Computerized Information storage

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MLIS Course Code 5501-Information Retrieval and Dissemination- Workshop AIOU 2013

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Computerized Information storage

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERIZED INFORMATION STORAGE INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY & INFORMATION SCIENCES (5501) WORKSHOP SPRING 2013 By: Huma Malik Librarian, Preston University, Islamabad
  2. 2. Introduction Purpose of storing data Computerized storage Information storage Computerized information systems & role of human Types of information storage and retrieval (ISAR) systems Conclusion CONTENTS
  3. 3.  KIND OF DATA IN A LIBRARY A library stores large amounts of information; for example, –a library's catalogue may comprise billions and trillions characters; and –its books, more than 100 millions and trillions characters. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4.  RETRIEVAL TOOLS The tools for retrieval include… –the library's catalog, –subject classification (for example, Dewey Decimal Classification), –ordered arrangement of books on the shelf, and –bibliographies and indexes for subject areas covered by the collection.  Each of these tools can be both COMPUTERIZED and MANUAL (non-computerized).
  5. 5.  Information is always stored so that it is retrieved when needed.  So, information should be stored in a way that it can be retrieved economically when needed. PURPOSE OF STORING DATA
  6. 6. Example …  a decision is made to acquire a book by a library  its bibliographic information is prepared in according to specific standards.  this information can be multiply used –for placing order, –for cataloguing and classification, –for reference service
  7. 7.  Preparing Database is the best way to store a document or piece of information.  The information once stored in computer need not to be repeatedly input.  Databases are stored according to a prescribe standard.  Storage standard have been developed to exercise online, access to difference databases. COMPUTERIZED STORAGE
  8. 8.  Now-a-days all academic libraries and some public libraries have computer- based online public access catalogues that provide users with retrieval capabilities  they have computer-based shelf lists that identify where books are stored,  they provide access to a wide range of computer-based reference retrieval services.
  9. 9. 1. Selecting and acquiring the source data 2. Establishing a vocabulary of terms for describing them 3. Assigning terms to each specific data item 4. Arranging assigned terms in formats to create records 5. Establishing an organization of these records into files, 6. Creating means for access to the records by various criteria. INFORMATION STORAGE STEPS
  10. 10.  REMEMBER that THE PURPOSE OF STORING DATA IS RETRIEVAL; i.e. the stored data will need to be retrieved at some future date.  Steps involved in retrieval of information are... – use terms from the vocabulary to input request – Search the file and match requests with stored records – Retrieve and present the results. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL STEPS
  11. 11. Computer systems have been developed  to provide rapid access  to large amounts of information stored on computer,  with easy communication  between the system and its user Computerized Information Systems & Role of Human
  12. 12. However, these systems still RELY ON HUMAN SKILLS…. to acquire the source documents, to analyze and classify their contents, and To formulate requests for information. Computerized Information Systems & Role of Human
  13. 13.  There are Five types of Information storage and retrieval (ISAR) systems. 1. Database Systems 2. Reference Retrieval Systems 3. Document Retrieval Systems 4. Text Retrieval Systems 5. Image Retrieval Systems Types of Information Storage and Retrieval (ISAR) Systems
  14. 14.  The most fundamental system is the database system,  All others are simply special cases of it, differing in the kinds of data and complexity of processing but comprises of the same components.  Users: – Federal & local govt. agencies – Scientific research organizations – Academic institutions (e.g. libraries, exam system) – Engineering companies – Business organizations 1. Database Systems
  15. 15. Example: (Library Database)  Collect source data  Data may be related to – Library Materials (books, CDs, journals, magazines…etc.), – its users (name, designation…), – vendors & booksellers, – Budget – E.g. data for books include its bibliographic details (such as author, title, edition, place, publisher, year of publication)
  16. 16.  All data can be stored in an integrated database system for processing and later for retrieval.  This data once stored can be used for ordering, cataloguing, indexing, and circulation.
  17. 17. 2. Reference Retrieval Systems  A reference retrieval system is a database system storing references to documents.  Data will include terms descriptive of content, on which retrieval will be based;  Abstracts may be included.  Records identify where a source document can then found by a retrieval system for delivery to the requester.
  18. 18.  Examples –MEDLINE (Medical Online) –OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) –RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) –AGRICOLA (Agricultural Online Access)  Databases in CD-ROMs
  19. 19. 3.Document Retrieval Systems  A document retrieval system combines a reference database system with the ability to retrieve desired document pages, as texts, images, and to print or display them.  Library of bound books and journals are examples of manual document retrieval system.  Document is identified by document number and its location.
  20. 20.  The Storage Medium may be – printed pages, – photographic film, – optical disks (CD-ROMs) – magnetic tapes (audio tapes) – disks (hard disk)  A CD-ROM can contain a large amount of data i.e. it can store 2,000 or more books in digital format and can be used frequently.
  21. 21.  Use the text as the basis for the retrieval. i.e. data is in sentence/paragraph form.  This is an integral part of several "full text retrieval” services in fields such as law.  A dictionary is stored in computer memory to describe alternative meanings.  Hyperlinks are used to direct to other relevant sources. 4.Text Retrieval Systems
  22. 22.  Use images as the basis for retrieval process.  Example is Word processing for the creation of image files and for applications of digitized image processing in every … – Commercial enterprise, – Academic discipline, and – Creative activity-from the storage of business document radiology – Computer-aided design and manufacturing – Cartooning. 5. Image Retrieval Systems
  23. 23.  Record formats are complicated in image- processing systems  Image-processing systems require … – scanning equipment to convert source image to digitized form – magnetic or optical storage of great capacity – displays and printers that provide high resolution and gray scale or color – a communication equipment with a bandwidth to handle the amount of data involved in image transmission
  24. 24.  Due to the rapid increase in the amount of published information or data, managing the information became more difficult.  So, to have ready access to information required the development of cost-effective computer-storage systems.  Fortunately, the "information technologies",- computers related forms and data storage and display, and telecommunication- have provided the means for meeting those needs. CONCLUSION
  25. 25. THANK YOU By: Huma Malik Librarian, Preston University, Islamabad MLIS-AIOU SPRING 2013 WORKSHOP

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