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Phonetics ~ Class 9 
CD 233 
Lavoie
Today’s goals 
Review articulation of vowels and 
consonants 
Understand phonemes and allophones 
Experiment with Palat...
For yourself before we start 
Write down: 
Descriptors of vowels 
Descriptors of consonants 
Draw mid-sagittal section...
Review vowel articulation 
What are the dimensions we use to 
describe vowels? 
Where do the English vowels fall along 
...
Review consonant articulation 
Descriptors of a consonant 
Manner 
 Stop, Fricative, Affricate, Liquid, Glide 
Place 
...
Experiment with place 
Run tongue tip from between teeth to as 
far back as you can go 
Now make a sequence of p, f, th,...
Interpreting sagittal sections 
The “small articulation heads” 
What sound is being articulated? 
Voicing (look at glot...
Limitations of mid-sagittal plane 
Mid-sagittal does not show pattern of 
tongue contact on palate 
Palatography (static...
palatography
Palatography 
What pattern does our tongue make on 
our hard palate when articulating a 
sound? 
See additional handouts
Palatography yields … 
Palatogram Linguagram
Capturing palate images
Static palatography 
The charcoal method works for a single sound 
Imagine and draw the contact pattern of the 
tongue o...
Dynamic palatography 
You really want to know the pattern of contact 
over time! 
But the charcoal method would just mak...
/t/ /k/
Pseudopalate and digital display
Clinical uses (Michi et al 1986) 
Dynamic palatography generates visual 
display of constantly changing tongue to 
palate...
Pamela’s /s/ (groove width) 
Pre-treatment Post-treatment
Pamela’s /r/ (symmetry) 
Pre-treatment Post-treatment
Flying 3D palates 
 From the UCLA Phonetics Lab (section III) 
 We can look at change of contact during phrases 
 http:...
Phonemes and allophones
Allophone cartoon
/Phonemes/ and [allophones] 
The single hardest concept in phonetics 
and phonology! 
/Phoneme/: basic mental unit 
[Al...
Non-speech phoneme/allophones 
Serving carrots 
Appropriate preparation for each course 
Handwriting, esp. cursive 
Ho...
More metaphors for allophones 
/Shirt/ – choose for context 
[Formal shirt with collar] 
[Warm cozy hand-knit sweater] ...
Allophones of vowels 
Co-articulation, efficient planning yield 
overlap of articulations 
English has oral vowel phonem...
French nasal vowel phonemes 
French vowels are contrastively oral or nasal 
So the oral or nasal vowels give you a 
diff...
Free variation 
Acceptable variation between realizations of a 
sound in same position 
Two or more sounds in same envir...
Allophones of consonants 
 Light and dark /l/ 
 Lee vs. eel 
 Onset vs. coda position 
 Fronted /k/ 
 “coo” vs. key” ...
Poster child for allophones: /t/ 
Many realizations of /t/ 
Some depend on environment 
 “top” “stop” “butter” “kitten”...
Voicing and 
voice onset time (VOT)
VOT – Voice Onset Time 
How voicing and aspiration contrasts are 
actually articulated 
To understand this, we need the ...
Articulatory gestures 
 Have a duration and a magnitude 
 Can be reduced or increased or overlapped 
 Some misalignment...
Basics of plosives and VOT 
www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/project/siphtra.htm 
Under Web Tutorials 
Plosives (Basics) 
Plosives (...
2-way VOT contrast 
English 
Languages can choose different cut off 
points to make their VOT contrasts 
English contra...
3-way VOT contrast 
Thai 
http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/course/chapt 
er6/thai/thai.html 
Thai has phonemes of /p/, /ph...
4-way VOT contrast 
Hindi 
http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/lin 
guistics/VowelsandConsonants/index/soun 
ds.html...
Summary of VOT contrasts 
 English has phonemes of /p/ and /b/ 
 Thai has phonemes of /p/, /ph/ and /b/ 
 Hindi has pho...
Class 09 emerson_phonetics_fall2014_phonemes_allophones_vot_epg
Class 09 emerson_phonetics_fall2014_phonemes_allophones_vot_epg
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This is class 9 in a semester-long Phonetics course for students of Communication Disorders.

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Class 09 emerson_phonetics_fall2014_phonemes_allophones_vot_epg

