)                    Teac...
TEACHER SPECIFIC                             RESPONSES                   Positive (216, 72%): Creative lesson plans, meeti...
ACTUAL PRODUCTSMonday, February 13, 12
HINDRANCES                   School Environment (202, 64%): Standardized Tests,                   Rigid Standards and Curr...
FINDINGS                   Teachers believe they are creative.                   Teachers hold a broader view of creativit...
Teaching Creatively                                      Teaching                                    for CreativityMonday,...
BAER (2003) STUDY                   Creativity didn’t vary between content standard and                   non-content stan...
BOTH CREATIVE AND              CRITICAL THINKING DEPENDS              ON CONTENT KNOWLEDGE.Monday, February 13, 12
Transfer?Monday, February 13, 12
Process           Content                             Meaningful LearningMonday, February 13, 12
CREATIVE PROCESSES               ANALOGICAL THINKINGMonday, February 13, 12
Jacek Utko                          Example of Metaphorical ThinkingMonday, February 13, 12
And here it is that analogy comes in...If the mind             cannot solve its problem in terms dictated by the          ...
Analogical InspirationMonday, February 13, 12
SIMPLE EXTENSION                          Create an analogy for... (specific concept).            Protein Structure        ...
SIMPLE EXTENSION                          Create an analogy for... (specific concept).          Rectangle/Square           ...
CREATE AN ANALOGY                            FOR TEACHING...Monday, February 13, 12
ANALOGIES FROM                             WHERE...                   Other Countries            Animals (or Breeders)    ...
POSSIBLE INSPIRATION                                           Pinterest         Or an old-fashioned notebook...Monday, Fe...
GUIDING QUESTIONS                   What else is like this?                   What have others done?                   Wha...
SIMPLE EXTENSION                          What could have inspired...(specific concept)?Monday, February 13, 12
SIMPLE EXTENSION            What would it be like if you were... (specific concept)?Monday, February 13, 12
Create an analogy...          What could have inspired...        What would it be like if you were...                     ...
CREATIVE PROCESSES                               MODELSMonday, February 13, 12
THE WALLAS MODEL                   Preparation                   Incubation                   Illumination                ...
THE WALLAS MODEL                   Preparation                   Incubation                   Illumination                ...
Daniel Pink                          Motivation and IncubationMonday, February 13, 12
PARNES’ CPS MODEL                                      Fact Finding         Problem Finding                               ...
ENCOURAGING PROCESS                     USE                          Are you asking the shortest possible question?       ...
Problem finding is more important than problem solving.     Indeed the greatest contribution that can be made     nowadays ...
Auditorium                                   Privilege your students with the problem.Monday, February 13, 12
Student Initiated Problems          Teacher Initiated ProblemsMonday, February 13, 12
DEVELOPING                          OPPORTUNITIES                   Future Problem Solvers                   Newspapers/Jo...
TRADE BARRIERS                                  FPS               ...To combat these concerns, policymakers around the wor...
NIGERIA            Boko Haram, whose name means “Western education is sacrilege” in the local Hausa            language, i...
Monday, February 13, 12
FOR THE BIRDS...           NRICHMonday, February 13, 12
STUDENT QUESTIONS                   What questions would this person ask? (Doctor,                   Scientist, Author, Hi...
Think of a problem...              Engage with the process...                                           TRY IT.Monday, Feb...
CREATIVE PROCESSES                               DIRECTED                            BRAINSTORMINGMonday, February 13, 12
RULES                                                Group   Individual                   Criticism is not allowed.       ...
PRODUCTIVE THINKING                                                             Talents Unlimited                    Think...
PRODUCTIVE THINKING                                                             Talents Unlimited                   Think ...
PRODUCTIVE THINKING                                                             Talents Unlimited                   Think ...
PRODUCTIVE THINKING                                                             Talents Unlimited                   Think ...
10Monday, February 13, 12
Coming up with many ideas simply for the sake of       making a long list does not teach students divergent       thinking...
FORECASTING                                                             Talents Unlimited                   Think of many ...
FORECASTING                                                             Talents Unlimited                   Think of many ...
FORECASTING                                                             Talents Unlimited                   Think of many ...
SCAMPER                 S: Substitute                 C: Combine                 A: Adapt                 M: Magnify/Minim...
CREATIVE PROCESSES                 CREATIVE CHALLENGESMonday, February 13, 12
W H AT I S A C R E AT I V E C H A L L E N G E ?Monday, February 13, 12
Imagine for a moment...                     Hangers              Paper clips                     Newspapers           Ladl...
1. CLARIFY CONTENT                                GOALS.                   Standards (local, state, national)             ...
2. DELINEATE PROCESS                            GOALS.                   Communication                   Risk-taking      ...
