Riparian Zone Retreat Miranda Campbell Biology I Period 4
Niche of Little Brown Bat Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) <ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lives along streams, lakes, forests, woodlands, or in man made structures such as caves and attics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eats mosquitoes, flies, and other insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eaten by owls, cats, skunks, opossums, and sometimes bullfrogs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mate in autumn before hibernation. Gestation is about 2 months in spring. Usually one offspring born to a female. The young stay hanging in nursry while mothers hunt at night for insects with echolocation. They reach adult size at 4 weeks and can live up to 33 years. </li></ul></ul>
The Little Brown Bat has mostly brown fur with spots of grey. Its wings are a darker shade of brown and can span 8-11 inches, roughly 3 times their body length. They have rounded black ears and weigh up to ½ an ounce.
Food Chain of Little Brown Bat Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Omnivore Secondary Consumer Carnivore Tertiary Consumer Carnivore Plant Nectar Mosquito Little Brown Bat Owl The chain begins with a plant. The plant’s nectar is then consumed by mosquitoes. The bat then eats the mosquito using echo location. Then the owl eats the bat using its predatory instincts.
Food Web of Little Brown Bat Carnivore Carnivore Omnivore This web shows competition between the bat, frog, rat, spider, and beetle. You can tell the hawk and owl is an upper level consumer by the little contest for food. The web also shows the fly and mosquito are lower level consumers because they are eaten by many organisms. Omnivore Omnivore Carnivore Herbivore Carnivore
Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>The graph shows a large amount of organisms with low or no tolerance for pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that the majority of the organisms have almost no tolerance shows the stream must be clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Little Brown Bat feeds on mosquitoes which need stagnant water, this would not be beneficial to them. </li></ul>
Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>Having low to no nitrates and phosphates is ideal for a healthy ecosystem. There should be around 10ppm of dissolved oxygen and between 6.5 and 7.5 in the pH range. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirectly, the Little Brown Bat would benefit from living near the marsh versus the mine or steam. The marsh water is a more ideal place for mosquito breeding which the bat feeds off of. </li></ul><ul><li>All these areas having relatively low turbidity and moderate, but still cold water temperatures make them better quality waters. Visibility enables predator/prey relations to continue uninterrupted and does not clog gills. Where cold water holds dissolved oxygen more readily than warm water where it evaporates quicker. </li></ul>
Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The current water quality is apt to support many forms of life, including that of the Little Brown Bat. Where it would benefit more from the stagnant waters ideal for mosquito breeding, these waters would support other insects for it to eat. </li></ul><ul><li>Here in Pennsylvania, we are most likely to find fertilizer pollutants in the water from local farms and golf courses. These put nitrates and phosphates into water which many organisms can not sustain life in. Instead of farmers replenishing growing lands with fertilizers, they should preferably rotate crops to legumes which will have special bacteria growing on their roots. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>From this project I learned that stream life is always in a very delicate balance that can easily be disrupted by humans. </li></ul><ul><li>I found the fact that leaves can change the pH levels in a stream interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>In the future, I might want to further research effects the Carbon Cycle may have on stream quality. </li></ul>
Work Cited <ul><li>http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/littlebrownbat.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_brown_bat </li></ul><ul><li>House, Hugh. "Little Brown Bat." Encyclopedia Americana . 2010. Grolier Online. 28 Apr. 2010 <http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0248750-00>. </li></ul><ul><li>http://flying-mammals.suite101.com/article.cfm/meet_the_little_brown_bat_myotis_lucifungus </li></ul><ul><li>http://fourriverscharter.org/projects/2007%20Watershed%20Wildlife%20CD/Animal%20Pages/Little_Brown_Bat.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Chiras, Daniel D. "Brown Bat." Encyclopedia Americana . 2010. Grolier Online. 13 May. 2010 <http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0063320-00>. </li></ul><ul><li>Fenton, M. B. "Bat." World Book Student. World Book, 2010. Web. 13 May 2010. </li></ul>