Ivf - In Vitro Fertilization


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Detailed info about IVF.

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Ivf - In Vitro Fertilization

  1. 1. IVF prepared by:- Shivang Patel
  2. 2. WHAT IS IVF?      In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. When a woman's natural cycle is monitored to collect a naturally selected ovum (egg) for fertilization, it is known as natural cycle IVF. The fertilized egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.
  3. 3. LOUISE BROWN, 1978
  4. 4. HISTORY OF IVF       1981 Elizabeth Carr, first IVF baby in USA. 1983 First birth after egg donation. 1985 First birth from cryopreserved embryo. 1985 Transvaginal Ultrasound for follicle monitoring. 1990 First report of egg donation to older mothers. 1992 First human birth after ICSI(Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection).
  5. 5. WHY IVF?  IVF is used to overcome female infertility in the woman due to problems of the fallopian tube, making fertilization in vivo difficult.  It may also assist in male infertility, where there is a defect in sperm quality, and in such cases intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used, where a sperm cell is injected directly into the egg cell. This is used when sperm have difficulty penetrating the egg, and in these cases the partner's or a donor's sperm may be used. ICSI is also used when sperm numbers are very low.
  6. 6. Hormonal treatment Female Harvest the ovum Mature Ova Mix in a test tube Keep to develop embryo Motile sperms Collect semen Natural ejaculation Male Transfer to mother
  7. 7. METHOD i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Ovarian hyper stimulation Natural and mild IVF Final maturation and egg retrieval Egg and sperm preparation Fertilization Embryo culture Embryo selection Embryo transfer
  8. 8. ALTERNATES OF IVF  Gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT): GIFT is similar to IVF. It is used when a woman has at least one normal fallopian tube. Eggs are placed in this tube along with a man’s sperm to fertilize there.  Zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT): ZIFT is tubal embryo transfer in which a woman’s eggs are taken from her ovaries, fertilized in the laboratory, and put back in the fallopian tubes rather than the uterus.
  9. 9. RISKS IN IVF     There may be a failure to recover an egg because: - follicles that contain mature eggs may not develop in the treatment cycle - ovulation has occurred before time of egg recovery - one or more eggs cannot be recovered - pre-existing pelvic scarring and/or technical difficulties prevent safe egg recovery The eggs that are recovered may not be normal; There may be insufficient semen to attempt fertilization of the recovered eggs because the man is unable to produce a semen specimen, because the specimen contains an insufficient number of sperm to attempt fertilization, because the laboratory is unable to adequately process the specimen provided, or because the option to use a donor sperm as a "backup" was
  10. 10.     Fertilization of the eggs to form embryos may fail even when the egg(s) and sperm are normal; The embryos may not develop normally or may not develop at all. Embryos that display any abnormal development will not be transferred; Embryo transfer into the uterus may be difficult/impossible, or implantation(s) may not occur after transfer, or the embryo(s) may not grow or develop normally after implantation; Any step in the IVF-ET process may be complicated by unforeseen events, such as hazardous or catastrophic weather, equipment failure, laboratory conditions, infection, human error and the like.
  11. 11. RESULTS  Normal Results:- Success rates vary widely between clinics and between physicians performing the procedure and implantation does not guarantee pregnancy. Therefore, the procedure may have to be repeated more than once to achieve pregnancy. However, success rates have improved in recent years, up from 27% in 2002 to 35% in 2009.
  12. 12.  ABNORMAL RESULTS:- An ectopic or multiple pregnancy may abort spontaneously or may require termination if the health of the mother is at risk. The number of multiple pregnancies has decreased in recent years as technical advances and professional guidelines have led to implanting of fewer embryos per attempt.