Parent Meeting 2013

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Parent Meeting 2013

  1. 1. Motivation and Advocacy for the Gifted Child Lisa DaVia Rubenstein, Ph.D. Ball State University April 6, 2013
  2. 2. Agenda• Promoting Achievement Among Gifted Students • Definition/Identification • Factors Affecting Achievement • Potential Interventions• Parent Advocacy • Importance • Meeting with Teachers • Starting Parent Groups• Discussion and/or Questions
  3. 3. Promoting Achievement in Gifted Students
  4. 4. "It is not impossibilitieswhich fill us with the deepest despair, but possibilities which we have failed to realize." — Robert Mallet
  5. 5. Importance• McCall, Evahn, & Kratzer (1992): School Achievement Matters• Peterson & Colangelo (1996): Persistent Patterns  
  6. 6. Problems?• 18-25% of high school dropouts are in the gifted range (Solorzano 1983; Renzulli & Park, 2000)• Underachievement becomes a pattern - only 26% of high school underachievers are able to reverse the pattern in college (Peterson, 2000)
  7. 7. Identification
  8. 8. Most Popular Definition (Reis & McCoach, 2000) “Underachievers are students who exhibit a severe discrepancy between expected achievement (as measured by standardized achievement test scores or cognitive or intellectual ability assessments) and actual achievement (as measured by class grades and teacher evaluations). To be classified as an underachiever, the discrepancy between expected and actual achievement must not be the direct result of a diagnosed learning disability and must persist over an extended period of time. Gifted underachievers are underachievers who exhibit superior scores on measures of expected achievement (i.e., standardized achievement test scores or cognitive or intellectual ability assessments).” (p. 157).
  9. 9. Are we allunderachievers in some areas?
  10. 10. Identification Problems• Duration• Degree• Different for gifted students and regular students• Standardized test scores/ IQ test scores• Twice exceptionality• Selectivity
  11. 11. 2006 Study Findings5.003.75 Implementation2.50 No Implementation1.25 0 PreGrade PostGrade
  12. 12. Understanding the Underachieving Student
  13. 13. Characteristics• Antidotal reports from counselors• Qualitative studies• Quantitative studies
  14. 14. Possible Characteristics ofGifted Underachievers May be dependent May develop coping mechanisms which successfully reduce short term stress, but which inhibit long term success. May be socially immature May be antisocial or rebellious ..........
  15. 15. Characteristics ofGifted Underachievers The most common characteristic is low self- esteem. Sometimes these students don’t believe they are capable of accomplishing what their families and teachers expect.
  16. 16. But wait...a challenge?• McCoach & Siegle: academic self-perceptions was equal between the 2 groups• Difference between qualitative and quantitative• Largest predictors: Motivation and task valuation
  17. 17. A model of motivation: Achievement Orientation Model
  18. 18. Possess theAdequate SkillsFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  19. 19. Possess theAdequate Skills Confidence in Ability to Perform Task Self EfficacyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  20. 20. Flexible ORStable/Fixed
  21. 21. Types of Praisehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTXrV0_3UjY
  22. 22. Perfectionism
  23. 23. How to Build Self- Efficacy• Compliment of skills they develop• Practice lack-of-effort explanations for poor performance• Avoid the appearance of unsolicited help• Recognize progress during a lesson• Help students to set goals, document their growth• Peer models and self-model
  24. 24. Think aboutsomething atwhich you are successful.
  25. 25. A Balancing Act InterestAbility Effort
  26. 26. Possess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  27. 27. Daniel Pink Autonomy
  28. 28. From Get Off My Brain, by Randy McCutcheon, illustrated by Pete Wagner
  29. 29. Whenever there is a problem to solve…that is good for me…. I get really interested in current events and ethics and morality…I remember when I first connected something from scienceand literature and psychology. It was so exciting!...I wasseeing something, how things were working in the world,and I wasn’t just looking for a test. ...where if you are playing a team that’s worse than you, you kind of stoop down to their level...that’s how I felt in a lot of my classes...because the ones that didn’t challenge me were the ones I didn’t try at all in.
