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Bangladesh CSE IIT Graduate Tracer Study

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Bangladesh CSE IIT Graduate Tracer Study

The information technology and information technology-enabled services (IT/ITES) industries require skilled
human resources to unlock their potential. This will provide the foundation for take-off, which, for now, is falling
short. As envisioned in Digital Bangladesh, the IT/ITES industries can adopt the latest technologies across
different industries and should grow hand in hand with other drivers of growth.
Access to quality higher education must rise to develop future industry leaders in IT/ITES. While the gross
enrollment rate of tertiary education in Bangladesh has more than doubled from 7.7% in 2007 to 17.6% in 2017,
this is still below the lower-middle-income country average of 24%. Demand for higher education in Bangladesh will
surely increase as the economy expands; thus, the question now is what higher education fields should Bangladesh
prioritize for investment. The IT/ITES industries need skilled graduates who can work up to global standards.
This tracer study, which aims to improve the labor market outcomes of tertiary graduates of computer science and
engineering and/or institutes of information technology in Bangladesh, will help in the preparation of a new highereducation project in the country to be funded by ADB, the Improving Computer and Software Engineering Tertiary
Education Project. While that project selected only four universities, this tracer study covered an additional five
universities in Dhaka. I hope that the study findings will prove informative and improve computer science and
engineering and/or institutes of information technology beyond the nine universities included.

The information technology and information technology-enabled services (IT/ITES) industries require skilled
human resources to unlock their potential. This will provide the foundation for take-off, which, for now, is falling
short. As envisioned in Digital Bangladesh, the IT/ITES industries can adopt the latest technologies across
different industries and should grow hand in hand with other drivers of growth.
Access to quality higher education must rise to develop future industry leaders in IT/ITES. While the gross
enrollment rate of tertiary education in Bangladesh has more than doubled from 7.7% in 2007 to 17.6% in 2017,
this is still below the lower-middle-income country average of 24%. Demand for higher education in Bangladesh will
surely increase as the economy expands; thus, the question now is what higher education fields should Bangladesh
prioritize for investment. The IT/ITES industries need skilled graduates who can work up to global standards.
This tracer study, which aims to improve the labor market outcomes of tertiary graduates of computer science and
engineering and/or institutes of information technology in Bangladesh, will help in the preparation of a new highereducation project in the country to be funded by ADB, the Improving Computer and Software Engineering Tertiary
Education Project. While that project selected only four universities, this tracer study covered an additional five
universities in Dhaka. I hope that the study findings will prove informative and improve computer science and
engineering and/or institutes of information technology beyond the nine universities included.

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Bangladesh CSE IIT Graduate Tracer Study

  1. 1. 1 Bangladesh CSE IIT Graduate Tracer Study Findings Ryotaro Hayashi, Social Sector Economist, South Asia Department, ADB Bijon Islam, CEO, LightCastle Partners October 21, 2019
  2. 2. 2 Content • Employability Outcomes • Labor Market Outcomes • Access to Employment • Quality and Relevance of CSE/IIT Education • Key Findings and Recommendation
  3. 3. Employability Outcomes
  4. 4. 4 How do you measure employability? • 𝐸1 = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑙𝑦 𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 • 𝐸2 = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑙𝑦 𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 −𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑈𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 • 𝐸3 = 𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛 6 𝑀𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 −𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑈𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 • 𝐸4 = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 −𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑈𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑑 Job placement rate National definition of employment rate Important for higher education and TVET