3. CHOOSE DESIGN                              STRATEGIES.                   Specification                   Perspective    ...
3. CHOOSE DESIGN                              STRATEGIES.                   Specification Materials, Goals, Time           ...
3. CHOOSE DESIGN                              STRATEGIES.                   Specification                                  ...
3. CHOOSE DESIGN                              STRATEGIES.                  Specification                  Perspective    Re...
3. CHOOSE DESIGN                              STRATEGIES.                  Specification                  Perspective      ...
Monday, February 13, 12
3. CHOOSE DESIGN                              STRATEGIES.                   Specification                   Perspective    ...
4. REFLECT                   Discussions                   Self-Reflection                   Peer Assessments/Feedback     ...
EVALUATION TREE                          http://www.evaluationsupportscotland.org.uk/article.asp?id=13                    ...
What type of creative challenge       could you offer your students?                                         TRY IT.Monday...
Making Creative Thinking a Priority                            Analogical        Creative Process                         ...
THANK YOU.                          LMRUBENSTEIN@BSU.EDUMonday, February 13, 12
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Teaching Students to be Creative Contributors

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Teaching Students to be Creative Contributors

  1. 1. BEYOND TEACHING CREATIVELY: ENCOURAGING STUDENTS TO BECOME CREATIVE CONTRIBUTORS Lisa DaVia Rubenstein, Ph.D.Monday, February 13, 12
  2. 2. Agenda Making Creative Thinking a Priority Analogical Creative Process Thinking Models Directed Creative Brainstorming ChallengesMonday, February 13, 12
  3. 3. CREATIVITY’S SIGNIFICANCE AND OPPORTUNITIESMonday, February 13, 12
  4. 4. CREATIVITY IN THE CLASSROOM Westby  &  Dawson,  1995 Dobbins,  2009 Beghetto,  2007;  Beghetto,  2009Monday, February 13, 12
  5. 5. Monday, February 13, 12
  6. 6. Monday, February 13, 12
  7. 7. OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS • In general, how creative do you consider yourself? Why did you give yourself that rating? • As a teacher, how creative do you consider yourself? Why did you give yourself that rating? • Have you ever simply decided to be creative? If yes, please describe the occasion. • Give an example of an original project or idea you have created yourself. • What is the biggest hindrance to teaching students to become creative thinkers?Monday, February 13, 12
  8. 8. GENERAL RATING Positive Response (208, 66%) Products (66, 21%) Teaching (38, 12%) Habits of Mind (147, 44%) Interestingly-5% said it was because of outside reinforcement. Negative Response (36, 11%) Comparison (15, 5%) Few Products (15, 5%) Medium Response (56, 18%): I have some creative ideas but not as many as I would like.Monday, February 13, 12
  9. 9. TEACHER SPECIFIC RESPONSES Positive (216, 72%): Creative lesson plans, meeting specific students needs, habits of mind (I  use   techniques  that  are  highly  innovative  and  am  a  risk   taker  in  the  classroom.) Negative (45, 15%): Lack of environmental support, lack of content knowledge Medium (8, 3%): Conditional creativity Same as Above (21, 7%)Monday, February 13, 12
  10. 10. ACTUAL PRODUCTSMonday, February 13, 12
  11. 11. HINDRANCES School Environment (202, 64%): Standardized Tests, Rigid Standards and Curriculum, School Support, Time, Budget Student Characteristics (91, 29%): Desire to be Right, Lack of Motivation or Openness Teacher Characteristics (45, 14%): Lack of Ability or Openness, Afraid of Other’s Perceptions Societal Values and Home Life (14, 5%): Gadgets, Less OpportunitiesMonday, February 13, 12
  12. 12. FINDINGS Teachers believe they are creative. Teachers hold a broader view of creativity. Products seem to be the way they identify creativity. Most teachers believe it is possible to decide to be creative. Teachers’ creative identity is closely linked with their profession. The biggest hindrance is school/environmental factors.Monday, February 13, 12
  13. 13. Teaching Creatively Teaching for CreativityMonday, February 13, 12
  14. 14. BAER (2003) STUDY Creativity didn’t vary between content standard and non-content standard focused schools. It is possible. “Dropping divergent thinking activities and focusing on memorization is not only bad for creativity-it is also bad for the acquisition of skills and content knowledge.” (Baer & Gaarrett, 2010)Monday, February 13, 12
  15. 15. BOTH CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING DEPENDS ON CONTENT KNOWLEDGE.Monday, February 13, 12
