My FocusSecondary Cities Low Density Proxmity to Nature Family City Local Identity (spatially/ temporally) Economical Mixed Regional Local+Global Specialization Functions Identity
My Methology:make use of the concept “Polycentritity” to compare the roles ofSecondary Cities in Tai Lake Region and the Randstad, in order to concludeSimilarities and Differences in the way how Secondary Cities contributeto the Synergy of Polycentric Urban Region.My Result:Review of planning vison of Tai Lake Region by means of an alternativespatial vision for this region
Tai Lake RegionProblem StatementTheoretical FrameworkMethodologyResult
Tai Lake Region -Context of Yangtze River Delta -Focus on Tai Lake RegionProblem State- Bohai Economic Rim Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta
Context of YRDLocationOriginally Yangtze River Delta containseight cities in the south of JiangsuProvince, six cities in the north ofZhejiang Province and Shanghai asdirect-controlled municipality.In 2008, Yangtze River Delta wasextented, which covered two entire Original YRD Regionprovinces and Shanghai.The original YRD region with 16cities will play as core area for the new Administritive Borderregional planning. Tai Lake RegionTai Lake Region locates in the center ofYRD, which is cross the border betweentwo province. It contains a cluster ofcities around Tai Lake including fiveprefecture level cities. Extension of YRD Region
Context of YRDRegional Planning Concept Ecology, Service and High-tech Ecology, Tourism, Textile Appliances, Ecological Agriculture development core Shanghai-Nanjing zone Shanghai-Hangzhou zone
Nantong: High-tech Industry Changzhou: Wuxi: Suzhou:Context of YRD Shanghai: Global Scale New Material Biological MedicineEconomy Specialisation Jiaxing: Electronic Industry Hangzhou: Software Industry Ningbo: Textile Industry Garment Industry Shaoxing: Financial Econ Light Manufacure Service Indust Machinery Industry Legend Catering Servi Nanjing: Tourism Traditional Industry Logistics Heavy Industry Yangzhou: Transport Equipment Automotive Parts Nantong: Financial Economy High-tech InduChangzhou: Wuxi: Suzhou: Service Industry Financial Economy Catering Service Material New Service Industry Nanjing: Shanghai: Global Scale Tourism Service Catering Biological Med Logistics Nanjing: Tourism Yangzhou: Electronic Indu Jiaxing: Logistics Hangzhou: Yangzhou: Software Indu Nantong: High-tech Industry Changzhou: Wuxi: Suzhou: Nantong: Ningbo: New MaterialTextile Industr High-tech Industry Changzhou: Wuxi: Suzhou: Shanghai: Global Scale Biological Medicine New Material Garment Indu Shanghai: Global Scale Biological Medicine Electronic Industry Shaoxing: Jiaxing: Hangzhou: Light Manufac ElectronicIndustry Software Industry Jiaxing: Hangzhou: Ningbo: Machinery Ind Textile Industry Software Industry Ningbo: Garment Industry Textile Industry Shaoxing: Garment Industry Light Manufacure Shaoxing: Machinery Industry Light Manufacure Traditional Ind Machinery Industry
Context of YRDHigh-speed Train & Airpot 11 Million 3 Million 25 Million 32 Million 15 Million 4 Million
Focus on TLRTai Lake Region& SWC Region1. Historical Value2. Linkage between TwoProvinces Nanjing SWC3. Ecological Perspective Changzhou Region Wuxi Tai Lake Suzhou Region Shanghai Huzhou JiaxingIllustration 2: Tai Lake HangzhouRegion in the context ofYRD
Problem Statement -Spatial Problems -Institutional Problems -Research Aim
Spatial Problems 1. Rapid Urban Expansion TheDisparity betweenbuilt-upand South Taihu area 2. expansion of the North area in the 3. Unhealthy Competition between Cities 1986 1996 2004Expansion of Buiding Area in Tai Lake Region (Source on: Wu, 2008) Regional Planning of Yangtze River Delta 2009-2020
Institutional Problems1. Decentralization of decision making2. Establishment of housing and land markets3. Increased number of actors4. Conflicts of interests5. Different Government System in different Province 216 Progress in Planning1. Sectoral Dominance to Localization FIG. 12. The changing urban process from sectoral dominance to localization
Conclusion of ProblemsThe Role and development Vision of different cities are not clear, so regionaladvantages need to be promoted to participate global competition. Source:Aim of Tai Lake Region Derived from YRD 2009-2020
Research AimUnderstand the current role of secondary cities and their potentials tocontribute to the synergy of regional development of Tai Lake Region.
