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Practical, Appropriate, Empirically-Validated Guidelines for Designing Educational Games<br />Conor Linehan1, Ben Kirman1,...
Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based...
Why use games in education?<br />Good question!<br />Generally<br />Grabbing attention<br />Maintaining attention over lon...
Fantasy narrative<br />
Fun<br />
Engagement<br />
Flow<br />
Feedback<br />
Goals<br />
Problem solving<br />
Game Balance<br />
Pacing<br />
Interesting choices<br />
Achievement<br />
Practice<br />
Discovery<br />
Creativity<br />
Experience<br />
Meta-learning<br />
It goes on!!<br />Lots of literature exists on why games should be good tools for education<br />Very little on how to ens...
Using games in education<br /><ul><li>When games are designed to educate, to train, or to modify the behaviour of players…..
They should work
We should should be able to make a case in advance that they will work.
We need an appropriate, proven process</li></li></ul><li>Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating educati...
Games are funLearning is hardForcing people to learn in games can ruin the fun<br />“Chocolate Covered Broccoli”<br />
Integrating games design and education<br />Can it be done?<br />It has already been done! By Entertainment  Games Designe...
Integrating games design and education<br />Game Structure:<br />Short, medium and long-term goals<br />Players must act t...
Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based...
ABA<br />ABA teaching<br />Typically one-to-one <br />Teacher as coach<br />High performance targets <br />Repetition<br /...
The methods through which games designers motivate & engage players are very similar to the methods through which ABA teac...
ABA<br />Also have:<br />Short, medium and long-term goals<br />Must act to reach those goals<br />Immediate, specific fee...
ABA<br />Empirically validated:<br />Successful wherever used<br />University, secondary, primary, driver training, specia...
Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based...
ABA<br />Defining and measuring behaviour<br />Recording and analysingbehaviour change<br />Presenting corrective feedback...
1. Defining & Measuring<br />Define:<br />clear, observable learning outcomes<br />Intrinsic learning (Habgood, 2007)<br /...
2. Recording & Analysing<br />Recording:<br />Everything is recorded! <br />meaningfully<br />big benefit of games to ABA<...
3. Corrective feedback<br />Operant Conditioning <br />Importance of consequences<br />Reinforcement and punishment as app...
4. Dynamically adapting <br />Challenges should be appropriate to the learner / player<br />Balance / pacing<br />ABA has ...
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Practical, Appropriate, Empirically-Validated Guidelines for Designing Educational Games

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Practical, Appropriate, Empirically-Validated Guidelines for Designing Educational Games