  30. 30. Ive ended up getting lower grades than myclassmates many times because I didnt feellike the course was challenging enough totry in.  Then, when a test did come, therewere times I was unprepared because Ivealways had a hard time believing I needed tostudy for a test. That shaped my work ethic,even in college to believing that I can getthrough any class without external studyingor preparation.
  31. 31. Goal Valuation Intrinsic Value• Interest enhancing activities (games, challenges, anecdotes)• Choices• Pre-assessment and matched challenges (AP)• Immediate feedback• Enthusiasm and equal treatment of students Attainment Value• Authentic and significant tasks• Personally meaningful• Provide models who value academic achievement
  32. 32. Goal Valuation Utility Value• Explain purpose• Connect to current wants or future goals• Real world applications• Personal stories• Connections between prior, current, and future learning Rewards• Reward for reaching a specific instructional goal Conferences• Constructive confrontation• Active listening• Clarify goals• Make plans to achieve goals
  33. 33. Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  34. 34. School Climate• Lack of respect for individual child• Negative expectations• Strongly competitive environment• Inflexibility, rigidity• Exaggerated attention to errors• Unrewarding curriculum• Peer pressure
  35. 35. School Perception• Identify faulty cognitions • I must perform well all the time. • Everyone must treat me well all the time. • Conditions must be favorable all the time.• Categories • What events occur • Attributions about why events occur • Expectancies or predictions of what will occur • Assumptions about the nature of the world • Belief what should be• Is it valid and/or reasonable to have this thought?• Are their distortions blocking what is true? (Examples include overgeneralizations, minimization, catastrophizing, absolute thinking)
  36. 36. School Perception Choice Theory• All behavior is chosen and the only person whose behavior we can control is our own.• No thing, event, or person makes us to anything. Solutions• Set good goals that are positive, in the student’s own words, current, specific, and in the student’s control.• Start small, in the present and focus on how to actively change it. Point out successes. Follow up.
  37. 37. Teachers Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  38. 38. Classroom Practices StudyTeachers reported that theynever had any training inmeeting the needs of giftedstudents. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachers Archambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
  39. 39. Classroom Practices Observational StudyStudents experienced no instructional or curriculardifferentiation in 84% of the activities in which theyparticipated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies Science Westberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
  40. 40. No DifferentiationAdvanced ContentAdvanced ProcessAdvanced Product Indep. Study w/ Assigned Topic Indep. Study w/Self-selected Topic Other Differentiation Gifted Students Were Involved Types of Differentiation in Which
  41. 41. Matching Effort with Outcome Possible Outcomes Positive Negative Positive Achievers Underachievers Possible EffortNegative Underachievers Underachievers
  42. 42. Teachers
  43. 43. Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  44. 44. 66%
  45. 45. Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  46. 46. Family Characteristics Uncontrollable• Poor family morale• Family disruption Controllable• Parent overprotection• Authoritarian• Excessive permissiveness• Inconsistencies between parents
  47. 47. Family Issues Affecting Academic Underachievement• Family dysfunction/ Power patterns• Strained relations with family members• Problems with siblings and sibling rivalry• Inconsistent role models and value systems in the family• Minimal/Hyper paternal academic monitoring, guidance, and expectations
  48. 48. Parental Considerations• DON’Ts: Do not put them in their place or foster learned helplessness. Avoid excessive pressure or conveying too much power. Don’t use their talent as an excuse.• DOs: Show them attitudes of respect, compromise, and working together to solve a problem. Negotiate a fair contract and stick to it. Model intrinsic and independent learning, positive commitment to career, and respect for school and teachers.