  5. 5. 5Job placement after CSE/IIT graduation was 77.1% with large variations across universities. AUST = Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, BRACU = BRAC University, BUET = Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, DIU = Daffodil International University, DU = Dhaka University, EWU= East West University, JU= Jahangirnagar University, JUST = Jashore University of Science and Technology, IUT = Islamic University of Technology. Note: Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 92.4 91.1 87.1 83.8 75.4 72.9 66.9 65.0 57.6 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 IUT BUET BRACU EWU AUST DIU JU DU JUST Overall average of 77.1%
  6. 6. 6 BUET, BRACU, IUT and EWU exceeded 90% employment rate. AUST = Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, BRACU = BRAC University, BUET = Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, DIU= Daffodil International University, DU = Dhaka University, EWU = East West University, JU= Jahangirnagar University, JUST = Jashore University of Science and Technology, IUT = Islamic University of Technology Note: Employment rate after graduation was computed by the number of graduates placed in jobs divided by the total number of graduates minus voluntary unemployed (i.e. unemployed graduates that did not look for a job). Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 97.9 96.8 94.4 92.1 84.9 81.6 80.0 77.9 65.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 BUET BRACU IUT EWU AUST DIU DU JU JUST %oftotalgraduates Overall average of 85.7%
  7. 7. 7Only around a quarter of graduates got jobs within 6 months but more than half of JU, DU and IUT had jobs within 6 months. Note: Total number of respondents is 938. Length of job search is measured by the number of months between the date the graduates were first employed and the date of their graduation. 57.1 56.0 55.6 30.7 24.8 24.8 24.3 15.9 11.8 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 JU DU IUT EWU BRAC DIU BUET AUST JUST Employment rate within 6 months, 2018 (%) Overall average of 26.4%
  8. 8. 8 26.4% got employed within 6 months Note: 1. Total number of graduate-respondents is 1,216.; 2. Length of job search is measured by the number of months between the date graduates were first employed and the date of their graduation. Length of Initial Job Search after Graduation, 2018 (in %) NumberofGraduates Months
  9. 9. 9(%) Note: “Relevant” means those who can apply the skills they have learned to their job (i.e., excluding “skills not appropriate” from numerator). Total number of respondents is 1,216 (male=955, female=261). Employment rate- overall, 86.2% Job placement rate- overall, 77.1% Male, 82.2% Relevant, 71.4% Female, 58.6% Relevant, 51.0% More than 20 percentage point difference by gender suggesting gender discrimination.
  10. 10. 10 Working location, family commitment & Lack of skills have influenced recruitment decisions of employers for female. Note: Figures are based on the employer survey. Total number of respondents is 477 but the difference between 477 and the “n” indicated in the figure is the number of respondents that did not answer the question (i.e., those that answered N/A). 36.5 34.6 28.2 27.2 24.7 23.4 23.0 20.4 17.2 17.4 24.0 20.1 24.4 18.6 27.8 24.6 27.1 17.9 15.8 25.6 30.6 24.4 25.7 20.2 29.4 19.7 25.8 20.3 13.8 16.3 20.3 16.9 16.5 18.1 24.2 24.7 10.0 2.0 4.8 3.7 14.2 12.1 4.8 8.6 14.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lackrequiredskills(n=241) Absenteeism(n=246) Inability/reluctancetotake challenges(n=209) Dedicationtowork (n=246) Securityissues(n=296) Maternityleavesand workinghourrelaxation (n=248) Highlaborturnover (n=248) Familyconstraintsand commitment(n=269) Workinglocation(n=291) %ofemployers Great Extent Moderate Extent Neutral Some effect No effect Factors Influencing Female Employment, 2018 (in %)
  11. 11. Labor Market Outcomes
  12. 12. 12 Monthly Income of Currently Employed Graduates, by University and Sector, 2018 (taka) University Overall IT/ITES services Education/Teaching Others n Mean Standard Deviation n Mean Standard Deviation n Mean Standard Deviation n Mean Standard Deviation IUT 81 51,938 15,215 44 52,591 14,919 29 47,759 9,690 5 73,600 28,719 BUET 176 46,128 26,275 117 44,650 22,334 47 47,606 31,209 8 45,875 16,822 DU 75 44,200 13,542 70 43,786 13,773 4 51,250 9,465 1 45,000 NA EWU 75 39,213 22,009 48 40,813 23,087 5 39,000 11,402 7 39,143 23,947 JU 70 37,500 14,075 28 41,500 17,234 32 34,375 11,446 6 35,167 9,806 AUST 99 36,995 16,363 69 36,667 17,197 20 37,475 13,461 5 39,200 19,071 BRACU 109 34,009 16,578 88 34,534 15,098 10 32,800 19,595 9 23,889 11,163 DIU 85 26,021 14,469 54 22,070 13,528 5 32,600 24,037 12 31,917 9,030 JUST 69 25,342 10,359 30 22,667 11,102 17 25,712 9,346 7 31,714 11,572 OVERALL 839 38,780 20,089 548 38,622 19,413 169 40,237 20,882 59 37,898 19,811 Average monthly salary was Tk38,780 with significant variations across universities.
