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LIS Education (World Wide Overview)

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LIS Education (World Wide Overview) 27-Apr-14
Library and Information Science, LIS Studies

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LIS Education (World Wide Overview)

  1. 1. LIS EDUCATION (LIS 101- Theoretical Foundations of Library Science ) Prepared By Huma Waseem MS-LIS Vertex College (S&T), Islamabad Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, KPK
  2. 2. 2 Contents  Introduction  Historical Development  Formal Library Education  USA  Europe  Asia  Africa  Australia  Contemporary LIS Education  Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Library education was initially a technical education that was acquired on the job. Practical work in a library, based on good education in schools, was the only way to train librarians. It took quite a long time to introduce library education as a subject and has been taught at different level in the universities of the world. 4 Introduction
  5. 5. Historical Development
  6. 6. 6 Historical Development Library Training in :  Alexandrian Period  Medieval and Early Modern Period  the Early 19th Century
  7. 7. 7 Cont… Library Training in Alexandrian Period  Compilation of bibliography and the making of library catalogues.  The encouragement of scholars to use the library and to draw books out of it.
  8. 8. 8 Cont… Library Training in Medieval and Early Modern Period  Training of librarians  Cataloguing  Repairing  Binding  Loaning
  9. 9. 9 Cont… Library Training in the Early 19th Century Mary Plummer, Director of Pratt Institute Library School Germany, pointed out the three methods of learning library science in 1901. 1. Evolving a system of his own from his inner consciousness. 2. Two or three weeks training and observation to some large city library. 3. Learning of certain parts of the work (e.g. cataloguing) of library by tuition.
  10. 10. Formal Library Education
  11. 11. Background… Several attempts were made by Dewey during the mid-nineteenth century to start formal library education. This did not materialize until 1876 when formal steps were taken to establish the ALA and he became the first secretary of ALA. After long struggle of Dewey, the formal library education was started in America in 1887. 11 Formal Library Education
  12. 12. 12 Library Education in the World Library Education in …… USA Europe Asia –East Asia –Southeast Asia –South Asia –Middle East (Arab Regions) Africa Australia
  13. 13. Library Education in USA
  14. 14. 14 Library Education in USA Systematic library training in the United States was started by Melvil Dewey.  1883 - Dewey became chief librarian at Columbia College.  1883- Dewey received approval from ALA for a formal training program  1887 – The “school of library economy” was established.
  15. 15. 15 Cont… Duration of the study was Library Education in USA  3-month course  2-years actual experience (compulsory) in various kinds of library work and  Again 3-months course taken in review
  16. 16. Library Education in Europe
  17. 17. 17 Library Education in Europe  In 1886, The University of Gottingen, Germany was the first university in the world that started library science course at the university level.  Italy and Sweden followed the examples of Gottingen University and established library schools around the time Dewey started his school at Columbia.  In 1919, the London University stared the first full time diploma course in Librarianship and Archives.
  18. 18. 18 Cont… Library Education in Europe  British models were exported to Australia and New Zealand at the beginning of 20th century.  In many European countries, university-level LIS programs is offered.  LIS programs are accredited by Chartered Association of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP).  Continuing professional development (“CPD”) or “lifelong learning” is also organised by CILIP.  “Certificate” qualification is also introduced .
  19. 19. 19 RUSSIA (Europe) Library Education in Europe  In Russia, the system of LIS education is being constantly transformed. LIS education in the Post- Soviet Era reflects the complicated period of social and economic transition characterizing the Russian society, reforms in higher education in general as well as the dynamic developments in libraries.  Three influential leaders in the field (all females) – N. K. Krupskaya (1869-1939), – L. B. Khavkina (1871-1949), – G.K.Derman (1882-1954),
  20. 20. 20 Cont… RUSSIA (Europe) Library Education in Europe  Early 20th century- N. K. Krupskaya first person to formalize Library & Bibliographical Training  1903, Khavkina founded first Scientific Department of Librarianship within her hometown library.  1913, Khavkina initiated library courses at Shanyavskiy People’s University in Moscow and also served as instructor.  1930, Derman became founding Director of Moscow Library Institute (MBI)  In 2002, the library faculties were transformed into LIS faculties and new State-approved standards for qualifications in LIS were created.
