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savannah bubin

  1. 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies of the Eastern Coyote Savannah Bubin, Honors Biology 2, Period 1.
  2. 3. Niche of the Eastern Coyote canis latrans var. <ul><li>Eastern Coyotes can be found in a wide variety of habitats from abundant forests to more open farmlands. Either way coyotes prefer areas with plentiful amounts of herbivorous prey. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern coyote can appear in the food chain as many different things: carnivore, herbivore, and scavenger. The eastern coyote mainly consumes small rodents, berries, insect, fruit, fish, frogs, snakes, birds, larger mammals (dogs, cats, chickens,deer) and sometimes livestock </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern coyote can hunt in packs or individually. It usually arranges hunting times according to when it’s easiest to get food. Coyotes mainly hunt in areas that can conceal them and where prey is abundent. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of Eastern Coyotes <ul><li>Easten Coyotes mate in Februrary. </li></ul><ul><li>These coyotes mate once a year. </li></ul><ul><li>The gestation period is between 60-63 days. </li></ul><ul><li>5-7 pups are born each pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern coyotes care for their young like house dogs- they raise their young in liters and live in packs. </li></ul><ul><li>The reproduction is started in February and ends in April. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of the Eastern Coyote <ul><li>The eastern coyote preys on many small animals such as chickens, deer, birds, snakes, frogs, etc. And, they are mainly hunted by humans and a few larger mammals. </li></ul><ul><li>The average eastern coyote lives to be 4 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>They are affected by a wide variety of parasites and diseases, including ticks, fleas, intestinal worms and heartworms. </li></ul><ul><li>Over-population increases the likelihood of disease amongst eastern coyotes and creates difficult competition for food. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Food Chain of Eastern Coyote Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Herbivore Secondary Consumer Carnivore, Herbivore, Scavenger Tertiary Consumer Omnivore
  6. 7. Food web of Eastern Coyote This food web includes the Eastern Coyote and many animals involved in it’s predator prey relationships. Herbivore Producer Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  7. 8. Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>Ecologists use cluster sampling to study specific groups of a population, they also catch then tag or mark and release animals back into the wild so that they can be tracked or be accounted for and looked for if another population sample occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Population sampling techniques used for the eastern coyote are very similar to catching, marking and releasing. However in many instances population sampling also comes from the kill hunters bring in. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>In the graph we see a pristine stream. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of organisms in each class indicates stream quality because organisms in Class I are not tolerable to pollution. So, to maintain life for Class I organisms stream quality must be good. </li></ul><ul><li>Good stream quality affects the eastern coyote because they drink from streams and predator prey relationships would be interfered with if the stream were of less quality. </li></ul><ul><li>If the majority of the organisms found were in class III the stream would be very polluted. This would affect the eastern coyote because some of it’s prey get their nutrients from streams. This would throw off the predator prey relationship. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>A greater level of oxygen means that there is more oxygen for organisms to breath. A high level of nitrates or phosphates is not healthy for streams and can have harmful effects on organisms inside the stream. Finally, the pH measures if the stream is acidic, basic, or neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal range for dissolved oxygen at Powdermill is from 9-11 (we had a class average of 10.75) if the levels were outside the ideal range organisms would have trouble breathing. Nitrate and Phosphate levels should stay around zero. This would prevent an over- grow of plants. Finally, pH should stay around 7 which is neutral. In acidic or basic streams many of the organisms found at Powdermill would be able to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern coyote with it’s habitat close to the stream would be able to prey on animals close to streams like raccoons or anything that would need to get water. Although, if the habitat were closer to a marsh or mine there would be less prey for the coyote which could decrease the population count or force them to relocate. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity and temperature effect stream quality because colder streams can hold more oxygen in them and streams that have poor turbidity and are cloudy could interfere with predator prey and clog the gills of organisms. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>Describe the importance of pH, potash, phosphorus, & nitrogen levels in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe ideal ranges of the above chemicals in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how chemical levels which are out of their ideal range can damage the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The current stream at Powdermill, because it is pristine, would have positive effects on the eastern coyote giving it a wider selection of prey. However, the marsh and mine would lessen the prey selection and possibly be undrinkable. This would decrease population and make life much harder for the coyote. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil conditions affect plant growth which would affect herbivores and eventually affect the eastern coyote because it preys on herbivores. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative factors on the riparian zone include sources of pollution like AMD, farmland runoff, and septic systems. These pollute streams and interfere with drinking water and predator prey relationships which interfere with eastern coyote habits. To positively affect the riparian zone preserving and conserving is the most effective. This can include planting trees, recycling, or putting down limestone to counteract AMD. This would improve the life of the eastern coyote and give them cleaner water. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>Unfortunately, something new I learned was that most eastern coyote population sampling is from killed coyotes. </li></ul><ul><li>I found stream quality interesting, especially how it affected the eastern coyote. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be interested in researching ways to conserve/preserve the environment more. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Eastern Coyote.&quot; National Trappers Association . Chicago, 2005. CD-ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>O'Brien, Katie. &quot;wildlife.&quot; New Hampshire Fish And Game Department . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>New York State Department Of Enviormental Conservation. Eastern Coyote . New York, 2010. PDF file. </li></ul>