Spot the difference


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Lisa Coles Access to Photography Tower Hamlets College
An introduction to the ethics of photographic manipulation

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Spot the difference

  1. 1. SPOT THE DIFFERENCE Assessment Criteria 5 Demonstrate how visual codes associated with conventionalphotographs can be called into question with digital techniques Study the images and list any differences between them Why did the photographer make the changes? How has the visual meaning changed? What might be the consequences of the changes?
  2. 2. Photograph by Adnan Hajj / ReutersAug. 2006 - Reuters withdrew this image of smoke rising from burningbuildings after an Israeli airstrike Saturday on the suburbs of Beirut afterevidence emerged that it had been manipulated to show more smoke. Themanipulated image is shown on the left. The unaltered image, shown on theright, has since run.
  3. 3. Sept 2010: Ex Egyptian president Mubarak — who was originally on the farleft of the photo — is now leading the team down the red carpet. Not onlyhas he been moved, his image has also been reflected. This is how itappeared in Al-Ahram, Egypt’s state-run newspaper: Al-Ahram is Egypt’s largest newspaper, with a reported circulation of over a million
  4. 4. Klavs Bo Christensens pictures were removed from the Danish Union of PressPhotographers "Picture of the Year" contest when judges compared his images to hisRAW files and noticed he used exaggerated coloration in his submissions.
The rules stated: You may post-process images electronically in accordance withgood practice. That is cropping, dodging, converting to B&W as well as normalexposure and colour correction which preserves the image’s original expression.The judges deemed the over saturated work ―unacceptable‖
  5. 5. photo by Brian Walski of the Los AngelesTimes.Walski was on assignment in Basra, Iraq, during the height of the initial ground warin 2003. That picture ran on page one of the LAT and the Hartford Courant. The onlyway Walski got caught: Careful examination of the original shows several people inthe background that appear twice.
  6. 6. Initially, the photographer — Allan Detrich — reportedly denied he hadphotoshopped the picture. Then he said he had changed it for his own copy but thenhad accidentally transmitted it to the photo editor.The paper suspended him and began combing though 14 weeks of files he had shotso far that year.Donald Winslow of the National Press Photographers Association reported:Detrich submitted 947 photographs for publication in 2007, right up through his lastweek of work. Of those 947, 233 were published either in the newspaper or on theBlade’s Web site. Editors have determined that 79 of the photographs were clearlydigitally altered.
  7. 7. Award-winning photographer Bryan Patrick hasbeen fired from his newspaper, the SacramentoBee for violating the paper’s ethics policy.The picture on the right was a combination ofthe two on the left. Notice any repeats?
  8. 8. This was an entry for the world press photo, it would have won if it had not beendisqualified. The offending image is by Stepan Rudik.The issue was not the crop, the black and white conversions, grain or contrastetc. it was the fact that he removed the person from behind the figure. This minorcorrection was the reason the image was disqualified. Is this justified?
  9. 9. The photograph above left, released on the news website and public relations arm ofIrans Revolutionary Guards, Sepah News, has been apparently digitally altered toshow four missiles rising into the air, instead of three, during a test-firing Wednesday inIran. The third missile from the left has apparently been added to cover up the missileon the ground that may have failed during the test.
  10. 10. Edward Curtis is also known to have manipulated the images he produced for hisbooks. The North American Indian by Edward S. Curtis One image in particular, In aPiegan Lodge, 1910–Volume Six, Portfolio Plate 188 is a prime example.
  11. 11. In this doctored photo of Queen Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon — mother of QueenElizabeth II — and Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King inBanff, Alberta, King George VI was removed from the original photograph. Thisphoto was used on an election poster for the Prime Minister.
  12. 12. his Pulitzer Prize winning photo by John Filo shows Mary Ann Vecchio screaming asshe kneels over the body of student Jeffrey Miller at Kent State University, whereNational Guardsmen had fired into a crowd of demonstrators, killing four andwounding nine. The photo originally featured a visually distracting fencepost behindMary Ann Vecchio’s head, but this was removed by an unknown photo editor in theearly 1970’s. The modified photo then was published in Life magazine and otherpublications.
  13. 13. Avedon’s instructions to his printer
  14. 14. BRIEF 9 Montaging Digital ImagesPART TWOCreate your own codes of convention (bulleted list) for using Photoshopcommercially as a Fashion Photographer or PhotoJournalist in the U.K.Include an introductory paragraph explaining why we need a code ofconvention. Use some examples of photographs by existing commercialphotographers to illustrate your point.Assessment Criteria 5 Demonstrate how visual codes associated withconventional photographs can be called into question with digital techniques