  21. 21. 21 Cont… RUSSIA (Europe) Library Education in Europe  The considerable weight is given to bibliographic studies in the library-related components and library professional activities in the Soviet era.  In 2007, there were 26 higher education institutions in Russia providing LIS education. These include state universities and higher specialised institutions of culture.  In Russia, in-service refresher courses for library staff are available as a formalised promotion and career improvement opportunity.  The work is in progress on building an all-Russia continuing education system of refresher courses and library staff skills updating activities.
  22. 22. Library Education in Asia
  23. 23. Library Education in Asia SOUTH ASIA – INDIA – PAKISTAN – BANGLADESH  EAST ASIA – CHINA – JAPAN – SOUTH KOREA – TAIWAN SOUTHEAST ASIA –THAILAND –MALAYSIA –INDONESIA –PHILPPINIES –SINGAPORE  MIDDLE EAST ASIA – GCC MEMBER COUNTRIES – NON-GCC COUNTRIES
  24. 24. 24 INDIA (South Asia) Library Education in Asia  LIS education in India is nearly 100 years old.  In 1915, formal first university course was initiated by Asa Don Dickinson (American librarian) at Panjab University, Lahore.  This was the first formal program in Asia and the second in the world after Columbia University.  He also prepared a manual for the use of students namely The Punjab Library Primer.
  25. 25. 25 Cont… INDIA (South Asia) Library Education in Asia • In 1929, S.R. Ranganathan introduced a certificate course at the Madras Library Association, which later moved to the University of Madras. • In 1937, the course was converted to a one-year postgraduate diploma program • In 1946, The first department of library science was established at the University of Delhi. It offered a postgraduate diploma in 1947 and a MLS in 1951. • Several Committees were setup by India UGC to review and make recommendations on various aspects of LIS education.
  26. 26. 26 PAKISTAN (South Asia)  1915- formal first university course - Asa Don Dickinson -Panjab University, Lahore.  In 1956, first postgraduate diploma program was established at the University of Karachi, then in the University of the Punjab in 1959.  In 1962- The first Master’s program was introduced at the University of Karachi.  The first PhD program was started at the University of Karachi in 1967, followed by several other universities.  No professional accreditation body for LIS programs. Library Education in Asia
  27. 27. 27 Library Education in Asia BANGLADESH (South Asia)  About 50 years of history in LIS education.  In 1952, Dhaka University Library offered certificate course in librarianship, but it ran for only one session.  A Department of Library Science was established in 1959 and a post- graduate diploma program started based on model of the University of London.  A B.A. (Hons) program was introduced in 1987, together with a name change to Department of Library and Information Science.  A PhD program in library science was approved by the University of Dhaka in 1978.  2 public universities offer B.A. and M.A. in LIS, and 12 private institutes offer post-graduate diploma courses.
  28. 28. 28 CHINA (East Asia) Library Education in Asia  China has a long history of books, publishing and libraries.  History of book collections goes back at least 3,500 years.  The first book on library science in China was written by Liu Xiang around 77B.C. – The book analyzed the national book collections of the time. – Only a few chapters remain today. – Since then, books on book-collecting and document science, as well as bibliographies of books, have appeared through the ages.
  29. 29. 29 Cont… CHINA (East Asia) Library Education in Asia Modern library science • Introduced by the West in the early 20th century. • In 1913, American librarian Harry Clemens taught a course on library science at Nanjing University for the first time • In 1920, the first library science school, the Boone Library School, was founded in Wuhan, following the U.S. model • Within a decade, two other LIS departments were set up, at Shanghai Citizen University in 1925 and Nanjing University in 1927.
