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FINNISH MODEL OF BASIC EDUCATION
Reijo Laukkanen
Docent, PhD
University of Tampere
Finland
Utrecht
16 – 17 April 2015
1
PRESENTATION STRUCTURE
• 1) CONTEXT
• 2) CERTAIN HIGHLIGHTS
• 3) EVALUATION
• 4) CURRICULUM CHANGE
• 5) REASONS WHY FINLAN...
1) CONTEXT
3
4
Finland in Brief
 Independent since 1917
 Member of the European Union
 Population 5.4 million (17 inhabitants / km2)...
Population with at least upper secondary education –
2011 (OECD 2013, 36)
5
Age group % Age group % Age group %
25 - 64 25...
5
4
3
2
1
Universities
4
3
2
1
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
School yearsAg
e
Pre-primary education in schools or
children’s ...
BASIC VALUES
• EQUITY: equal opportunities & fairness
• SUPPORT RATHER THAN CONTROL
• TRUST: culture of trust
7
Characteristics of Finnish Policy
• EXPERIMENTING
• CONSULTING
• USING RESEARCH DATA
• INCREMENTAL CHANGE
• BUILDING ON TH...
Quick look at policy developments in
basic education
• 1970’s Centralized system
• 1985 Decentralisation begins
• 1994 Dec...
2) CERTAIN HIGHLIGHTS
Resources
Teachers
Evaluation
10
RESOURCES FOCUSED TO STRATEGIC
NEEDS
• More to the lower secondary level (1985)
• Flexible use of teaching groups
• Part-t...
Country Pre-primary Primary Lower
secondary
Upper
secondary
Tertiary
Finland 5372 7624 11705 7912 9802
Korea 6739 6601 665...
Annual expenditure on educational institutions
per student (2007, 202) US $
13
DEDICATED,SATISFIED TEACHERS
• Teacher education is very popular choise
• Research-based teacher education
• All teachers ...
Teacher salaries 2011 after 15 years experience
15
COUNTRY PRE-PRIMARY
EDUCATION
PRIMARY
EDUCATION
LOWER
SECONDARY
EDUCATI...
Why is the teaching profession so
popular?
1) Not for the salary?
2) Become a teacher and change the world?
3) High academ...
3) EVALUATION
17
EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT AND
EVALUATION
• Evaluation approach supports Local/school
liberties
• Sample based evaluation
• No ra...
Example of feedback sent to schools
Lines of marks in school reports
0
20
40
60
80
100
poor
adequate
moderate
satisfactory...
EXAMPLE OF FEEDBACK TO A
DISTRICT
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
R
easoning
N
um
bers
G
eom
etry
P
ercents
Functi...
4) CURRICULUM CHANGE
1972 - 2016
21
CHANGE IN DETAILENESS OF THE
NATIONAL CORE CURRICULUM
• 1972 – 700 pp-
• 1985 – around 300 pp.
• 1994 – 110 pp.
• 2004 - a...
NATIONAL CORE CURRICULUM 2016
• Value background
• Conseption of learning
• Learning culture
• Learning environments
• Wel...
7 COMPETENCE AREAS
• Thinking skills and learning to learn
• Knowledge of cultures, interaction and
impression
• Taking ca...
CURRICULUM
• Municipality decides on the curriculum
structure
• Can be same for all schools or same only
partly
25
5) REASONS WHY FINLAND HAS
SUCCEEDED
Strategy
Policy instruments
26
STRATEGY
• National will for everybody’s success
• High expectations
• Teacher education at the MA level
• Strong allocati...
POLICY INSTRUMENTS USED
1) Setting goals
2) Resources
3) Teacher education
4) Transparency/stakeholder involvment
5) Centr...
THANK YOU!
reijo.laukkanen@uta.fi
29
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Presentatie Toets Digitaal: Why is education in Finland of such high quality, while it is not all based on assessing or testing? (University of Tampere, Finland

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Presentatie Toets Digitaal: Why is education in Finland of such high quality, while it is not all based on assessing or testing? (University of Tampere, Finland