  13. 13. 13Private sector, especially IT/ITES industry, absorbs nearly 90% of employed graduates. Note: Total number of respondents is 938 Private sector, 89.5 Government sector, 6.2 Non-government sector, 2.9 Self-employed, 1.5 IT/ITES services, 72.6 Education, teaching, 16.1 Financial and insurance activities, 2.56 Manufacturing, 2.24 Others, 6.52
  14. 14. 1437.43% of employees have written agreement, whereas 28.37% employees don’t have any kind of agreement Note: Total number of respondents is 839 20.74% 37.43% 28.37% 86.53% 1.91% 2.26% 3.10% 7.27% 1.19% 1.31% 3.69% 6.20% Yes, a contract Yes, a written agreement/appointment letter No Total Permanent/Long term Temporary Fixed term
  15. 15. 15 Graduates became more interested in setting up a business after gaining work experience Note: Total number of respondents is 938 Self- employed, 1.5 Employed, 98.5 Self-employed Employed Currently self- employed, 2.60 Presently not working, 6.71 Currently employed, 90.69 Employed After Graduation Self- employed, 1.5 Employed, 98.5 Self-employed Employed Currently employed, 7.14 Currently self- employed, 92.86 Self Employed after graduation
  16. 16. Access to Employment and CSE/IIT Education
  17. 17. 17 Graduates engaged in CSE/IIT because of their interest Notes: Total number of respondents is 1,216 (male=955, female=261). Respondents were asked to choose a maximum of three reasons for selecting the course they studied. The option “Others” included reasons such as parents were in the same field, foreign jobs/migration potential, interest/influence of friends and family, observed role models, and not getting a chance elsewhere. 87.0 68.7 66.1 26.6 43.2 89.3 64.0 66.7 19.9 55.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Interest in computer science and engineering Employment opportunities in the sector Further my career Good salary Others %ofgraduates Male Female
  18. 18. 18 Internet is the most popular instrument for graduate job search Note: Total number of respondents is 938. “Others” includes suggestions by supervisors 6.9 2.2 3.8 3.9 3.9 5.1 6.6 6.8 7.8 16.1 36.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Others Off-campus job fair University bulletin board University career guidance office Other informal network On-campus job fair/recruitment Social media Informal network of friends Informal network of family/relatives Traditional media advertisement Online job matching site % of total graduates with jobs
  19. 19. 19 Among the unemployed, 69.8% got a job offer but did not take it because of low salary Note: Total number of respondents is 106. Others include being advised by parents/spouses not to take the job, family commitments, health issues, no desire to work, going to start job/self-employment, plan to go abroad, family problems, and desire for government job. 13.2 19.8 22.6 28.3 31.1 38.7 46.2 69.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lack of interest Others No relevance to the area of study Not a prestigious firm Location Not interested in position offered Not good work condition Low salary % of unemployed graduates that did not accept at least one job offer
  20. 20. 20Top reasons for pursuing education after graduation includes Advancing Career and Requiring advanced skills Note: Total number of respondents is 59. Short-term technical training is for a few months or less, mid-term technical training is for around 6 months, and long-term technical training is for 1 year or more. Short-term technical training, 3.4 Mid-term technical training, 8.5 Long-term technical training, 5.1 Post-graduation education, 23.7 Studying abroad, 57.6 Chartered accountancy, 1.7 No job immediately after previous training, 9.4 Job requires higher level skill, 31.8 Want to change career, 15.3 Wish to advance career, 36.5 Expectation of higher salary , 7.1 Type of Further Education or Training Programs Favored by Students or Trainees, 2018 (%) Reasons for Pursuing Another Education Course after Graduation, 2018 (%)
  21. 21. Quality and Relevance of CSE/IIT Education
  22. 22. 22 Areas for improvement exist despite graduates’ high satisfaction with CSE/IIT education Note: Total number of respondents is 1,216 0.1 1.2 2.6 1.8 17.8 1.0 6.65.6 2.1 4.4 3.5 6.2 1.6 5.9 11.8 11.7 13.0 16.6 20.5 8.8 14.6 61.4 54.3 49.9 51.4 40.1 39.2 48.5 21.1 30.8 30.0 26.7 15.4 49.3 24.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Overall Knowledge acquired in the classrooms Skills gained in the laboratory/workshops Soft skills Internship Reputation of the university Career guidance %ofgraduates Highly dissatisfied Moderately dissatisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Moderately satisfied Highly satisfied
  23. 23. 23 Improved career guidance is highly necessary AUST = Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, BRACU = BRAC University, BUET = Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, DIU = Daffodil International University, DU = Dhaka University, EWU = East West University, JU = Jahangirnagar University, JUST = Jashore University of Science and Technology, IUT = Islamic University of Technology. Note: Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 91.0 73.2 69.7 64.5 62.1 46.0 41.4 41.3 40.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 JUST DU AUST JU BRACU EWU DIU IUT BUET %ofgraduates Career guidance