  30. 30. 30 Cont… CHINA (East Asia) Library Education in Asia • In the 1950s, LS Education was influenced by the former Soviet Union. • Many books of Soviet LS books were translated into Chinese, and China sent students to study library science in the USSR. • In 1978, China looked to the U.S. and other countries for new ideas. • LIS education developed rapidly after 1980, • Till 2003, 44 LIS schools opened, offering a variety of Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD programs.
  31. 31. 31 JAPAN (East Asia) Library Education in Asia  Library training workshops were run by the Japan Library Association as early as 1903.  In 1921, the Ministry of Education established a librarianship training institute in the Imperial Library, which offered a 1-year program. – In 1964, the training institute became the National Junior College for Librarianship, – In 1980, It was restructured into the University of Library and Information Science. – In 2002 it was merged with the University of Tsukuba. Now it is the largest LIS School in Japan.
  32. 32. 32 Library Education in Asia SOUTH KOREA (East Asia)  In 1957 first library school was established at Yonsei University, with both undergraduate and graduate programs  in 1959 EwhaWomans’ University,  in 1963 Chungang University  in 1964 Sungkyunkwan University, it also started first PhD program in 1974.  With the Public Records Management Act coming into effect in 2000, LIS schools started offering courses in records management, to meet the demand for record management professionals.
  33. 33. 33 TAIWAN (East Asia)  In 1955, the first Undergraduate LS program was introduced by the Department of Adult and Continuing Education at the National Taiwan Normal University.  In 1980, the same University started Master’s program and a PhD program in 1989.  Now, there are 11 universities offering undergraduate and graduate programs, with most programs called LIS program.  Each LIS program is accredited by its parent university. Library Education in Asia
  34. 34. 34 THAILAND (Southeast Asia)  In 1951, a special program in library management was offered at Chulalongkorn University under a Fulbright program… – Five American academics conducted six courses over a period of five years. – in 1955, the Department of Library Science was set up, and undergraduate diploma course started, – in 1959 Bachelor’s program started and – in 1964 Master’s program started.  Based on the U.S. model, with some adaptations to meet Thai needs. Library Education in Asia
  35. 35. 35 Cont… THAILAND (Southeast Asia)  In 1965 one-year postgraduate Advanced Certificate started in College of Education, Prasarnmit Campus (now Srinakharinwirot University) to train school librarians.  There are currently 16 universities and more than 36 Rajabhat Universities (former teacher colleges) offering undergraduate LIS programs, with the names library and information science, information studies or information management.  Ten of these offer Master’s programs, mostly MA in Library and Information Science.  The first PhD program was introduced at Khon Kaen University in 2003. Library Education in Asia
  36. 36. 36 MALAYSIA (East Asia) Library Education in Asia  LIS education in Malaysia began with the formation of the Malayan Library Group in 1955, which organized classes in librarianship and prepared students to take the Library Association (U.K.) Associate ship examination.  A formal LIS program was introduced in 1968 at the MARA Institute of Technology (now the University of Technology MARA).  The Institute started a three-year Diploma in LS program in 1973, followed by a Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD program.
  37. 37. 37 Cont… MALAYSIA (East Asia)  In 1987, a MLIS program was started at the University of Malaya.  It was suspended after one run, but was revived in 1995.  Now there are four universities offering LIS professional education at various levels, including three PhD programs.  The Malaysian Qualifications Agency oversees all aspects of quality in higher education.  Standards and Criteria for Programs in LIS was formulated in 2007. Library Education in Asia
  38. 38. INDONESIA (East Asia) Library Education in Asia  In 1952 First LIS program was started. The two- year “Training Course for Library Staff” was established by the Ministry of Education and Culture. 38  In 1959, it became the Library School, with the course extended to three years.  In 1961, the program was moved to the Teacher’s College at the University of Indonesia, and in 1963 the Department of Library Science came under the Faculty of Letters.  supervised for two years by the National Accreditation Agency set up by the Ministry of Education.