  49. 49. Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental Perception RealisticPossess the Expectations andAdequate Appropriate Skills Motivation Strategies (Self Regulation) Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  50. 50. Self-Regulated LearningZimmerman (1989) defines self-regulated learning as involving the regulation ofthree general aspects of academic learning.1. Control of Resources(control their time, their study environment- the place in which they study, andtheir use of others such as peers and faculty members to help them)2. Control of Motivation and Emotions(control self-efficacy and goal orientation to adapt to the demands of school andcontrol emotions and affect (such as anxiety) in ways that improve learning)3. Control of Cognitive Strategies(decide upon processing strategies that result in better learning and increasedperformance such as outlining or highlighting or creating pictures)
  51. 51. Self-Regulation Strategies• Setting Short and Long Term Goals• Identifying Rewards for Work Completed and Goals Met• Time Management/Organization Strategies• Study and Learning Strategies (Flash cards, testing yourself, finding the right environment, chunking study time over several days)• Test-taking Strategies (Comparing class notes with material from the book, meeting with friends to brainstorm questions, arranging time with teachers for review)• Developing an Individual Plan to Be More Successful in School• Reflecting on What Has Occurred and Evaluating Progress
  52. 52. Achievement and Engagement Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental Perception RealisticPossess the Expectations andAdequate Appropriate Skills Motivation Strategies (Self Regulation) Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  53. 53. Don’t mistake activity for achievement. John Wooden
  54. 54. Achievement and Engagement Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental Perception RealisticPossess the Expectations andAdequate Appropriate Skills Motivation Strategies (Self Regulation) Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  55. 55. ResearchedInterventions
  56. 56. Students’ Perceptions (Linda J. Emerick’s Study)• Out of School Interests• Parents• The Class• Goals• Teacher• Self
  57. 57. Interventions• Whitmore (1980)• Supplee (1990)• Baum, Renzulli, & Hébert (1995)• Siegle, Reis, & McCoach (2006)• Rubenstein (2011)
  58. 58. U A  Study  to  Increase   Academic  Achievement   for nderachieving GIFTED STUDENTS from The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Principal Investigators: Del Siegle and Sally M. Reis Study Development Team: Del Siegle, Sally M. Reis, and D. Betsy McCoachIntervention Development Team: Del Siegle, Sally M. Reis, Meredith Greene, D. Betsy McCoach, and Ric Schreiber Field Test Team: D. Betsy McCoach and Del Siegle Study Implementation Team: Del Siegle, Sally M. Reis, Becky Mann, and Scott Davie
  59. 59. Basic Assumption: Students Underachieve for a Variety of Reasons They based their interventions on five different types of underachievers:Those who…… believe the environment is at fault(environmental perception)… don’t value the goals of school (goal valuation)… don’t believe they have the ability to do well(self-efficacy)… are not challenged by the curriculum(curriculum-compacting and Type IIIs)… lack organization and study skills (self-regulation)
  60. 60. Monitor Student’s Academic l Achievement (n=24) nt ro Co Goal Valuation (n=22) Self-Efficacy (n=27) School Percept (n=8)Treatment Curriculum Compacting and Type IIIs (n=21) Self-Regulation (n=36)
  61. 61. 2006 Study Findings5.003.75 Implementation2.50 No Implementation1.25 0 PreGrade PostGrade
  62. 62. 2006 Study Findings
  63. 63. 2006 Study Findings
  64. 64. Implementation of StrategiesResource for all strategies: www.gifted.uconn.edu/NRCGT.html• Click on Underachievement Study.• Each strategy has its own module.• There are also lesson plans, worksheets, and videos.
  65. 65. Project ATLAS
  66. 66. 20% 50%
  67. 67. Student understands standards. Content Process ProductProjectATLAS Student proposes assignment...for engagement.
  68. 68. Findings• Students’  home  lives  have  a  large  effect  on  students’  school   lives.• A  caring  individual  who  takes  an  interest  in  a  student’s  life   can  make  a  difference  for  that  student.  Signing  the   permission  form  may  have  affected  the  students’   performance.• Underachievement  interventions  must  be  student  speci=ic,   and  Project  ATLAS  may  be  effective  for  some  students.• In  Mrs.  Hemmingway’s  class,  students  rarely  had  an   opportunity  for  active  engagement,  and  when  they  did,  the   underachieving  males  in  the  study,  both  Jason  and  Daniel   found  it  challenging  to  use  that  time  appropriately.
  69. 69. Call for Action
  70. 70. Call for Action Mentorships Community Partnerships Autonomy Action Counseling Quality Curriculum Research Technology Social Justice Acceleration Try something...
  71. 71. Parent Advocacy
  72. 72. Strange Position W anting the Best Arrogance/Bra%ing Learning Opportunity Questioning the Seeing the Importance NecessityHating Con"ontation Needing Change Understanding yourTeachers are experts. Child
  73. 73. Strange Position W anting the Best Arrogance/Bra%ing Learning Opportunity Questioning the Seeing the Importance NecessityHating Con"ontation Needing Change Understanding your Teachers are experts. Child Are you able to relate to this tension?
