Goal Setting<br />Understanding & Applying <br />the Principles of Goal Setting<br />Jodie Lightfoot<br />jodie@lightfoote...
Presentation Outline<br />Why set goals?<br />Goal Functions<br />Goal Mechanisms<br />Goal Moderators<br />Application to...
Why set goals? <br />Goal-setting affects performance<br />ALL effective coaches, athletes & students set goals<br />90% o...
Goals help achieve values which helps to <br />satisfy basic needs <br /><ul><li>Needs: All individuals have the same basi...
Goals affect performance by:<br />Directs <br />Direct attention & effort toward goal-relevant actives and away from unrel...
Goal setting is most likely to improve task performance when:<br />The goals are specific and sufficiently challenging<br ...
Olympic Athlete Goals<br />The 3 Most Important Goals:<br />Have Fun<br />Winning<br />Improving overall performance<br />
Setting SMART Goals<br />SMART Goals:<br />S  Specific<br />M  Measurable<br />A  Attainable<br />R  Relevant/Realisti...
Goal-Setting Techniques<br />“Expert” Advice <br />State each goal in the positive<br />Be precise<br />Set priorities<br ...
Asking the Right Questions<br />Starting the ball rolling on goal-setting:<br />What are the5 most important elements (val...
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Lightfooted Strategies - Goal Setting for Athletes, April 2010

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A brief overview of the mechanisms and principles of goal-setting

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  • Review of the 1969 – 1980 goal setting literature revealed that:
  • All individuals have the same basic need, but how they value them are quite differentValues not inborn but chosen – many different ways to satisfy needs – i.e. Different types of food, many possible sources of pleasure in life, While values are difficult to change externally, goals are readily changeable Motivation: to “appeal” means providing opportunities to satisfy needs or achieve value at work Goals are like values but more specific
  • Directs: cognitively + behaviourally: Locke + Bryan in ’69 observed that people who received feedback on several aspects of their performance in a driving task improved their performance in the aspects for which they had goals, but not on other aspects Rothkoff + Billington in ‘79 found that students with a specific learning goal paid attention and learned relevant passages in their text and disregarded irrelevant info. Energises: Bandura &amp; Cervone ‘83 showed that those with greater goals gave a greater effort on the ergometerPersistence: tight deadlines lead to a more rapid work pace
  • A useful way of making goals more powerful is to use the SMART mnemonic. While there are plenty of variants, SMART usually stands for:
  • Lightfooted Strategies - Goal Setting for Athletes, April 2010

    1. 1. Goal Setting<br />Understanding & Applying <br />the Principles of Goal Setting<br />Jodie Lightfoot<br />jodie@lightfooted.ca<br />April14, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Presentation Outline<br />Why set goals?<br />Goal Functions<br />Goal Mechanisms<br />Goal Moderators<br />Application to Athletes<br />Application to Us<br />Setting Effective Goals<br />
    3. 3. Why set goals? <br />Goal-setting affects performance<br />ALL effective coaches, athletes & students set goals<br />90% of the studies from 1969 – 1980 indicated that specific and challenging goalslead to higher performance than easy goals, “Do your best” goals or no goals at all (Locke et al., 1981)<br />
    4. 4. Goals help achieve values which helps to <br />satisfy basic needs <br /><ul><li>Needs: All individuals have the same basic need, but how they value them are quite different</li></ul>Values: Values not inborn but chosen – many different ways to satisfy needs – i.e. Different types of food, many possible sources of pleasure in life <br />While values are difficult to change externally, goals are readily changeable <br />Motivation: to “appeal” means providing opportunities to satisfy needs or achieve value at work <br />Goals: people set goals in order to attain values, and pursue values in order to fulfill needs based on individual motivation<br />Goals  Values  Needs<br />
    5. 5. Goals affect performance by:<br />Directs <br />Direct attention & effort toward goal-relevant actives and away from unrelated activities<br />Energizes<br />Challenging goals lead to greater effort than easy goals<br />Persistence<br />When ppl are allowed to control the time they spend on tasks, hard goals prolong effort <br />Action (indirectly)<br />Leading to the arousal, discovery and/or use of task-relevant knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA)<br />The 4 Goal Mechanisms<br />
    6. 6. Goal setting is most likely to improve task performance when:<br />The goals are specific and sufficiently challenging<br />You have sufficient ability to complete the goal<br />Feedback is provided to show progress in relation to the goal <br />Rewards such as praise, money and greater responsibility are given for goal attainment<br />Goals are pursued in a supportive environment<br />Assigned goals are accepted by the individual<br />Goal-Setting Affects Performance<br />
    7. 7. Olympic Athlete Goals<br />The 3 Most Important Goals:<br />Have Fun<br />Winning<br />Improving overall performance<br />
    8. 8. Setting SMART Goals<br />SMART Goals:<br />S  Specific<br />M  Measurable<br />A  Attainable<br />R  Relevant/Realistic<br />T  Timely/Time-bound<br />
    9. 9. Goal-Setting Techniques<br />“Expert” Advice <br />State each goal in the positive<br />Be precise<br />Set priorities<br />Write down the goals<br />Keep operational goals small<br />Set performance goals, not outcome goals<br />Set realistic goals<br />“Jodie’s Advice”<br />Set “By-When’s”<br />“By ______ I am/have/ ________”<br />Keep a goal-setting journal<br />Use goal-setting software<br />For every goal, set 2 actions, one that must be completed in the next 24-hrs<br />
    10. 10. Asking the Right Questions<br />Starting the ball rolling on goal-setting:<br />What are the5 most important elements (values) in my life RIGHT NOW? <br />What are the 3 most important goals in my life right now?<br />What I would do if I won a million dollars in the lottery tomorrow?<br />What would I do if I only had six months left to live:<br />What I have always wanted to do but have been afraid to attempt?<br />

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