  16. 16. Transfer?Monday, February 13, 12
  17. 17. Process Content Meaningful LearningMonday, February 13, 12
  18. 18. CREATIVE PROCESSES ANALOGICAL THINKINGMonday, February 13, 12
  19. 19. Jacek Utko Example of Metaphorical ThinkingMonday, February 13, 12
  20. 20. And here it is that analogy comes in...If the mind cannot solve its problem in terms dictated by the situation itself, it will try to solve it in terms of some other but similar situation. Brand BlanchardMonday, February 13, 12
  21. 21. Analogical InspirationMonday, February 13, 12
  22. 22. SIMPLE EXTENSION Create an analogy for... (specific concept). Protein Structure Language StructureMonday, February 13, 12
  23. 23. SIMPLE EXTENSION Create an analogy for... (specific concept). Rectangle/Square Chemical/Toxic WasteMonday, February 13, 12
  24. 24. CREATE AN ANALOGY FOR TEACHING...Monday, February 13, 12
  25. 25. ANALOGIES FROM WHERE... Other Countries Animals (or Breeders) History Online Content Idea Books (Magazines) Objects (Hoses/ Perfume Spritzer) Current Events Biographies Fairy Tales (Cinderella, Snow White...) Mythology Movies and Novels Environment (Cockleburs)Monday, February 13, 12
  26. 26. POSSIBLE INSPIRATION Pinterest Or an old-fashioned notebook...Monday, February 13, 12
  27. 27. GUIDING QUESTIONS What else is like this? What have others done? What could we copy? What has worked before? What would professionals do? Davis, 2004Monday, February 13, 12
  28. 28. SIMPLE EXTENSION What could have inspired...(specific concept)?Monday, February 13, 12
  29. 29. SIMPLE EXTENSION What would it be like if you were... (specific concept)?Monday, February 13, 12
  30. 30. Create an analogy... What could have inspired... What would it be like if you were... TRY IT.Monday, February 13, 12
  31. 31. CREATIVE PROCESSES MODELSMonday, February 13, 12
  32. 32. THE WALLAS MODEL Preparation Incubation Illumination VerificationMonday, February 13, 12
  33. 33. THE WALLAS MODEL Preparation Incubation Illumination VerificationMonday, February 13, 12
  34. 34. Daniel Pink Motivation and IncubationMonday, February 13, 12
  35. 35. PARNES’ CPS MODEL Fact Finding Problem Finding Idea Finding Solution Finding Acceptance FindingMonday, February 13, 12
  36. 36. ENCOURAGING PROCESS USE Are you asking the shortest possible question? Authentic Problems Historical Problems Open-Ended Questions Check your task for: Student Designed Projects Autonomy Purpose MasteryMonday, February 13, 12
  37. 37. Problem finding is more important than problem solving. Indeed the greatest contribution that can be made nowadays is to formulate new and testable ideas; the scientist who does not speculate is no scientist at all. MackworthMonday, February 13, 12
  38. 38. Auditorium Privilege your students with the problem.Monday, February 13, 12
  39. 39. Student Initiated Problems Teacher Initiated ProblemsMonday, February 13, 12
  40. 40. DEVELOPING OPPORTUNITIES Future Problem Solvers Newspapers/Journals/Online Outlets TED Problem Based Learning NRICH maths Why was this content developed?Monday, February 13, 12
  41. 41. TRADE BARRIERS FPS ...To combat these concerns, policymakers around the world have created new treaties and institutions, such as the World Trade Organization, on the theory that reducing trade barriers will increase economic prosperity. But others argue that the benefits of tearing down trade barriers means fewer jobs and lower wages for farmers, factory workers, and relatively less-educated employees. Should policymakers strive for Free Trade or Fair Trade in the future - or some balance of the two?Monday, February 13, 12
  42. 42. NIGERIA Boko Haram, whose name means “Western education is sacrilege” in the local Hausa language, is carrying out increasingly sophisticated and bloody attacks in its campaign to implement strict Islamic law and avenge Muslim killings in Nigeria, a multiethnic nation of more than 160 million people. The sect was blamed for at least 510 killings last year alone, according to an Associated Press count. This year, it is blamed for killing at least 270 people in January alone. On Jan. 20, the sect carried out a coordinated assault on police stations and government agencies in the northern city of Kano that killed 185. You have been hired by the Nigerian government to offer consultation on how to bring peace to this conflicting nation.Monday, February 13, 12
  43. 43. Monday, February 13, 12
  44. 44. FOR THE BIRDS... NRICHMonday, February 13, 12
  45. 45. STUDENT QUESTIONS What questions would this person ask? (Doctor, Scientist, Author, Historian...) What do you wonder about? Do you see any problems?Monday, February 13, 12