  1. 1. Practical, Appropriate, Empirically-Validated Guidelines for Designing Educational Games<br />Conor Linehan1, Ben Kirman1, Shaun Lawson1, Gail G Chan2<br />1Lincoln Social Computing Research Centre (LiSC), University of Lincoln<br />2 School of Health & Social Care, Oxford Brookes University<br />
  2. 2. Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based on ABA<br />Why?<br />1. Measure<br />2. Analyse<br />3. Feedback<br />4. Adapt<br />
  3. 3. Why use games in education?<br />Good question!<br />Generally<br />Grabbing attention<br />Maintaining attention over long periods of time<br />Time-on-task predicts learning<br />Games engender time-on-task<br />Also….<br />
  4. 4. Fantasy narrative<br />
  5. 5. Fun<br />
  6. 6. Engagement<br />
  7. 7. Flow<br />
  8. 8. Feedback<br />
  9. 9. Goals<br />
  10. 10. Problem solving<br />
  11. 11. Game Balance<br />
  12. 12. Pacing<br />
  13. 13. Interesting choices<br />
  14. 14. Achievement<br />
  15. 15. Practice<br />
  16. 16. Discovery<br />
  17. 17. Creativity<br />
  18. 18. Experience<br />
  19. 19. Meta-learning<br />
  20. 20. It goes on!!<br />Lots of literature exists on why games should be good tools for education<br />Very little on how to ensure that they are<br />Hence, very little evidence for success<br />O’Neill et al, (2005) review article<br />Thousands of articles on educational games<br />Only 19 had any sort of analysis of outcomes<br />
  21. 21. Using games in education<br /><ul><li>When games are designed to educate, to train, or to modify the behaviour of players…..
  22. 22. They should work
  23. 23. We should should be able to make a case in advance that they will work.
  24. 24. We need an appropriate, proven process</li></li></ul><li>Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based on ABA<br />Why?<br />1. Measure<br />2. Analyse<br />3. Feedback<br />4. Adapt<br />
  25. 25. Games are funLearning is hardForcing people to learn in games can ruin the fun<br />“Chocolate Covered Broccoli”<br />
  26. 26. Integrating games design and education<br />Can it be done?<br />It has already been done! By Entertainment Games Designers!<br />But games only teach how to jump over chasms, hack zombies, murder prostitutes, rescue princesses etc. <br />We must understand the structure of games & use this in teaching<br />
  27. 27. Integrating games design and education<br />Game Structure:<br />Short, medium and long-term goals<br />Players must act to reach those goals<br />Immediate, specific feedback<br />Complex system of rewards<br />Long complex tasks broken into short, simple tasks<br />These are trained individually then chained together<br />Mastery criterions<br />
  28. 28. Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based on ABA<br />Why?<br />1. Measure<br />2. Analyse<br />3. Feedback<br />4. Adapt<br />
  29. 29. ABA<br />ABA teaching<br />Typically one-to-one <br />Teacher as coach<br />High performance targets <br />Repetition<br />Quantitative<br />Specific timely feedback<br />~90% passing criterion<br />Sound familiar? It’s very appropriate<br />
  30. 30. The methods through which games designers motivate & engage players are very similar to the methods through which ABA teaches. <br />
  31. 31. ABA<br />Also have:<br />Short, medium and long-term goals<br />Must act to reach those goals<br />Immediate, specific feedback<br />Complex system of rewards<br />Long complex tasks broken into short, simple tasks<br />These are trained individually then chained together<br />Mastery criterions<br />
  32. 32. ABA<br />Empirically validated:<br />Successful wherever used<br />University, secondary, primary, driver training, special populations.<br />Early intervention for children with autistic spectrum disorders.<br />Practical:<br />ideal for machine implementation<br />Quantitative; algorithmic<br />
  33. 33. Structure<br />Using games for education<br />Integrating education & games design<br />Building an educational game based on ABA<br />Why?<br />1. Measure<br />2. Analyse<br />3. Feedback<br />4. Adapt<br />
  34. 34. ABA<br />Defining and measuring behaviour<br />Recording and analysingbehaviour change<br />Presenting corrective feedback<br />Dynamically adapting to student performance<br />
  35. 35. 1. Defining & Measuring<br />Define:<br />clear, observable learning outcomes<br />Intrinsic learning (Habgood, 2007)<br />Hierarchy<br />Measuring: <br />Behaviour must be quantifiable<br />Those numbers should be meaningful<br />
  36. 36. 2. Recording & Analysing<br />Recording:<br />Everything is recorded! <br />meaningfully<br />big benefit of games to ABA<br />Analyse: <br />change in behaviour<br />Accuracy is dependent on how well behaviour has been defined, measured and recorded<br />
  37. 37. 3. Corrective feedback<br />Operant Conditioning <br />Importance of consequences<br />Reinforcement and punishment as appropriate<br />Scheduling rewards and punishment<br />Huge amount of evidence on how this should be done<br />
  38. 38. 4. Dynamically adapting <br />Challenges should be appropriate to the learner / player<br />Balance / pacing<br />ABA has developed algorithms that deal with this<br />Evaluating effectiveness of feedback<br />All ‘rewards’ are not reinforcing<br />There are mathematical ways of evaluating the effect that rewards are having on player behaviour<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Conclusion<br />To advance educational games we need a proven, appropriate scientific framework<br />ABA teaches in a similar way to games, so it’s appropriate….<br />….and very successful<br />…..and Practical<br />If not ABA, we need something very like it<br />Read the paper!<br />
  41. 41. Conor Linehan<br />Lincoln Social Computing (LiSC) research centre<br />clinehan@lincoln.ac.uk<br />http://lisc.lincoln.ac.uk<br />This work was carried out as part of the "Leonardo" project "Learn to Lead” funded by the EU Lifelong Learning Program (http://www.learn2lead.unina.it).<br />

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