  1. 1. FINNISH MODEL OF BASIC EDUCATION Reijo Laukkanen Docent, PhD University of Tampere Finland Utrecht 16 – 17 April 2015 1
  2. 2. PRESENTATION STRUCTURE • 1) CONTEXT • 2) CERTAIN HIGHLIGHTS • 3) EVALUATION • 4) CURRICULUM CHANGE • 5) REASONS WHY FINLAND HAS SUCCEEDED 2
  3. 3. 1) CONTEXT 3
  4. 4. 4 Finland in Brief  Independent since 1917  Member of the European Union  Population 5.4 million (17 inhabitants / km2)  Two official languages: Finnish (91.2%), Swedish (5.5%)  Religion: Lutheran (81.8%), orthodox (1.1%), others (1.2%), no religious affiliation (15.9%)  Immigrants: 3,6 % of population  Main exports: electronics, forest industry, metal and engineering  Father Christmas
  5. 5. Population with at least upper secondary education – 2011 (OECD 2013, 36) 5 Age group % Age group % Age group % 25 - 64 25 - 34 55 - 64 Australia 74 84 61 United Kingdom 77 84 67 Finland 84 90 71 Korea 81 98 45 Netherlands 72 82 60 USA 89 89 90 OECD average 75 82 64 Brazil 43 57 26
  6. 6. 5 4 3 2 1 Universities 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 School yearsAg e Pre-primary education in schools or children’s day care centres C o m p u l s o r y e d u c a t i o n Basic education 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Work experience Work experience Specialist vocational qualifications Further vocational qualifications 3 2 1 Polytechnics Vocational upper secondary education and training General upper secondary education THE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF FINLAND 6
  7. 7. BASIC VALUES • EQUITY: equal opportunities & fairness • SUPPORT RATHER THAN CONTROL • TRUST: culture of trust 7
  8. 8. Characteristics of Finnish Policy • EXPERIMENTING • CONSULTING • USING RESEARCH DATA • INCREMENTAL CHANGE • BUILDING ON THE PRESENT 8
  9. 9. Quick look at policy developments in basic education • 1970’s Centralized system • 1985 Decentralisation begins • 1994 Decentralization deepens • 2004 A step back towards centalisation • 2014 More detailed curricular steering 9
  10. 10. 2) CERTAIN HIGHLIGHTS Resources Teachers Evaluation 10
  11. 11. RESOURCES FOCUSED TO STRATEGIC NEEDS • More to the lower secondary level (1985) • Flexible use of teaching groups • Part-time special needs education • Remedial education 11
  12. 12. Country Pre-primary Primary Lower secondary Upper secondary Tertiary Finland 5372 7624 11705 7912 9802 Korea 6739 6601 6652 9477 8226 Netherlands 7664 7954 11925 11750 17161 OECD Average 6762 7974 8893 9322 9274 Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student 2010 12 (OECD 2013, 174) US $
  13. 13. Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student (2007, 202) US $ 13
  14. 14. DEDICATED,SATISFIED TEACHERS • Teacher education is very popular choise • Research-based teacher education • All teachers have MA degree • Why profession is so attractive? 14
  15. 15. Teacher salaries 2011 after 15 years experience 15 COUNTRY PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY EDUCATION LOWER SECONDARY EDUCATION UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION SPAIN 41,339 41,339 45,689 46,479 ENGLAND 44,269 44,269 44,269 44,269 FINLAND 29,125 37,886 40,917 43,302 JAPAN n.a. 45,741 45,741 45,741 KOREA 46,904 48,251 48,146 48,146 NETHERLANDS 52, 292 52,292 63,695 66,117 OECD average 36,135 38,602 39,934 41,665 (OECD 2013, 388-389), US $
  16. 16. Why is the teaching profession so popular? 1) Not for the salary? 2) Become a teacher and change the world? 3) High academic degree – respected! 4) Autonomy in work – professionals! 5) Finnish society respects education. 6) Teachers are satisfied. 16
  17. 17. 3) EVALUATION 17
  18. 18. EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION • Evaluation approach supports Local/school liberties • Sample based evaluation • No ranking lists – individual feedback • School based/municipal evaluation • Challenge – How to use the findings?
  19. 19. Example of feedback sent to schools Lines of marks in school reports 0 20 40 60 80 100 poor adequate moderate satisfactory good verygood excellent different marks used average(%)ofcorrect answersinthetest school X the whole sample
  20. 20. EXAMPLE OF FEEDBACK TO A DISTRICT 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 R easoning N um bers G eom etry P ercents Functions A lgebra Fractions C oordination A lgebra2 A rithm etics Continent Disctrict A
  21. 21. 4) CURRICULUM CHANGE 1972 - 2016 21
  22. 22. CHANGE IN DETAILENESS OF THE NATIONAL CORE CURRICULUM • 1972 – 700 pp- • 1985 – around 300 pp. • 1994 – 110 pp. • 2004 - around 300 pp. • 2014 – around 470 pp. 22
  23. 23. NATIONAL CORE CURRICULUM 2016 • Value background • Conseption of learning • Learning culture • Learning environments • Wellbeing • Work accross subjects • Evaluation • Support • School – home cooperation • Wellfare servises • Languages and cultures • Worldviews/ideologies • Optional issues • Issues that can be decided locally SUBJECTS • Year classes 1 – 2 (goals, assessment) • Year classes 3 – 6 • Year classes 7 - 9 23
  24. 24. 7 COMPETENCE AREAS • Thinking skills and learning to learn • Knowledge of cultures, interaction and impression • Taking care of oneself an everyday skills • Multible reading competency • ICT skills • Working life competencies and entrepreneurship • Sustainable future: participating, effecting and striving to reach it 24
  25. 25. CURRICULUM • Municipality decides on the curriculum structure • Can be same for all schools or same only partly 25
  26. 26. 5) REASONS WHY FINLAND HAS SUCCEEDED Strategy Policy instruments 26
  27. 27. STRATEGY • National will for everybody’s success • High expectations • Teacher education at the MA level • Strong allocation of resources to lower secondary level • Support for weak studenta • Consensus and respect between stakeholders 27
  28. 28. POLICY INSTRUMENTS USED 1) Setting goals 2) Resources 3) Teacher education 4) Transparency/stakeholder involvment 5) Centralization/desentralization 6) Use of piloting projects/research, etc. [7) Inspection] [8] Text books control] 28
  29. 29. THANK YOU! reijo.laukkanen@uta.fi 29

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