Theoretical -Polycentric Urban RegionFramework: -Secondary CityPolycentricity -Relation with the projectProblem State-
Concept of Polycentric Urban RegionKloosterman and Musterd (2001): Instead of one leading city, PUR contains a small number oflarge cities and a large number of small cities, all of are proximately located but spatially andpolitically distinct. The difference between large and small cities are related to settlementsize and economic importance.Parr (2010): PUR is consist of a cluster of similarly sized centres which are separated byopen land (agriculture or simply vacant) with highly intensive interaction (especiallyeconomic interaction) and economic specialisation.Davoudi (2010): two important dimensions of the concept of PUR:analytical dimension to explain an existing or emerging polycentric urban system;normative dimension to use PUR as a planning strategy referring to activeencouragement of polycentric development as a policy objective.
Synergy in Polycentric Urban Region1 + 1 > 2 : The word ‘synergy’ comes from the Greek (syn+ergos) and refers to a situationin which the effect of two or more co-operating or combined bodies or functions is largerthan the sum of the effects each body or function alone can achieve. - horizontal synergy Vertical synergy Co-operation Complementarity
What is a Secondary CityTwo main element: size, functionSize: Population (Hardoy and Satterthwaite, 1988; Rondinelli, 1983a; Van der Merwe,1992) Employment (Anderson and Bogart, 2001)Function: the most useful way of defining secondary cities (Van der Merwe, 1992)
Zhangjiagang Jiangyin Chang Jintan zhou Changshu Wuxi Linyang Taicang Yixing Kunshan Suzhou Wujiang Changxing Huzhou Jiashan Population Rank 1: 3-4million Anji Jiaxing Pinghu Population Deqing Tongxiang Population Rank 2: 1-2 million Haiyan Haining Rank Jiangyin Population Rank 3: <1 million) Chang Zhangjiagang zhou Changshu Zhangjiagang Jintan Wuxi Jiangyin Changshu Jintan Changzhou Wuxi Linyang Taicang Yixing Suzhou Kunshan Linyang Taicang Yixing Kunshan Suzhou Wujiang Wujiang Changxing Jiashan ChangxingRank 1: HuzhouPrefecture Level City Anji Jiaxing Pinghu Primary Cities Huzhou Deqing Jiashan TongxiangRnak 2: AdministritionCounty Level City Haining Haiyan Anji JiaxingRank 3: Secondary Cities Pinghu RankCounty Deqing Tongxiang Haiyan Thirdary Cities Haining Jiangyin Chang Zhangjiagang zhou Changshu Jintan Wuxi Primary Cities and Secondary Cities Linyang Taicang Yixing Suzhou Kunshan Wujiang in Tai Lake Region GDP Rank 1: 200-300 billion yuan Changxing GDP Rank 2: Huzhou Jiashan 100-200 billion yuan Anji Jiaxing GDP Rank 3: Deqing Pinghu GDP 2010 50-100 billion yuan Tongxiang Haiyan GDP Rank 4: Haining <50 billion yuan Rank
Relation with the Project The Role of Secondary Cities in PUR Analytical Dimension Normative Dimension Morphology Function Value Norms1. PUR, MUR, DUS 1. Economic Activities 1. Regional Competitiveness 1. Co-operation & Complementarity2. Alternative Development 2. Measure Interaction 2. Identity and Vitality 2. Regional Organization Capacity3. Rank-Size Distribution - “Three S-dimensions” 3. Balanced Regional Development 3. Intra-regional Accessibility 4. Spatial Diversity and Quality of Open Space Existing Role Desirable Role Current Condition Future Development of Secondary Cities of Secondary Cities Graduation Project
Methodology: -DefinitionComparative -Formulation of sub-questionsResearch -why two regions comparable -Indicators -Data Access
Definition of Comparative ResearchComparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to makecomparisons across different countries or culturesAttentions:1. definite research areas - why they are comparable2. Theoritical Support: clear and specific research topics and theory3. Method: the Definition of indicators, Equivalence of indicators, Hypotheses required tolink indicators to constructs4. Data access and Comparability( C.S. Yadav, 1968, Comparative Urban Search)
