Designing mobile technology to promote sustainableDesigning Mobile Technology to Promote Sustainable Food Choices

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  • Despite the fact that the UK has pretty much the ideal climate for growing potatoes
  • Recent studies have identified that topsoil erosion [17], depletion of fish stocks [13], tainting of meat products, depletion of oil reserves and climate change can all be linked to the method inwhich food is currently produced, distributed and consumed.There are many ways this can be addressed – i.e., on governmental or industrial scale. With laws, sanctions, quotas, labelling, availability, tracing etc. We are focusing on what the consumer can do. If people choose more sustainable food, then industry will have to follow. So how can we change user behaviour? Make people want to act sustainably?
  • Even if the food is there, its affordable and appropriately labelled, it important that people actually buy it!This is something that we can address with technology.
  • ……… essentially what we are proposing constitutes a behavioural intervention. We need to get people to change their pattern of behaviour for a more appropriate one. In order to do that we need a definition of appropriate behaviour, a way of measuring user behaviour and a method of presenting feedback.Before we can develop methods for measuring behaviour and presenting corrective feedback we must have a definition of
  • the question of whether it is preferable to grow fruit at a low carbon cost in the third world and air freight it to the UK, or to grow the fruit at a higher carbon cost in the UK, is a dilemma that currently appears to be a value judgment.If theres no definition then we cant do anything!
  • So using digital cameras (or camera phones), a simple web up-loader, and a simple taggign app had a low cost system for recording and analysing dietary behaviour
  • So, it seems that this type of crowd-sourced image processing is good for the analysis part. People were (perhaps understandably) hesitant to divulge eating habits to strangers – even though it was anonymous.Something we’ll have to look at further is ways to encourage greater uploading – sharing – divulging etc.
  • What we’re proposing – perhaps suggestions from you guys on how we can improve upon this idea. There are some identified shortcomings.In terms of feedback – these are aesthetic of formal features. It’s also essential to consider the functional features of feedback. Behavioural psychology.
  • Obviously a generalisation, but it is the trend that I’ve observed.Presenting corrective feedback is essentially operant conditioning.
  • Apart from the interface, the peripherals, software architecture, usability. In persuasive technology there should be a phase that considers the design in terms of behavioural principles
  • Designing mobile technology to promote sustainableDesigning Mobile Technology to Promote Sustainable Food Choices

    1. 1. Designing Mobile Technology to Promote SustainableFood Choices<br />Conor Linehan, Jonathan Ryan, Mark Doughty, Ben Kirman, Shaun Lawson<br />Lincoln Social Computing Research Centre<br />
    2. 2. Background – Sustainable Food<br />Background – Behavioural interventions<br />Definition of appropriate behaviour<br />Measurement of user behaviour<br />Previous work<br />Proposed modification for current purposes<br />Presenting corrective feedback<br />Introduction<br />
    3. 3. In Winter the UK imports potatoes from Egypt, grown in the desert with seed from Scotland, water from 350m deep wells, and packed in peat from Ireland<br />
    4. 4. Sustainable Food<br />In 2004, the UK imported 17.2m kilos of chocolate-covered waffles and wafers, and exported 17.6m kilos.<br />Imported 10.2m kilos of milk & cream from France & exported 9.9m. Similar with Germany.<br />Imported 44,000 tonnes of frozen boneless chicken, exported 51,000 tonnes of fresh boneless chicken.<br />
    5. 5. the method in which food is currently produced, distributed and consumed is having a detrimental effect on our environment.<br />reaching an understanding of, and improving the sustainability of, the food that we consume is of growing interest.<br />we believe there is a need to directly engage the individual consumer in the process…..<br />Sustainable Food<br />
    6. 6. Problem: although consumers are prepared to pay more for eco-friendly items, and rate them of high importance, they rarely purchase such items<br />attitude-behaviour gap,<br />consumers need both access to sustainable produce and confidence in their ability to identify sustainable produce<br />mobile and social technology may facilitate these goals.<br />Sustainable Food<br />
    7. 7. In order to perform any behavioural intervention we need:<br />a clear definition of appropriate behaviour, <br />a way of measuring user behaviour <br />a method of presenting corrective feedback<br />In this case we need:<br />A definition of sustainable behaviour<br />A method for recording user behaviour (food purchasing) and analysing it in terms of this definition<br />A method for using the outcomes of this analysis to change user behaviour (more sustainable food purchasing)<br />Behavioural Interventions<br />
    8. 8. Problem: no definition or objective measure of ‘sustainability’ - environmental and social sustainability<br />within environmental sustainability, there exist subtleties that make it hard to define how sustainable any given item is.<br />no requirement for manufacturers to disclose where ingredients and components have been sourced (known as supply chain transparency).<br />Defining the sustainability of any one item can be quite a grey area.<br />Definition<br />
    9. 9. But, we must have some useable definition<br />Solution: we have adopted the goals of the “Slow Food” movement, which emphasises the consumption of local and seasonal produce over that which is imported and/or out-of-season <br />(see http://www.slowfood.com for more details).<br />food consumption will be evaluated in terms of how closely it adheres to the goals of the “Slow Food” movement<br />Definition<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11. previous work: Tagliatelle<br />utilised social media as a means of facilitating dietary behaviour change<br />Web application – users upload digital photos of meals to a server– accurate recording<br />which anonymously distributed photos to other users for tagging – low-cost analysis system<br />each photo uploaded was tagged several times by different users, generating a rich history of tags for each photograph uploaded.<br />Recording & analysing user Behaviour<br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13.
    14. 14. although problems extrapolating valid nutritional information from user generated tags (addressed in recent version), the activity of tagging fellow users’ photographs was very popular. <br />This finding is consistent with work in the field of human computation.<br />this type of crowd-sourced image analysis may prove useful for a number of different tasks, including food sustainability.<br />Recording & analysing user Behaviour<br />
    15. 15. So, what we’re proposing here is an application that allows:<br />Photo Uploading<br />How do we improve disclosure?<br />Photo Tagging<br />What form should these take?<br />How to reflect the slow food goals?<br />Providing Feedback<br />What is appropriate?<br />Graphs, mini-games<br />Personal goals, social norms<br />Recording & analysing user Behaviour<br />
    16. 16. Persuasive technology - designed with the specific aim of effecting change in user behaviour, but few have used empirically established methods for doing so.<br />Lack of specific insights into the processes involved – and - specific examples of how to apply these processes.<br />But - there is an entire academic discipline that sets out to examine precisely these questions – behavioural psychology<br />Presenting corrective feedback<br />
    17. 17. In the current application, we will endeavour to provide consistent,regular and specific feedback, regardless of whether participants reach their goals or not.<br />a range of available reward structures, such as mini-games, social networking and competitive leader boards, and will ensure that the system is adaptive enough to recognize and utilize the types of rewards that are most effective for each participant<br />in order to create effective persuasive technologies, the methodologies of behaviour analysis must be employed as an integral design phase.<br />Presenting corrective feedback<br />
    18. 18. We have proposed the design of a system that may help users to gain an overall picture of the sustainability of their own food choices. <br />We have also suggested that behaviour analysis can help HCI researchers design the way in which feedback is delivered to users, in order to create applications that are both engaging and useful.<br />Conclusions<br />

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