  39. 39. 39 Library Education in Asia PHILIPPINES (East Asia)  In 1914, First courses on “Library Economy” were offered at the University of the Philippines.  In 1916, the program was raised to a four-year program leading to a BSc. in Library Science.  In 1917, courses for school librarians were offered at the Philippine Normal School.  In 1961, an Institute of Library Science was set up at the University of the Philippines, and a Master’s program was introduced.  LIS majors within a Bachelor of Education program.  Significant feature of the LIS profession is the licensing of professional librarians by the state.
  40. 40. 40 SINGAPORE (East Asia) Library Education in Asia  First LIS postgraduate diploma program conducted by the Library Association of Singapore, from 1982 to 1992.  The instructors were a mix of faculty engaged from library schools in the U.K. and Australia, and local practicing librarians.  In 1993, a Division of Information Studies was established at the Nanyang Technological University’s School of Applied Science to offer an MSc program in Information Studies.
  41. 41. 41 Cont… SINGAPORE (East Asia) • In 2002, the Master’s of Science (Msc) program curriculum was restructured to offer the following areas of concentration: – Archival Informatics, Knowledge Management, Information Systems, Library and Information Science, School Media Resource Management. • Separate MSc program in Knowledge Management started in 2002 (first time in Asia and one of the earliest in the world) • A research Master’s program and a PhD program was also started. • There is no accreditation system for LIS education in Singapore. Library Education in Asia
  42. 42. Library Education in Asia MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 42 GCC COUNTRIES LIS Education program founded at ….  1973- King Abdulziz University, Saudi Arabia (KAU) (the oldest in the region)  1996- Kuwait University’s (KU) Master’s program – 1977- Undergraduate program at PAAET (Public Authority for Applied Education and Technology, Kuwait)  1984-88 - Three Saudi programs at University of Al-Ummal Qura’s (UQ) Men and Women wings (Mecca) and King Saud University (KSU)
  43. 43. CONT…MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 43  1986 - Undergraduate programs - Sultan Qaboos University SQU (Muscat, Oman)  1988 - Undergraduate programs - Qatar University (QU) were founded in and respectively.  2014- Zayed University (ZU), United Arab Emirates (UAE) • There are eight degree awarding LIS programs in the six nations. – seven of the them are have undergraduate programs – KU offers as a minor in information studies. – KAU is the only one that has three degree programs: bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. Library Education in Asia
  44. 44. Library Education in Asia CONT…MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 44 NON-GCC COUNTRIES JORDAN • First nation in the region that had a component of library science in its Teachers College of Amman back in 1965 • 1977- the University of Jordan- first post-graduate diploma-.The degree title was Library Science and Documentation. • 1992- diploma in Library and Information with the duration of one academic year
  45. 45. CONT…MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 45 LEBANON  In 1970 first program Associate Degree (AA) of a 2- year duration was initiated at the Lebanese American University for library technicians  In 1976 First 4-year degree program of a bachelor degree started in the Lebanese University. Also offers a 5th year qualification for in-depth studies and the degree is named as *DEA. The focus of the program is on media and communication studies  2008- Balamand University-offer a bachelor’s degree in Library and Information Science. *DEA (diplôme d'études approfondies)- a tertiary education degree higher than a master's, but lower than a doctorate. Library Education in Asia
  46. 46. Library Education in Asia CONT…MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 46 SYRIA • 1950s- 60s, the government sent a large number of staff abroad for library training. • Around mid-70s a library section was created within Damascus University that was made responsible for the education and training of library employees. • In 1977, the Secretariat Institute of Damascus University started organizing a one- year training program for librarians. • In 1984, a formal degree program started.
  47. 47. Library Education in Asia CONT…MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 47 IRAQ  In 1970 At Mustan- Sariyah University, the Department of Library Science was established and had its first graduating class in 1972. – organized training activities for elementary and middle school library staff. PALESTINE  Librarians in Palestine got their education from all over the world: Leningrad, Cairo, Leeds, Amman, Kiev, Sofia, – and many others.