  24. 24. 24 Internship had significant scope for improvement AUST = Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, BRACU = BRAC University, BUET = Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, DIU = Daffodil International University, DU = Dhaka University, EWU = East West University, JU = Jahangirnagar University, JUST = Jashore University of Science and Technology, IUT = Islamic University of Technology. Note: The initial total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 84.5 64.3 60.0 55.8 51.3 39.8 38.7 35.1 30.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 JUST (n=142) DIU (n=140) AUST (n=135) BRACU (n=138) JU (n=113) DU (n=123) BUET (n=186) EWU (n=74) IUT (n=92) %ofgraduates
  25. 25. 25 96.5 88.1 86.4 85.1 80.3 75.9 67.7 55.9 10.0 1.1 1.2 10.8 25.5 1.3 3.8 4.9 1.9 0.8 2.4 1.0 88.8 3.5 7.0 7.4 13.1 18.9 10.8 5.9 44.1 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 IUT BUET JU AUST BRACU JUST DIU EWU DU Skill appropriate for job Job requires higher level skill Job requires lower level skill Skills not applicable CSE/IIT programs can be adjusted to teach a more adequate level of skills for the labor market Note: Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=107), BRACU (n=122), BUET (n=185), DIU (n=102), DU (n=80), EWU (n=93), JU (n=81), JUST (n=83), IUT (n=85). Relevance of Information Technology or Computer Science and Engineering Programs to First Job after Graduation, 2018 (%)
  26. 26. 26 Graduates said facility improvements were highly necessary AUST = Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, BRACU = BRAC University, BUET = Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, DIU = Daffodil International University, DU = Dhaka University, EWU = East West University, JU = Jahangirnagar University, JUST = Jashore University of Science and Technology, IUT = Islamic University of Technology. Note: Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 87.5 82.9 71.1 70.7 63.4 42.4 37.8 36.4 35.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 JUST DU JU BRACU AUST IUT EWU DIU BUET %ofgraduates Improve facilities
  27. 27. 27 Practical skills and soft skills can be enhanced AUST = Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, BRACU = BRAC University, BUET = Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, DIU = Daffodil International University, DU = Dhaka University, EWU = East West University, JU = Jahangirnagar University, JUST = Jashore University of Science and Technology, IUT = Islamic University of Technology. Note: Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 73.2 71.4 69.4 63.6 63.4 59.3 45.1 40.4 35.9 64.2 49.3 61.1 50.4 56.3 45.0 17.1 35.0 41.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 DU BRACU JUST JU AUST DIU EWU BUET IUT %Ofgraduates Up-to-date practical skills Enhance training on soft skills
  28. 28. 28 Graduates also said that qualified teachers were strongly needed in their universities Note: Total number of respondents for each university are as follows: AUST (n=142), BRACU (n=140), BUET (n=203), DIU (n=140), DU (n=123), EWU (n=111), JU (n=121), JUST (n=144), IUT (n=92). 25.6 26.1 38.0 54.9 58.6 65.5 71.9 85.7 88.6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 BUET EWU IUT JUST DIU AUST JU BRACU DU % of graduates
  29. 29. 29 Investing in CSE/IIT higher education in Bangladesh could be instrumental in developing the IT/ITES ecosystem1 Employability of CSE/IIT graduates varies considerably across gender, job search period, university, and location2 Internship, career guidance, practical training and soft skills enhancement have scope for improvements3 Key Findings
  30. 30. 30 Access to CSE/IIT programs, particularly for women, needs to be expanded1 Quality and relevance of CSE/IIT can be enhanced through more practice, better career guidance and internship2 Universities can strengthen support for start-ups to increase the number of successful high-tech entrepreneurs3 Recommendation
  31. 31. 31 Thank You Ryotaro Hayashi, Social Sector Economist, South Asia Department, ADB Bijon Islam, CEO, LightCastle Partners October 21, 2019
  32. 32. 32 Active job seekers, among those not in jobs, amounted to only about half of graduates who are largely students. Note: Total number of respondents is 128. Others include reasons such as awaiting response from employer, no jobs available, awaiting busy season, believe that there is no chance to get a job, and preparing for Bangladesh Civil Service exam. 82.0 9.4 3.1 5.5 Voluntary Unemployment Family commitment Found a job that will start later Others 16.4 13.3 52.3 Voluntary Unemployment Did not want to work Abroad Student/Trainee 46% 54% Not Seeking Jobs Seeking Jobs Of 22.9% graduates not placed in jobs

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