There’s a Monster in my Kitchen: Using Aversive Feedback to Motivate Behaviour Change


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  • So if games can do it - why not persuasive apps? 4:20
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  • There’s a Monster in my Kitchen: Using Aversive Feedback to Motivate Behaviour Change

    1. 1. There’s a Monster in my Kitchen: Using Aversive Feedback to Motivate Behaviour Change Ben Kirman, Conor Linehan, Shaun Lawson, Derek Foster, Mark Doughty Lincoln Social Computing Research Centre (LiSC)
    2. 2. The Weather is pants Stuff happened in Pakistan 
    3. 3. Does my bum look big in this? Why doesn’t someone tell ME the weather for a change?!
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>In designing technology to change the behaviour users, it is useful to consult the science of behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback = Basic behavioural processes </li></ul><ul><li>An example application - train users to adopt more environmentally friendly behaviours in their domestic kitchens. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Feedback <ul><li>Persuasive technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure user behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to change behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But how do we provide feedback? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of feedback? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When/how often? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioural psychology has spent 80 years investigating this! </li></ul>
    6. 6. Feedback <ul><li>Most persuasive applications aim to effect behaviour change simply through offering simple rewards to users. </li></ul><ul><li>If only rewards are offered - what happens when a reward is not obtained? </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural psychology – behaviour is learned not only through rewards, but through the consequences that occur when we don’t reach rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive consequences </li></ul>
    7. 7. Feedback <ul><li>Games are a perfect example of how technology can exploit a combination of appetitive and aversive consequences in order to maintain the motivation and engagement of users. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive technology would benefit from similarly consistent feedback, whether the user reaches behavioural goals or not </li></ul>
    8. 8. Nag Baz Tag
    9. 9. Nag Baz tag <ul><li>Kitchens - resource hungry - using large amounts of power, gas and water. </li></ul><ul><li>The application is able to monitor power usage on a per-appliance basis, and able to track water and gas usage through networked metering devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is given through the unique personality of the Rabbit </li></ul>
    10. 11. Motivating Behaviour Change <ul><li>There are some basic methods of shaping behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>People will work to obtain an appetitive stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Detect that target was reached: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise, or a virtual “gold star”, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of money saved so far. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. You’ve saved so much money this week you can buy me a new hat.
    12. 13. You’ve saved 5p on electricity today. We’re 5p closer to Vegas
    13. 14. Motivating Behaviour Change <ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>People will work to avoid an ongoing aversive stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Detect that target was not reached: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constant nagging by the Nabaztag device over the amount of energy and water being used. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Don’t use so much water. It doesn’t grow on trees!
    15. 16. If you keep leaving the heat on we won’t be able to afford a f**king holiday!
    16. 17. Motivating Behaviour Change <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>People will stop doing something to avoid aversive stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Detect a big mess-up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A long nagging session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant reminders while at work via email, SMS messages, Twitter and Facebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimatums – “ If you don’t come home IN THE NEXT HOUR and turn the tap off, there will be consequences!” </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. Re-cap <ul><li>Consistency in feedback is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Reach target – praise </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t reach target – ongoing nagging </li></ul><ul><li>Really mess up – punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Designing devices/applications in this way should lead to consistent success </li></ul>
    18. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>Nag-baztag - a case study to illustrate how the psychological concepts of operant conditioning can be easily applied in the field of HCI applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The field of persuasive technologies need not be a “research island.” </li></ul>