Three Steps of Comparative ResearchResearch Field Sub - Questions Main Question Existing Role of Secondary Cities How do theyThe Randstad contribute to the Region Why Two Regions How to Transfer into Futher Vision of are Comparable different Context Secondary CitiesTai Lake Region Existing Role of Secondary Cities Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
Sub-Questions 1. Why are Tai Lake Region and the Randstad-comparable? 2. What are the differences and similarities of secondary cities in Tai Lake Region and the Randstad? 2.1 What is the role of secondary cities in the polycentric configuration of the Randstad? 2.2 How do secondary cities contribute to the synergy of the Randstad? Het kabinet kiest 2.3 What is the role of secondary cities in Tai Lake Region? - Veiligheid tegen overstromingen - Van Groene Hart naar Groenblauwe Delta waterrijker, aantrekkelijker, groter - Inzet op internationale, economische krachten in de Randstad metropolitane positie Amsterdam, specifieke krachten Rotterdam, Den Haag en Utrecht, havens, lucht haven, greenports, kennisclusters, aansluiting op internationaal vervoersnetwerk - Bruisende steden in een aantrekkelijke omgeving verdichting, hoogbouw, uitbreiding van Almere, kansen voor OV, 3. How can secondary cities be developed to contribute to more metropolitane parken en groenblauwe woon-werkmilieus synergy in the network of Tai Lake Region by transferring from the Randstad?
Step 1: Why two regions are ComparableScale Comparison SWC/ SWC/ Tai Lake Randstad Tai LakeRegion Randstad Nanjing Region Nanjing Shangha London Shanghai London Rhine- Rhine- Ruhr Hangzhou Ruhr Flemish Hangzhou FlemishDiamond Diamond Paris ParisWest Europe New Yangtze River Delta
Step 1:Why two regions are ComparableScale Comparison Nanjing Randstad Shanghai SWC/Tai Lake Region Hangzhou the Netherlands Original YRD
Step1: Why two regions are ComparableScale Comparison Changzhou Wuxi Amsterdam Suzhou the Hauge Green Tai Heart Lake Shanghai Utrecht Rotterdamthe Randstad Tai Lake Region
Step1: Why two regions are Comparable Tai Lake RegionEconomic Position & Population DensityArea Land Area Population GDP GDP per Capita (10,000 km2) (millions) (billions of yuan) (yuan)Tai Lake Region 2.74(24.8%) 20.4(24.8%) 6948.0(30.5%) 34,060 (122.8%)Original YRD 10.96(100%) 82.1(100%) 2,278.0(100%) 27,740 (100%)GDP: year of 2003the Randstad 0.83 (20%) 7.1(41,5%) 2712 (51%) 381,971 (122.9%)the Netherlands 4.15 (100%) 16.8(100%) 5317 (100%) 310,798 (100%) The Randstad
Step1:Why two regions are Comparable Aim of Tai Lake Region DerivedRegional Planning Aims from YRD 2009-2020 1. Important international gateway to the Asia-Pacific region 2. International Modern Service Industry and Advance Manufac- turing Center 3. Urban Region with Global Competitiveness -network urban system with mega-city and large cities as main cores together with medium or small sized towns 4. Ecology, Tourism, Ecological Argiculture 1. Strengthen international competitive position 2. Boosting the economy 3. Increasing strength and dynamics of the cities 4. Developing unusual qualities of the Green Heart The Randstad 2040
Step1:Why twoProgress in Planning are Comparable 190 regions Yangtze River DeltaPlanning System Planning System Province Level Prefecture Level County Level Township Level National Level FIG. 4. The changing urban planning system in China Province Level 2.2.4. Approval of plans City Level Article 21 stipulates the level of authorities in examining and approving plans. The master plans of municipalities that are under the direct jurisdiction of the State Council should be submitted by the municipal government to the State Council for examination and approval. The master plans of provincial capitals and cities with