Causes• Burning of fossil fuels (Coal/Crude oil) – Power plants generate electricity – Transportation-----fuels for transports (E.g. LPG, kerosene, fuel oil) – Industrial processes (E.g. manufacture of cement, steel, aluminium)
Causes• Other greenhouse gases emission – Agriculture – Forestry – Other land uses – Waste management
Example : Using natural gas to cookCH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O r xide, othe ar bon dio Besides c as methane, gase s such , nitrogen ro carbons ch lorofluo zone al so do eenhou se ox ides an r te to the g contribu effect.
Can you describe the Greenhouse effect?Serious greenhouse effectGlobal Warming
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere ↓ Some infrared radiation is trapped ↓ Greenhouse effectSerious greenhouse effectGlobal Warming
Direct TemperatureEffects Increase in average temperature More extreme heat waves during the summer; Less extreme cold spells during the winter Harmful to those with heart problems, asthma, the elderly, the very young and the homeless
Climate-sensitive diseases • Increase the risk of some infectious diseases – [particularly that appear in warm areas; are spread by mosquitoes and other insects] – E.g. Malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, encephalitis• Algal blooms occur more frequently as temperatures warm (particularly in areas with polluted waters) Diseases (e.g. cholera) accompanying algal blooms become more frequent
Air Quality An increase in the concentration of ground-level ozone Damage lung tissue Harmful for those with asthma and other chronic lung diseases
Food supply Rising temperatures and variable precipitationDecrease the production of staple foods in many of the poorest regions Increasing risks of malnutrition
Population displacement Rising sea levels Increase the risk of coastal flooding (Necessitate population displacement)• More than half of the worlds population now lives within 60km of the sea.• Most vulnerable regions: Nile delta in Egypt, the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh, many small islands, such as the Maldives, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu.
UV Exposure (Australia)• Skin Cancer – an abnormal growth of skin tissues.• Premature aging – make the skin thick, wrinkled, and leathery • Cataracts – No longer have transparent lenses in their eyes
UV Exposure (Australia)• Other Eye Damages – Skin cancer around the eyes• Suppression of Immunity – Overexposure to UV radiation suppress proper functioning of the bodys immune system and natural defenses of skin – UV-B radiation weakens the immune system increases the chance of infection and disease
Extreme Events• Extreme Events:• Heat waves; Cold waves; Storms; Floods and Droughts Global warming An increase in the frequency of extreme events More event-related deaths, injuries, infectious diseases, and stress-related disorders
Extreme Events in Europe! Natural Disasters...
Heat waves in Europe have become much morelikely; the extreme temperaturesof the summer of 2003 are estimated to have been75% due to human influence.Increased temperatures worsen drought conditions.
The heat wave in the summer of 2003 caused massive lossof life – the deathsof at least 22,146 people have been attributed to the heat(table 1.2).Table 1.2: Excess deaths from Europes 2003 heat wave(WHO 2004):France 14,802Spain3 59Italy 3,134Portugal 2,106England and Wales 2,045Totals 22,146
Extreme Events in Europe!France - 14,082 deaths. Experienced seven consecutive days of temperatures above 40C. UK - 2,139 deaths. Record-breaking temperature of 38.5C was recorded on August 10, 2003. Rail travel was disrupted across the country (rails buckling) and the London eye shut down due to excessive heat in the wheel pods.
Italy - Approx. 3000 deaths. Temperatures were around 38C in most cities for weeks.Portugal – 2,100 deaths. Extensive forest fires. 1st of August recorded as the hottest day in centiries. 48CHolland – 1,500 deaths.
Spain – 141 deaths. Records broken in multiple cities. Germany - 300 deaths. Record broken in multiple cities. Rivers were at their lowest recorded level this century, affecting shipping.Switzerland – melting glaciers in the Alps causedavalanches and flash floods. Nationwide record temperature of 41.5C recorded.
Windstorms... The windstorms at the end of 1999 were among the most dramatic in European history. Anatol, Lothar and Martin, affected Scandinavia, France, Germany and neighbouring countries. These storms killed almost 150 peopleand caused massive losses (€6.7 billion in insured losses from Lothar and Martin, €500 million in economic losses from Anatol). In France the storms threw an amount of timber equal to three times the annual harvest.
Floods...The major flood event of the last few years, and the most economically destructive disaster in Europe’s history, occurred in 2002. Floods took place along the Danube and Elbe rivers, affecting much of Central Europe; there was also significant flooding in the UK and France. 600,000 people were affected and 80 killed in 11 countries. Economic losses were at least €15 billion.
Droughts...Much of Southern Europe has been in the grip of severe drought for at least ayear, the worst ever recorded. In the summer of 2005, 97% of Portugalexperienced severe drought conditions, France considered closing nuclearpower plants, and across the European Union cereal production fell by at least28 million tonnes - around 10% of the total.