  48. 48. Library Education in Asia CONT…MIDDLE EAST ASIA (ARAB COUNTRIES) 48 IRAN  1939-1965- Short courses and informal library education,  1966-1978- Formal library education,  1997- LIS education with ICT impact  28 governmental universities and one private university offer LIS programs  Programs offered are: – a) Associates Diploma (Ass. Dip.); – b) Bachelor of Library Science (B.L.S.); – c) Master of Library Science (M.L.S.) and – d) Ph.D.
  49. 49. Library Education in Africa
  50. 50. 50 AFRICA Library Education in Africa • Librarianship in Africa owes its origin to colonialism. • In 1938 - South African LIS schools started • After 1960- LIS formal education in Africa began • 1980s - there were 5 main LIS education institutions based in Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda and 18 in South Africa. • During 1938 to 2000- in South Africa LIS School raised from one to 18. • During 2000 to 2006 it declined from 18 to 11.
  51. 51. 51 Contd… AFRICA Library Education in Africa  In Southern Africa, at least one LIS School is found in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The remaining countries have either one LIS school, or none.  Most LIS Schools are located within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) or universities, to evaluate the curriculum development and quality control.  There are two dominant learning models: – Undergraduate model – 4 yr. study – Honours Degree 4yr.+ 1yr. Specialization
  52. 52. 52 EGYPT (Africa) Library Education in Africa  1951- LIS education started in Cairo University  1981- Alexandria University  Several private Universities have been established within the last 20 years.  A limited number has LIS Department, such as 6 Oct. University. This University changed its whole system into credit hours since few years and splits LIS Department in two divisions:  Library and Information Sciences, and  Information Technology Divisions.
  53. 53. Library Education in Australia
  54. 54. 54 AUSTRALIA Library Education in Australia  1944 - Formal LIS education and training of librarians took place, when the Australian Institute of Librarians* introduced a ‘qualifying examination’. This was renamed the ‘registration exam’ and formed the main career pathway for librarians until 1980.  1960 -The first academic qualification was introduced by the University of New South Wales (UNSW) as a postgraduate Diploma of Librarianship, deemed equivalent to the registration exam. *(later the Library Association of Australia (LAA) in 1949)
  55. 55. 55 Cont… (AUSTRALIA) Library Education in Australia  In 1963 the General Council of the LAA adopted the formal position that librarians should hold a postgraduate qualification. • In 1965, the government introduced colleges of advanced education and institutes of technology as a new area of tertiary education. Library education fitted into this domain, with a number of courses emerging at the undergraduate level. • Since 1968, the professional association has accepted both undergraduate and graduate qualifications as first award courses.
  56. 56. 56 Cont… (AUSTRALIA) Library Education in Australia  LIS education is offered at… – the university level, with graduates becoming librarians, & – the vocational education level through the institutes of technical and further education (TAFEs). • Now there are 10 universities offering LIS courses at undergraduate and graduate levels. – 5 of these offer courses at both levels, – 1 university offer only undergraduate program – 4 universities offer only graduate programs (Graduate Diploma or Masters). – Queensland University of Technology (QUT) offers only a Masters course, either in Information Management (MIM) or teacher librarianship (Master of Learning Innovation).
  57. 57. Cont… (AUSTRALIA) Library Education in Australia • Only one (of ten) institutions had an independent LIS academic unit- the School of Information Studies in the Faculty of Education at Charles Sturt University. • 1989- LAA adopted new name as ALIA (Australian 57 Library and Information Association) • ALIA holds responsibility for the recognition of the university and TAFE courses which provide a library and information studies qualification. • ALIA regularly inspect/analyze the courses for currency and relevance. This is achieved through the Annual Course Return (ACR) submitted by each university.
  58. 58. Contemporary LIS Education
  59. 59. 59 Contemporary LIS Education  Library education has always coped with two sets of problems. – One of them is its relationship to the profession. – The other is its relationship to the academic world.  To a certain degree these type of relationships still play a fundamental role in library education.  The history of library education worldwide is diverse, mirroring the state of the library movement and the educational systems in various countries.