a population of over one million or speci®ed by the State Council should ®rst be exam- ined by the corresponding provincial government or the autonomous region and then http://www.mlit.go.jp/kokudokeikaku/international/spw/general/netherlands/index_e.htmlxv submitted to the State Council for examination and approval. The master plans of other designated cities and cities of county level should be examined and approved The Randstad by the provincial government, autonomous region government, or cities under the direct jurisdiction of the State Council. The cities of county level, that is, under the
Step 2: IndicatorsSupport by Theoretical Framework Comparative Institution of Spatial Interaction Research Spatial Planning Indicators: Indicators: 1. Travel Pattern 3. Inter-city Cooperation 2. Urban Form The Role of Secondary Cities in PURPrivate Actors 4. Analytical Dimension Normative Dimension Morphology Function Value Norms 1. PUR, MUR, DUS 1. Economic Activities 1. Regional Competitiveness 1. Co-operation & Complementarity 2. Alternative Development 2. Measure Interaction 2. Identity and Vitality 2. Regional Organization Capacity 3. Rank-Size Distribution - “Three S-dimensions” 3. Balanced Regional Development 3. Intra-regional Accessibility 4. Spatial Diversity and Quality of Open Space Existing Role Desirable Role
Travel Pattern&Urban Form:Measuring Interaction Travel Pattern Journey to Work Pattern for Leisure Travel Distance, Time, Frequency, Model Choice Activity of Location, Density, Intensity, Mixing use Geography Geography Demography Accessibility of Economic Acitivity of Leisure Activity Settlements Attractions the Orgin the Desintation Urban Form
Step 2: Indicators Accessibility by TimeBAN FORM AND JOB ACCESS: DISPARATE REALITIES IN THE RANDSTAD 241 The Randstad Tai Lake Regionure 3. Jobs within reach, 30 minutes.rce: LISA 1997 (in co-operation with VROM).t locations). From most of the postal code steep. Because for many employees, working inas in the Randstad, workers with a com- the Randstad and living elsewhere would imply
but also promotional partnership. the CUE Forum as member cities by cities outside the delta region should be carefully considered by existing members, for example,Step 2: Indicators Partner selection and actors in partnership formation Maanshan’s application. In addition, partner selection is also af- fected by the kinds of resources in a city. For example, HuangshanInter-city Cooperation Partners (member cities) selection is a complex process, because building and sustaining partnership among cities depend on not city was included in the tourist partnership. In other words, part- nerships for various purposes may decide who should be partners only governing resources, but also member cities’ political, eco- in a given coalition. nomic and social statuses. First, partnership building and mainte- The Netherlands Second, partner selection also depends on the status of member nance is a matter of pooling resources. ‘‘More members of cities. Cities with the same political, economic and social status• The Comprehensive Model. This comprises elected metropolitan authorities with comprehensive powers for strategic planning and a coalition might mean a larger institutional base of resource tend to compete with each other. It is difﬁcult to form partnershipsimplementation. It usually requires the reorganization of existing local administrative arrangements (e.g. Landeshaupstadt Hanover); SWC Planning. The generation, which in turn increases the chances of accomplishing among them. This is evidenced by the failure of• The Core Power Model. This comprises elected or appointed authorities that have the power to undertake strategic planning of a specified range the designated task. The opposite also is true; having fewer SWC region is conceived as a polycentric city-region, in which the members means fewer resources’’ (DiGaetano & Klemanski, 1999: three main cities, Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou are competingof issues (e.g. Verband Region Stuttgart); 22). Perhaps for this reason, Taizhou (ZJ) was included in the CUE intensively with each other, partly due to lack of a leading city.