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Telomere Analysis in the areas of Diet, Supplements and Diabetes

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Through this Life Length´s new series of webinars and educational sessions we want to take Telomere Analysis Technology to clearly defined fields, in order to explore the benefits that telomeres measurement can add to your practice.

In this first edition, the areas of Diet, Supplements and Diabetes in combination with the role that telomere analysis can play in them will be covered.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Telomere Analysis in the areas of Diet, Supplements and Diabetes

  1. 1. 1 © 2017 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Telomere analysis in the fields of Diet, Supplements and Diabetes April 2018
  2. 2. 2 © 2017 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. New Webinar Series - Telomeres and clinical application in: 1 Diet, Supplements & Diabetes 2 Exercise, Inflammation & Arthritis 3 Stem Cells & Fertility 4 Aging
  3. 3. 3 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Telomere analysis in the fields of Diet, Supplements and Diabetes April 2018
  4. 4. 4 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. BRIEF HISTORY After many years of work, Life Length is the world leader in the field of telomere diagnostics. We offer testing services to physicians and patients, academics, researchers and corporations across many industries all of whom are driving the adoption of biomarkers that can contribute to longer health and lifespans. Life Length has developed a unique and proprietary high-content screen technology. Our robust, sensitive and reproducible technology can be combined with other analyses to provide a comprehensive picture of a patient’s health.
  5. 5. 5 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. TELOMERE BIOLOGY
  6. 6. 6 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Telomeres of a young cell Telomeres of an aging cell Short telomeres are a contributing factor to virtually all age-related diseases WHAT ARE TELOMERES? TELOMERES ARE THE PROTECTIVE CAPS AT THE END OF CHROMOSOMES WHICH PLAY A VERY SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN THE AGING PROCESS
  7. 7. 7 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP HAYFLICK LIMIT NORMAL CELLS HAVE A LIMITED REPLICATIVE CAPACITY
  8. 8. 8 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Aging and age-related diseases Telomeres shorten Cells replicate Individua l ages Organs get older TELOMERE LENGTH IS ONE OF THE MOST CRITICAL BIOMARKERS FOR AGING 01 03 02 In any living organism, aging is the result of the decrease in the number and/or function of cells Every time cells replicate, telomeres shorten until they reach a point where the cells can no longer divide properly Cells with such short telomeres usually become senescent or enter apoptosis, and eventually die 04 Therefore, telomere length is a crucial biomarker providing insight into understanding organismal aging
  9. 9. 9 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. TELOMERES ARE WELL ESTABLISHED AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTING FACTOR OF AGE-RELATED DISEASES June, 2016 Julio, 2014
  10. 10. 10 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Cancer DISEASE LEVEL ORGAN LEVEL CELL LEVEL FertilityStress Arthritis CNS DNA DAMAGE DNA DAMAGE Senescence and apoptosis WHY SHOULD YOU CARE ABOUT TELOMERES? SHORT TELOMERES CVD Metabolic Diseases Stem Cells
  11. 11. 11 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Telomerelength(Kb) Age (years) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 n = 835 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Source: Aubert et al., Plos Genetics, 2012 TELOMERE SHORTENING IS HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS IN RATE SHORTER TELOMERES CORRELATE WITH INCREASED AGE
  12. 12. 12 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 HealthProfile Age (Years) Typical Health Evolution Optimal Health Evolution MAXIMIZING HEALTHSPAN
  13. 13. 13 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Environmental factors, including individuals’ lifestyle choices, play an even larger role. GENETICS Short telomeres are contributing factor of virtually all age-related diseases. Genetics play a partial role in determining telomere length. CHANGE LIFESTYLE HABITS. BUILD A PERSONALIZED PROGRAM FOR EACH PATIENT RESULTS RECEIVED STRATIFY RISK BY COMPARING RESULTS WITH PATIENTS’ MEDICAL HISTORY
  14. 14. 14 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Environmental factors, including individuals’ lifestyle choices, play an even larger role. GENETICS Short telomeres are contributing factor of virtually all age-related diseases. Genetics play a partial role in determining telomere length. CHANGE LIFESTYLE HABITS. BUILD A PERSONALIZED PROGRAM FOR EACH PATIENT RESULTS RECEIVED STRATIFY RISK BY COMPARING RESULTS WITH PATIENTS’ MEDICAL HISTORY
  15. 15. 15 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. TELOMERE LENGTH IS IMPACTED BY AND/OR CONTRIBUTES TO Diet Supplements Diabetes
  16. 16. 16 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. TELOMERES & DIET Impacting the aging process through the food we eat
  17. 17. 17 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. MEDITERRANEAN DIET The British Medical Journey Mediterranean diet and telomere length health study
  18. 18. 18 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Wine (in moderation) Vegetables (raw, steamed, sautéed) Fruit (fresh, unprocessed) WHAT IS A MEDITERRANEAN DIET MEDITERRANEAN DIET
  19. 19. 19 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Rich in potassium Improve water retention May prevent hypertension Proteins of high nutritional level Valuable source of Omega-3 Relatively low energy intake MEDITERRANEAN DIET WHAT IS A MEDITERRANEAN DIET