  1. 1. Phonetics ~ Class 9 CD 233 Lavoie
  2. 2. Today’s goals Review articulation of vowels and consonants Understand phonemes and allophones Experiment with Palatography
  3. 3. For yourself before we start Write down: Descriptors of vowels Descriptors of consonants Draw mid-sagittal sections of m and g
  4. 4. Review vowel articulation What are the dimensions we use to describe vowels? Where do the English vowels fall along those dimensions?
  5. 5. Review consonant articulation Descriptors of a consonant Manner  Stop, Fricative, Affricate, Liquid, Glide Place  Bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal Voicing (voiced or voiceless) Nasality (nasal or oral)
  6. 6. Experiment with place Run tongue tip from between teeth to as far back as you can go Now make a sequence of p, f, th, s, t, sh, ch, k, glottal stop How far apart are each of these places?
  7. 7. Interpreting sagittal sections The “small articulation heads” What sound is being articulated? Voicing (look at glottis) Nasality (look at position of velum) Place (look at where articulators approach) Manner (look at how close the articulators are)
  8. 8. Limitations of mid-sagittal plane Mid-sagittal does not show pattern of tongue contact on palate Palatography (static, dynamic) shows: Tongue to palate (linguopalatal) contact Palate to tongue (palatolingual) contact
  9. 9. palatography
  10. 10. Palatography What pattern does our tongue make on our hard palate when articulating a sound? See additional handouts
  11. 11. Palatography yields … Palatogram Linguagram
  12. 12. Capturing palate images
  13. 13. Static palatography The charcoal method works for a single sound Imagine and draw the contact pattern of the tongue on the palate when you are sipping from a straw Now imagine and sketch t, d; s, sh, z, zh, l References if needed:  http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/faciliti/facilities/physiology/stati c_pal_new/webpal.htm  http://www2.hawaii.edu/~vanderso/LDC.pdf
  14. 14. Dynamic palatography You really want to know the pattern of contact over time! But the charcoal method would just make a big black mess and obscure individual contact That’s where EPG – electropalatography – comes in Uses a pseudopalate (like a retainer)
  15. 15. /t/ /k/
  16. 16. Pseudopalate and digital display
  17. 17. Clinical uses (Michi et al 1986) Dynamic palatography generates visual display of constantly changing tongue to palate contact over time, using an artificial palate plate covered with electrodes The display of contact helps clinician guide client’s sound formation
  18. 18. Pamela’s /s/ (groove width) Pre-treatment Post-treatment
  19. 19. Pamela’s /r/ (symmetry) Pre-treatment Post-treatment
  20. 20. Flying 3D palates  From the UCLA Phonetics Lab (section III)  We can look at change of contact during phrases  http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/faciliti/facilities/physiolo gy/epg.html
  21. 21. Phonemes and allophones
  22. 22. Allophone cartoon
  23. 23. /Phonemes/ and [allophones] The single hardest concept in phonetics and phonology! /Phoneme/: basic mental unit [Allophone]: actual realization of that unit in a particular context or conditioning environment Complementary distribution
  24. 24. Non-speech phoneme/allophones Serving carrots Appropriate preparation for each course Handwriting, esp. cursive How letters look in particular positions
  25. 25. More metaphors for allophones /Shirt/ – choose for context [Formal shirt with collar] [Warm cozy hand-knit sweater] [Red t-shirt with rude saying] [No shirt at all – omission] /Water/ – temperature is context [Liquid] ~ [Ice] ~ [Steam]
  26. 26. Allophones of vowels Co-articulation, efficient planning yield overlap of articulations English has oral vowel phonemes But when an oral vowel occurs before a nasal consonant, it becomes nasalized
  27. 27. French nasal vowel phonemes French vowels are contrastively oral or nasal So the oral or nasal vowels give you a difference in meaning  http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter14/fr ench2.html In English a nasalized vowel doesn’t give a difference in meaning
  28. 28. Free variation Acceptable variation between realizations of a sound in same position Two or more sounds in same environment, without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers Examples:  Released or unreleased stops at ends of words  /t/ realized as glottal stop or as [t] As opposed to “complementary distribution”
  29. 29. Allophones of consonants  Light and dark /l/  Lee vs. eel  Onset vs. coda position  Fronted /k/  “coo” vs. key”  Front/back position of following vowel  Dental /n/  Nine vs. ninth  Preceding a dental consonant
  30. 30. Poster child for allophones: /t/ Many realizations of /t/ Some depend on environment  “top” “stop” “butter” “kitten” “hunter”  “get your” Some depend on attitude :)  “get out” Listen for these
  31. 31. Voicing and voice onset time (VOT)
  32. 32. VOT – Voice Onset Time How voicing and aspiration contrasts are actually articulated To understand this, we need the concept of articulatory gestures Hearing voiced, voiceless, aspirated depends on relative timing of glottal gesture with respect to stop release
  33. 33. Articulatory gestures  Have a duration and a magnitude  Can be reduced or increased or overlapped  Some misalignment is perfectly natural  Different articulators have different precision  “Sluggish” velum vs. very nimble tongue tip  Other misalignment may be disordered  http://sail.usc.edu/~lgoldste/General_Phonetics/CV_or ganization/Gestural_Scores/index.html
  34. 34. Basics of plosives and VOT www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/project/siphtra.htm Under Web Tutorials Plosives (Basics) Plosives (VOT and Aspiration)
  35. 35. 2-way VOT contrast English Languages can choose different cut off points to make their VOT contrasts English contrasts an aspirated stop [voiceless] with a voiceless unaspirated stop [voiced], so it’s just a two-way contrast
  36. 36. 3-way VOT contrast Thai http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/course/chapt er6/thai/thai.html Thai has phonemes of /p/, /ph/ and /b/ Thai contrasts an aspirated stop with a voiceless unaspirated with a voiced
  37. 37. 4-way VOT contrast Hindi http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/lin guistics/VowelsandConsonants/index/soun ds.html Voiceless, voiceless aspirated Voiced, AND voiced aspirated  Hindi has phonemes of /p/, /ph/, /b/, and /bh/
  38. 38. Summary of VOT contrasts  English has phonemes of /p/ and /b/  Thai has phonemes of /p/, /ph/ and /b/  Hindi has phonemes of /p/, /ph/, /b/, and /bh/  Languages can and do cut up the phonemes and allophones differently  Another piece of evidence that minimal pairs are crucial to show what’s contrastive in a language

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