• The Agency/Voluntary Model. This comprises appointed cause Forum as a member city. However, ‘‘grand’’ partnerships may metropolitan agencies or joint bodies with strategic planning responsibilities and Therefore, it is difﬁcult to coordinate cities and form cooperativeadviser implementation functions (e.g. the Öresund Committee). partners instability (Ricker & Ordeshook, 1973), because more relations. Of course, other reasons discussed in this paper alsoTable 3 YRDA typology of partnerships in thematic cooperationType Mechanism Mobilization Aims Partners Actions ExamplesDevelopment Spontaneous Local Joint development Local authorities, Joint agreement Tourism cooperation for mutual beneﬁt private sectors, academic elitesPromotional Spontaneous Local Joint place Local authorities Joint promotional Tourism promotion, marketing, joint brochures and promotion of investment promotion of growth promotional meetings and investment, image- buildingCoordination Hierarchical/ Local or Improving service NGOs-sponsored, Joint agreement, Transportation cooperation, hybrid regional provision and accessibilities authority-led infrastructure infrastructure coordination (both city governments and coordination, streamlining provincial governments) relevant policies, etc.Resource-based Spontaneous/ Regional or Resource sharing Authorities Joint agreement Education cooperation, hybrid local (both human and natural human resource, port resources) cooperationStrategic Hierarchical/ Local and Strengthening competitiveness Authorities Formulating broad Common market, spontaneous regional and alleviating inter-city strategies and cooperation standardizing policies of competition intention investmentNote: Local refers to cities within a province and regional refers to provinces and city under the administration of central government (Zhixiashi).
Data AccessList of Indicators: Data Aavaiblity The Randstad TLR1. Travel Pattern1.1. Travel Pattern by Purpose of economic activity and Leisure ?1.2. Model Choice of Orgin and Desitination (car and public transport)1.3. Travel Distance of Origins and Desitination ?1.4. Travel Frequency of Origins and Desitination ?2. Urban Form2.1. Demography2.2. Ecomomic Acitivity2.3. Leisure Activity2.4. Accessibility3. Inter-city Cooperation4. Private Actors Involvement ?
Result 1. Mapping of Activities & Interaction 2. Review of Current VisionAnalysis 3. A Vision Proposal of TLR and Strategic ProjectsPhasing
1. Mapping of Activities & Interaction2. Review of Current Vision3. A Vision Proposal of TLR and 1. Demography Strategic Projects 1. Population Density 2. Employment Ratio 3. Income (low, medium, high) 4. Amount of People per Householder 5. Car Ownership 5. Spider Map 4. Accessibility 3. Geography 1. Accessibility by of Economic Acitivity Different Transport 1. Empolyment Density 2. Accessibility for 2. Economic Specialisation Economic Activity 3. Interrelation between head 3. Accessibility for Leisure 2. Geography company and branches Activity of Leisure Activity 1. Tourists Density 2. Leisure Specialisation 3. Journey Tour 4. Network of Travel Agency
1. Mapping of Activities & Interaction2. Review of Current Vision3. A Vision Proposal of TLR and Strategic Projects
Overview Spatial Institutional Pat- tern Travel Pattern IntercityQuestion&Aim Comparative Cooperation Research Urban Form Private Actors Result 1. Mapping of Activities & Interaction 2. Review of Current Vision Polycentricity 3. A Vision Proposal of TLR and Strategic Projects 1. Travel Pat- tern