  74. 74. “Parental persistence was thekey factor in success in workingwith schools.” (Gogul, McCumsey, & Hewitt, 1985)
  75. 75. Overarching Steps for Local Advocacy• Talk to your child. What are their feelings or needs?• Talk to the teacher. (PRIVATELY)• Move up the ladder. (Hopefully...this is unnecessary.)
  76. 76. Preparing for the Meeting: Talk to your Child• What is your (math) class like?• What are you learning? The goal is not for the child to criticize the teacher but rather to• Do you ever need help? reflect upon his/her learning.• What are your most interesting questions?• Describe your favorite class.• What would your ideal class be like?
  77. 77. Preparing for the Meeting: ResearchWhat does your district offer? • Enrichment: afterWhat are the best options for school, in school,your child? subject specific, enrichment clusters, Acceleration: single interdisciplinary... (See • Schoolwide Enrichment subject, grade level, college courses, early Model) entry... (See Nation • Compacting Deceived) • Cluster grouping • Differentiation • Problem-Based Learning • Independent Study • Mentorships
  78. 78. Preparing for the Meeting: Record• Record what you want to share. What do you notice? What data do you have? Be able to give examples. Do not oversell.• What do you want to happen? Why? How can you support your ideas? What is your tangible goal?• Perhaps avoid the “gifted” conversation. You really want your child to experience challenge and to learn something new everyday.• Expect the teacher to be open. Believe the best.
  79. 79. At the Meeting• Remember: teachers may not see the same things you do. They are also trying to meet everyone’s concerns.• Thank them. If you can, be specific.• Ask what the teacher sees at school & share what you see at home. Discuss strengths and weaknesses.• Avoid saying, “My child is bored.” Give specific examples...my child knows this because...he really loves this subject and I want him to continue to love it...
  80. 80. Resist the urge to be confrontational. “Parentswill accomplish more by being pleasant ‘pushyparents’ and by allying with teachers, giftedcoordinators, and principals.” (Davis, Rimm, & Siegle, 2012)
  81. 81. At the Meeting• Brainstorm some ideas to engage your child. Share your thoughts.• Work together. At the end of the meeting, summarize your conclusions. Create a timeline.• Experiment. This is an iterative process.• Evaluate. Extend option or experiment with a new option.
  82. 82. How well did your meeting go?• Your child was the main focus.• Both you and the teacher listened to each other and considered each other’s points of view.• You negotiated for solutions that will meet your child’s needs without disregarding the teacher’s responsibilities or your knowledge of your child.• You came to an understanding.• You both agreed to work on a solution that will help your child.• You agreed to continue to work together and you both made commitments and scheduled further actions.
  83. 83. If it did not go well...• The teachers are not trained or do not have the time/ability to meet the high ability students’ needs.• Programs are not offered for your child’s grade.• The school holds other priorities.
  84. 84. If more is necessary...• Talk to the principal, and move up the ladder.• Karnes and Marquardt’s comprehensive court cases on gifted education • Gifted Children and the Law • Gifted Children and Legal Issues in Education • Gifted Children and Legal Issues in Education: An Update
  85. 85. Quality gifted education existsin places with strong parentgroups. Joel McIntosh
  86. 86. Starting a Parent Advocacy Group• Check out the following free resource: https:// www.nagc.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/ startingaparentgroup.pdf.• In addition to other parents, look for others who may wish to join you, like teachers, friends, principals, school board members, content experts, or retired individuals.• Use creative problem solving. Set an initiative.• Advocate for a continuum of services.
  87. 87. Parent Group Ground Rules• Establish a group culture.• Be positive and constructive.• Skip the competition.• Share findings. Share resources. (Book club discussion?)• Focus on common ground.
  88. 88. More Resources Websites: http://www.iag-online.org/page17/index.html http://www.nagc.org/welcomeparents.aspx http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/ Journals: Parenting for High Potential
  89. 89. Thank You.lmrubenstein@bsu.edu

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