  20. 20. 20 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. • Oleic and linoleic acid → Control of cholesterol and blood circulation • High content of calcium → Contributes to the prevention of osteoporosis • Avoid salted / fried nuts and eat unroasted instead • Improves blood circulation • Helps to reduce bad cholesterol • Improves blood sugar levels • Anti-inflammatory properties • Try to purchase extra virgin whenever possible Dried fruits Olive oil MEDITERRANEAN DIET WHAT IS A MEDITERRANEAN DIET
  21. 21. 21 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. FOODS THAT INDUCE FASTER AGING WHEAT Including whole wheat • Substances called Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) speed up the aging process in your body, damaging over time to your organs, your joints and skin, due to fostered glycation processes. • One of the biggest factors that increase production of AGEs inside your body is high blood sugar levels. • Wheat contains a very unusual type of carbohydrate (not found in other foods) called Amylopectin-A, which can spike your blood sugar higher than even pure table sugar. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE Source: Mike Geary - Certified Nutrition Specialist
  22. 22. 22 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. • Scientists have found out that the fructose in HFCS causes 10x more formation of AGEs in your body than glucose. What accelerates glycation. • That means the HFCS consumed daily in sweetened drinks, and most other processed foods, highly contribute to faster aging in the body • Corn-based foods also contribute excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids to your diet, which causes an imbalance in the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio and leads to inflammation and oxidation. FOODS THAT INDUCE FASTER AGING CORN-BASED FOOD High-fructose corn syrup, corn cereal, corn chips, corn oil IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE Source: Mike Geary - Certified Nutrition Specialist
  23. 23. 23 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. FOODS THAT INDUCE FASTER AGING SUGAR Sugar, sugary foods, certain starchy foods • Raising average blood sugar levels and speeding up the glycation process, sugar can increase the production of those age-accelerating compounds called AGEs in the body. • Using natural non-caloric sweeteners instead of sugar will positively impact aging rates. • Additionally some starchy foods like white rice, oatmeal, and white potatoes can also have significant impacts on your blood sugar and thereby can increase formation of AGEs. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE Source: Mike Geary - Certified Nutrition Specialist
  24. 24. 24 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. FOODS THAT INDUCE FASTER AGING CERTAIN VEGETABLE OILS Soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil or palm oil • Present in the majority of processed foods out there, these oils undergone a refining process under extremely high heat and use of chemical solvents such as hexane. • Creating an oil in which the present polyunsaturated fats have undergone a lot of oxidation. • These polyunsaturated fats are very inflammatory inside the body, producing free radicals, damaging cell´s membranes, contributing to faster aging and potential heart diseases. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE Source: Mike Geary - Certified Nutrition Specialist
  25. 25. 25 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. TELOMERES & SUPPLEMENTS Supplementing and the aging process
  26. 26. 26 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. VITAMINS AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS • It has , has the effect of sparing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger glutathione, thus reducing oxidative stress. • Supraphysiological doses of vitamin B12 derived from supplements can inhibit nitric oxide synthase and potentially reduce inflammation. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE VITAMIN B12 • Richards et al. reported a positive association between the concentration of vitamin D in serum and telomere length in peripheral leukocytes in women. • The anti-inflammatory and anti- proliferative properties of vitamins D limit the turnover of cells, thus potentially reducing their telomere length attrition. VITAMIN D
  27. 27. 27 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. VITAMINS AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS • Age-dependent shortening of telomeres as well as decrease in telomerase activity in cell cultures can be slowed down and life span can be increased by addition of physiological concentrations of vitamin C or vitamin E to the culture medium. • Vitamins C & E may limit oxidative damage to telomeric DNA that would otherwise cause shortening of telomere length. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE VITAMIN C & E • Magnesium is required for catalytic activity of a wide array of enzymes including those involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and RNA synthesis. • Magnesium deficiency is also accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress, which is one of the factors that result in telomere attrition. MAGNESIUM
  28. 28. 28 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. VITAMINS AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS • Providing additional zinc in the cell culture medium increases activity of telomerase. • Dietary zinc deficiency is associated with oxidative damage. Zinc supplementation also reduces the incidence of infection, which is another factor that leads to telomere attrition by higher turnover of cells. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE ZINC • Association between plasma concentration of the B vitamin folate and telomere length has been reported in men and women. • Folate plays an important role in the maintenance of DNA integrity and DNA methylation, both of which influence the length of telomeres. FOLATE
