Sleep

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Sleep

  1. 1. SLEEP Laura Morales Albertos Laude El Altillo School 2º Bachillerato
  2. 2. Index Introduction Stages of sleep Sleepwalking Sleep Apnea Somniloquy Summary Questions
  3. 3. Introduction What is sleep? Reduced or absent consciousness Sensory activity suspended Inactivity of voluntary muscles
  4. 4. Introduction Brain areas involved in the sleep: Front hypothalamus->Sleep Back hypothalamus->Wakefulness
  5. 5. Sleep Stages Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM)
  6. 6. Sleep Stages: NREM Stage 1: Duration: 4-5% Transition: wakefulness to sleep Hallucinations Loss muscle tone Loss of consciousness Hypnic Myoclonia -> Abrupt Awakening Eyes movement -> Very Slow
  7. 7. Sleep Stages: NREM Stage 2: Duration: 45-55% Any eye activity Muscular activity decreases Consciousness disappears
  8. 8. Sleep Stages: NREM Stage 3: Duration: 4-6% Transitional period: light -> deep sleep
  9. 9. Sleep Stages: NREM Stage 4: Duration: 12-15% Deep sleep Parasomnias (Sleep disorder): Night terrors Nocturnal enuresis Sleepwalking Somniloquy
  10. 10. Sleep Stages: REM Duration: 20-25% Movement of eyes -> Very Fast Memorable dreams Muscles paralysed
  11. 12. Sleepwalking Sleep disorder Develop automatic motor activities Unconsciously No communication Duration undetermined: 30 seconds - 30 minutes Occurs during Phase 3 (NREM)
  12. 13. Sleep Apnea Sleep disorder Pauses in breathing (apnea) Duration undetermined: few seconds – minutes There are three forms: -Obstructive -Central -Mixed
  13. 14. Sleep Apnea: Obstructive The most common sleep-disordered breathing Muscles are relaxed Obstruct the airway
  14. 15. Sleep Apnea: Obstructive The most common sleep-disordered breathing Muscles are relaxed Obstruct the airway
  15. 17. Sleep Apnea: Central Brain’s respiratory control centers imbalanced No effort to breathe No chest movements Compensatory Mechanism: -Blow off waste gases -Absorb Oxygen
  16. 18. Sleep Apnea: Mixed Combination of: -Obstructive -Central
  17. 19. Somniloquy Parasomnia Talk aloud Can occur many times during sleep Listeners: may or may not understand Occurs usually during NREM Can also occur during REM->Dreaming
  18. 20. Summary What is sleep? Brain areas involved in the sleep Sleep stages: NREM and REM Sleepwalking Sleep Apnea: Obstructive, Central and Mixed Somniloquy
  19. 22. Questions <ul><li>Which brain areas are invloved in the sleep? (Choose the Wrong answer). </li></ul><ul><li>a)Back region of the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>b)Front region of the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>c)Middle region of the hypothalamus. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Questions 2. Which stages are known as Light Sleep Phase? a)Stages 1 and 2. b)Stages 2 and 3. c)Stages 3 and 4.
  21. 24. Questions 3. Sleepwalking occurs during... a)Phase 3 (NREM). b)Phase 4 (NREM). c)REM.
  22. 25. Questions 4. There are three forms of sleep apnea: (Choose the Wrong answer) a)Obstructive b)External c)Mixed
  23. 26. Questions 5. Memorable dreams occurs in... a)Stage 4 (NREM). b)Stage 3 (NREM). c)REM
  24. 27. Thank you for your attention

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