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Citizens in the smart city


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Keynote presentation held at the 60 years conference of the Institute of Housing and Urban Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam, November 6, 2018

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Citizens in the smart city

  1. 1. Citizens in the smart city Liesbet van Zoonen Leiden-Delft-Erasmus
  2. 2. Smart city: Technology and Policy Push
  3. 3. “While technology is a powerful tool able to help improve urban infrastructure, citizen engagement is essential to make cities truly sustainable and liveable” “Tailoring these [smart city] tools to the various needs and abilities of different stakeholders in a smart city environment is crucial in order to enable an effective and efficient usage, or even any usage at all.” “We believe that the role that citizens will play in the near futures will be crucial. Top-down governance approaches are gone for good and we need to shift the relation between city governments and residents taking it one step further”
  4. 4. The present Living Lab Hackaton Co-creation Maker space Citizen science Neighborhood dashboards Data bootcamp Value inclusive design Meet ups
  5. 5. Challenges • Top-down with a preset outcome • Grenoble, Nantes > fablabs torched • Utrechtse Heuvelrug • Against smart lamp posts • Usual suspects • Based in social and community work • Lacking democratic legitimacy
  6. 6. Democratic deficit of smart cities • Citizens do not know the concept nor the practices • Rarely a election issue (Amsterdam 2018: “big data is just the latest fad of hipsters”) • Framed as operational issues not as political ones • Civil servants lack a public brief or “policy without a polity” • “no generally accepted rules and norms according to which politics is to be conducted and policy measures are to be agreed upon.” Maarten Hajer (2003). Policy without polity? Policy analysis and the institutional void.” Policy Sciences, 36(2), p.175-195.
  7. 7. ≠ Smart Mechelen: forgot to claim ownership of the data Veldhoven: sensors to find out why people do not come to the centre of town Amsterdam Scraping Facebook profiles to find problem youth
  8. 8. BOLD approach: Agenda Building • Data walks • Data dialogues • Data in the city game
  9. 9. Data walks • Smart city is invisible • Raising awareness through walking • What do you see, who owns it, what happens with, would you like more say in it? • You may see it, but that doesn’t help yet • “Individual responsibility, instead of societal one” • Urban Design Challenge • Further reading in Sociale Vraagstukken, 5 september 2018
  10. 10. Data dialogue • Personalized benefit and reintegration policy • Linking CBS and municipal data • How do people on benefit feel about the usage of their data? • Privacy? They know everything about me • Who is allowed to see my files? • Why so repetitive, why so many mistake? • Municipality cannot even handle normal data • No automation please • Artikel 17 Participatiewet contradicts the GDPR • Further reading in Sociologie Magazine, june 2018.
  11. 11. Urban data game: Jouw buurt, jouw data • Survey-game > data walk • Knowledge, attitude, behavior • Outcome for respondent > how do you share your data? • awareness
  12. 12. Two models of democracy Participatory • Neighborhood • Select group of people • Do it yourself • Based on practice • Predictable outcomes Representative/electoral • Municipality • Everyone • Delegate • Based on information • Uncertain outcomes Which one?
  13. 13. Further reading Engelbert, J., Van Zoonen, L. & F. Hirzalla (2018). Excluding citizens from the European Smart City: the discourse practices of pursuing and granting smartness. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, available online first Van Zoonen, L. (2017). Burgers en bestuurders in de slimme stad. Rotterdam Lezing, 29 mei 2017. Van Zoonen, L. (2016). Privacy concerns in smart cities. Government Information Quarterly, 33(3), 472-480. Van Zoonen, L., Hirzalla, F., Engelbert, J., Zuijderwijk, L. & L. Schokker (2017). Seeing more than you think: a data walk in the city. Bang The Table. Community Engagement Blog