  29. 29. 29 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. VITAMINS AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS • Omega-3 fatty acids concentration in plasma is associated with low pro- inflammatory markers and high anti- inflammatory markers. • As a result, a recent study at Ohio State University has found that omega-3 supplements protect telomeres from everyday damage. IMPACT OF GLYCATION, INFLAMMATION & OXIDATION OVER AGING RATE OMEGA 3 • Curcumin induces synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione and inhibits release of the chemokine interleukin-8 and activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B that mediates inflammatory response. • Mice that were fed diets containing curcumin showed decreased DNA damage and a trend for longer telomeres. CURCUMIN
  30. 30. 30 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. SUPPLEMENTS INDEX NUTRACEUTICAL OR SUPPLEMENTS WHICH PURPORT TO CONTRIBUTE TO MAINTAINING OR LENGTHENING TELOMERES 1. With Astragalus 2. With Telomerase 3. Vitamin complexes Supplement Categories *Deliverable PDF for webinar attendees
  31. 31. 31 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. TELOMERES & DIABETES
  32. 32. 32 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. IMPORTANCE OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN DIABETES AND TELOMERE LENGTH The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes has a huge impact on global health. 5M deaths directly attributable to diabetes, each year, which is more than the burden of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. Type 2 diabetes has been proven to be an age-related disease, and therefore associated with telomere length. 415M cases of diabetes in the world. A large proportion of which remain undiagnosed. 90% of diabetes cases in adults worldwide are Type 2 diabetes.
  33. 33. 33 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. IMPORTANCE OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN DIABETES AND TELOMERE LENGTH
  34. 34. 34 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Pancreas doesn’t produce insulin. Genetic factors causing autoimmune response against insulin producing cells. Environmental factors, such as toxins or infections, might trigger it. Type 1 Pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or cells don’t respond to insulin. Genetic factors increase likelihood of developing it. Enviromental factors, mainly the diet and lifestyle, increase risk of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Pancreas doesn’t secret excess insuline required during pregnancy. Genetic and environmental factors Gestation al MAJOR TYPES OF DIABETES A patient with diabetes does not make or use insulin well. Hence, this leaves glucose in the bloodstream, causing a higher than normal blood sugar level.
  35. 35. 35 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. GROWING EVIDENCE DEMONSTRATES THAT TYPE 2 DIABETES IS RELATED TO TELOMERE SHORTENING • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28322101 • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24868316 • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27437767 • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22411737
  36. 36. 36 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. A SMALL REVIEW OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Insulin acts in the liver to suppress glucose production, and in the muscle and adipose tissue to stimulate the uptake of glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. The amount of insulin released to maintain normal glucose homeostasis is determined by the prevailing insulin sensitivity. When insulin resistance develops in the insulin- sensitive tissues, feedback to the β-cell ensures that it increases insulin output to maintain normal glucose tolerance. When the β-cell is incapable of increasing insulin output in the presence of insulin resistance, the result is the development of elevated glucose levels, initially manifest as impaired glucose tolerance. As β-cell dysfunction progresses, further elevations in glycaemia occur and diabetes is the eventual result.
  37. 37. 37 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Increased trigylceride content in nonadipose tissue together with increased serum levels of trigylcerides may play an important role in augmentation of oxidative stress. Elevated cellular glucose Promotes Cellular oxidative stress Causes Cellular injury and decreased insulin sensitivity Elicits Deletion of telomeres Reactive oxygen species have been shown to target specifically the GGG triplets in telomeric DNA and result in increased telomere attrition. Telomerase deficiency has also been shown to impair replicative capacity of pancreatic beta cells resulting in defective insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCREASED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS AND SHORTENED TELOMERES
  38. 38. 38 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. HOW TO PREVENT DIABETES TYPE 2 Prevention tips Increase you physical activity Eat healthy Lose Weight Stop smoking Drink less alcohol Monitor your physical condition First symptoms Sudden weight loss Extreme tiredness Blurred vision Frequent urination Increased thirst Increased hunger