  46. 46. Think of a problem... Engage with the process... TRY IT.Monday, February 13, 12
  47. 47. CREATIVE PROCESSES DIRECTED BRAINSTORMINGMonday, February 13, 12
  48. 48. RULES Group Individual Criticism is not allowed. Freewheeling is welcomed Quantity is desired. Combination and improvement are encouraged.Monday, February 13, 12
  49. 49. PRODUCTIVE THINKING Talents Unlimited Think of many, varied, unusual ideas. Add to them to make them better.Monday, February 13, 12
  50. 50. PRODUCTIVE THINKING Talents Unlimited Think of many, varied, unusual ideas. Add to them to make them better. When could you use this exact prompt? Or Think of many, varied, unusual lesson plan ideas.Monday, February 13, 12
  51. 51. PRODUCTIVE THINKING Talents Unlimited Think of many, varied, unusual ideas. Add to them to make them better. Thoughts:Monday, February 13, 12
  52. 52. PRODUCTIVE THINKING Talents Unlimited Think of many, varied, unusual ideas. Add to them to make them better. uses of equivalent fractions, different products to test for acids/bases, ways the South could have continued the production of large cash crops without slaves, symmetrical design ideas, ways to determine if the materials are minerals, ways propaganda has been used in the novel, ways in which a plane and a cone can intersect...Monday, February 13, 12
  53. 53. 10Monday, February 13, 12
  54. 54. Coming up with many ideas simply for the sake of making a long list does not teach students divergent thinking. It is essential for them to understand that divergent thinking is used when we need to solve problems or come up with new and better ideas. Alane Starko (2005)Monday, February 13, 12
  55. 55. FORECASTING Talents Unlimited Think of many varied or different predictions about the causes (WHY) or the effects (WHAT OR WHAT IF) of a situation.Monday, February 13, 12
  56. 56. FORECASTING Talents Unlimited Think of many varied or different predictions about the causes (WHY) or the effects (WHAT OR WHAT IF) of a situation. Causes EffectsMonday, February 13, 12
  57. 57. FORECASTING Talents Unlimited Think of many varied or different predictions about the causes (WHY) or the effects (WHAT OR WHAT IF) of a situation. this prompt? dy ou use Whe n coul Thoughts:Monday, February 13, 12
  58. 58. SCAMPER S: Substitute C: Combine A: Adapt M: Magnify/Minimize/Modify P: Put to other uses. E: Eliminate R: ReverseMonday, February 13, 12
  59. 59. CREATIVE PROCESSES CREATIVE CHALLENGESMonday, February 13, 12
  60. 60. W H AT I S A C R E AT I V E C H A L L E N G E ?Monday, February 13, 12
  61. 61. Imagine for a moment... Hangers Paper clips Newspapers Ladles Styrofoam Cups Markers Rubber (Gum) Bands Scissors Tape FoilMonday, February 13, 12
  62. 62. 1. CLARIFY CONTENT GOALS. Standards (local, state, national) Student interest Teacher interest Connections to current eventsMonday, February 13, 12
  63. 63. 2. DELINEATE PROCESS GOALS. Communication Risk-taking Independence Problem Solving Creative Thinking (fluency, flexibility, elaboration, originality, synthesis, categorizing, and evaluation)Monday, February 13, 12
  64. 64. 3. CHOOSE DESIGN STRATEGIES. Specification Perspective Improvement Combination ElaborationMonday, February 13, 12
  65. 65. 3. CHOOSE DESIGN STRATEGIES. Specification Materials, Goals, Time Perspective Improvement Combination ElaborationMonday, February 13, 12
  66. 66. 3. CHOOSE DESIGN STRATEGIES. Specification Specific Individuals, General Roles, Perspective Purposes, Subtopics Improvement Combination ElaborationMonday, February 13, 12
  67. 67. 3. CHOOSE DESIGN STRATEGIES. Specification Perspective Real Problems, Unanswered Improvement Questions, Audience Combination ElaborationMonday, February 13, 12
  68. 68. 3. CHOOSE DESIGN STRATEGIES. Specification Perspective Improvement Materials, Inter- and Intra- Combination disciplinary ElaborationMonday, February 13, 12
  69. 69. Monday, February 13, 12
  70. 70. 3. CHOOSE DESIGN STRATEGIES. Specification Perspective Improvement Combination Elaboration Tools, Concepts, Theories, Everyday Items/ExperiencesMonday, February 13, 12
  71. 71. 4. REFLECT Discussions Self-Reflection Peer Assessments/Feedback Conferences Teacher FeedbackMonday, February 13, 12
  72. 72. EVALUATION TREE http://www.evaluationsupportscotland.org.uk/article.asp?id=13 From Ms. Konigbacher’s ClassMonday, February 13, 12
  73. 73. What type of creative challenge could you offer your students? TRY IT.Monday, February 13, 12
  74. 74. Making Creative Thinking a Priority Analogical Creative Process Thinking Models Directed Creative Brainstorming ChallengesMonday, February 13, 12
  75. 75. THANK YOU. LMRUBENSTEIN@BSU.EDUMonday, February 13, 12

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