  60. 60. 60 Cont… (Contemporary LIS Education) LIS Programmes 1. Gap between theory and practice. 2. Focus to the demands of market. 3. Core curriculum should be apply to all library schools with minor variations with the application of new information technologies to produce a librarian . 4. LIS programmes have undergone a substantial evolution in 20th century due to ICT. 5. ICT has become major part of LIS programmes. 6. Traditional names of library schools has been changed.
  61. 61. 61 Cont… (Contemporary LIS Education)  Developed countries are rich and diverse in LIS Education programs whether formal or informal.  In developing countries and non-English speaking countries following common issues exist. – Lack of independence (financial independence, permission to develop or modify curriculums) – Lack of Accreditation System – Mere Emphasis on Education (not able to conduct proper research.) – Lack of Continued Education – Locating Departments in Faculties of Fine Arts and Humanities
  62. 62. – Lack of Adequate Facilities, Resources and Buildings – Inadequate Number of Faculty Members – Lack of Diversity in Programs and degrees – Outdated Syllabi – Not Taking Advantage of Advanced Technologies – Lack of Text books in national languages 62 Cont… (Contemporary LIS Education)
  63. 63. Conclusion
  64. 64. 64 CONCLUSION The informal library training tradition was ended into formal library education by the practical efforts of Melvil Dewey. The first library education course of Melvil Dewey has provided the foundation to modern library education. The library education started with practical orientation has grown up into a recognized academic discipline. Due to ICT, traditional names of library schools has been changed. In developed countries national bodies are formed that are responsible to accredit LIS education (formal or informal). But developing countries need to form such bodies to improve LIS education that will meet the demands of librarianship of digital information age.
  65. 65. References
  66. 66. 66 REFERENCES Alimohammadi, D and Jamali, H. R. (2011). ‘Common Problems of Library and Information Science Education in Asian Developing Countries: A Review Article’. International Journal of Information Science and Management. Vol 9, No 2 (2011). Hallam, Gillian C. (2006) Trends in LIS education in Australia . In Khoo, C. and Singh, D. and Chaudhry, A.S. (Eds.). Proceedings Asia-Pacific Conference on Library and Information Education and Practice 2006. Preparing information professionals for leadership in the new age. Singapore: Nanyang Technological University. Kajberg, Leif, Horvat, Aleksandra and Oguz, Esin Sultan (2009). Eurpoe: LIS education. In Ismail Abdullahi (ed.) Global Library and Information Science: A Textbook for Students and Educators (IFLA Publications) München: KG- Saur. Kent, Allen and Lancour, Harold (ed.). (1972). ‘Education in library and information science’ Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science.Vol. 7. New York: Marcel Dekker. Richardson, Jr. John V. (2000). The Origin of Soviet Education for Librarianship: The Role of Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya, Lyubov' Borisovna Khavkina-Hamburger, and Genrietta K. Abele-Derman. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, Vol. 41, No. 2. retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40324059 ichardson Jr., John V. (2009). History of American Library Science: Its Origins and Early Development. Retrieved from polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/jrichardson/ALS.pdf S. G. Khoo, Christopher, Majid, Shaheen, and Lin , Chihfeng P. (2009). Asia: LIS education. In Ismail Abdullahi (ed.) Global Library and Information Science: A Textbook for Students and Educators (IFLA Publications) München: KG- Saur. Sajjad ur-Rehman (2009). Middle East: LIS education. In Ismail Abdullahi (ed.) Global Library and Information Science: A Textbook for Students and Educators (IFLA Publications) München: KG- Saur. Wilson, Concepción S; Kennan, Mary Anne, Boell, Sebastian K.; Willard, Patricia (2012). From Practice to Academia : 50 Years of LIS Education in Australia. In Amanda Spink & Diljit Singh, (eds.) Library and Information Science Trends and Research: Asia-Oceania. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  67. 67. 67 THANK YOU

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