  39. 39. 39 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE • Hamel FG (2010) Telomeres and type 2 diabetes. Transl Res 155: 164–165. • Testa R, Olivieri F, Sirolla C, Spazzafumo L, Rippo MR, et al. (2011) Leukocyte telomere length is associated with complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 28: 1388–1394. • Yang H, Jin X, Kei Lam CW, Yan SK (2011) Oxidative stress and diabetes mellitus. Clin Chem Lab Med 49: 1773–1782. • Eckers A, Altschmied J, Haendeler J (2012) [Oxidative stress in endothelial cells and in diabetes type 2]. Z Gerontol Geriatr 45: 90–94. • Wolff SP, Jiang ZY, Hunt JV (1991) Protein glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus and ageing. Free Radic Biol Med 10: 339–352. • Sampson MJ, Winterbone MS, Hughes JC, Dozio N, Hughes DA (2006) Monocyte telomere shortening and oxidative DNA damage in type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care 29: 283– 289. • Maiese K, Morhan SD, Chong ZZ (2007) Oxidative stress biology and cell injury during type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Neurovasc Res 4: 63–71. • Henriksen EJ, Diamond-Stanic MK, Marchionne EM (2011) Oxidative stress and the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Free Radic Biol Med 51: 993–999. • von Zglinicki T (2000) Role of oxidative stress in telomere length regulation and replicative senescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci 908: 99–110. • von Zglinicki T (2002) Oxidative stress shortens telomeres. Trends Biochem Sci 27: 339–344. • Bar-Or D, Thomas GW, Rael LT, Lau EP, Winkler JV (2001) Asp-Ala-His-Lys (DAHK) inhibits copper-induced oxidative DNA double strand breaks and telomere shortening. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282: 356–360. • Kanvah S, Schuster GB (2005) The sacrificial role of easily oxidizable sites in the protection of DNA from damage. Nucleic Acids Res 33: 5133–5138. • Oikawa S, Kawanishi S (1999) Site-specific DNA damage at GGG sequence by oxidative stress may accelerate telomere shortening. FEBS Lett 453: 365–368. • Harte AL, da Silva NF, Miller MA, Cappuccio FP, Kelly A, et al. (2012) Telomere length attrition, a marker of biological senescence, is inversely correlated with triglycerides and cholesterol in South Asian males with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Diabetes Res 2012: 895185.
  40. 40. 40 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. THE TELOMERE PROGRAM
  41. 41. 41 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Includes: THE TELOMERE PROGRAM 01 03 02 Two TAT® test: The first one should be done before starting the program, and the second one should be done 1 year later Complete program for nutrition, exercise and meditation for one year Monthly follow ups
  42. 42. 42 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. THE TELOMERE PROGRAM ▪ Exercise can contribute to maintaining telomeres ▪ In general, from 3 to 5 sessions of moderate exercise per week may be enough. ▪ Extreme exercise may be harmful T0 T1 • Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres. • Many foods comprising the Mediterranean diet are rich in antioxidants which contribute to slowing the aging process. • The rate of telomere shortening is higher in smokers. • The dosage of cigarette smoking is shown to negatively correlate with telomere length • Researchers have found that patients who regularly meditate have better measures of mental health, blood pressure, and biomarkers compared to individuals who have never meditated.
  43. 43. 43 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited.
  44. 44. 44 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited.
  45. 45. 45 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. 1988 1996 1998 2002 2003 2007 2008 2011 FISH based methods PCR based methods Southern Blot based methods 2015 Modified from Vera E, Blasco M.A,. “Beyond average: potential for measurement of short telomeres.” AGING, June 2012, Vol. 4, nº6: 379-392 METHODS FOR MEASURING TELOMERE LENGTH Validated TAT® Improved HT Q-FISH HT Q-FISH TelomappingFlow FISH Metaphase Q-FISH qPCR STELA TRF
  46. 46. 46 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. THE THREE MOST COMMONLY AVAILABLE METHODS Q-PCR Average telomere length Flow FISH Average telomere length TAT® Median and average telomere length % of short telomeres Q-PCR Flow FISH TAT® Scalability ✓  ✓ Total reliability  ✓ ✓ Clinical value   ✓
  47. 47. 47 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. Clinical Utility Multiple sample processing Single sample processing Average telomere length Percentage of short telomeres Population of cells Population of cellsSingle cells Single cells Scalability Flow FISH Q-PCR Q-FISH TAT® (blood) METHODS FOR MEASURING TELOMERE LENGTH
  48. 48. 48 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. LIFE LENGTH’S TELOMERE ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGY® (TAT®) Our test is a blood test that measures the length of over 100,000 telomeres to reveal a person's cellular or biological age, the age a person shares with most people of similar physiology It is simple for doctors and patients because fasting and preparation for blood collection is not required 10 ml of blood is needed (depending on standard tube sized used) It is essential to complete an online anonymous health questionnaire: (www.lifelength-questionnaire.com) A detailed Results Report is provided; available in numerous languages The physician receives the results of patient samples in approximately one to three weeks (depending on country of origin and shipping time for samples)
  49. 49. 49 © 2018 Life Length. All rights reserved. Strictly private and confidential. Reproduction of this document or any portion thereof without prior written consent is prohibited. info@lifelength.com c/ Miguel Ángel, 11-2nd floor Madrid 28010 www. lifelength.com FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT STEPHEN MATLIN CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER 1 561 886 6685

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