Electricity plays a major role in the industry and the economy is mainly produced in thermal power plants, water, nuclear and wind power. Thermal power plants produce more than 60% of global electricity production. Unlike hydro thermal power plants do not pollute the environment.Hydroelectric plants require adequate terrain and the vast potential of water, as well as incurring the large costs associated with the construction of dams. However, hydropower is much cheaper than the thermal and environmental terms are better than heat, and can be used in different seasons. Hydroelectric power plants provide 21% of electricity in the world.
Existing in more than 30 countries, nuclear power plants produce about 17% of the total electricity production in the world. The main advantage of nuclear power is a huge performance and thorium-uranium nuclear fuel core. World nuclear energy consumption in the period 1970-1985 increased 10 - fold. Nuclear power plants do not pollute the environment with dust and noxious gases, but there are difficulties with the safe disposal of radioactive waste.
In 2011, Poland produced some 163 billion kWh gross from 33 GWe of mostly coal plant.Coal provided 141 TWh (86.5%) of the electricity, gas 5.8 TWh (3.5%), biofuels 7.9 TWh (4.8%) and wind 2.7 TWh (1.6%). Net exports were 1.4 billion kWh and in 2010 domestic consumption was 118 billion kWh, or 3100 kWh/yr per capita.
Exhaustion of energy reserves and oil crises meant that the world is looking for alternative energy sources. Rising energy costs and the risk of running out of energy resources are the driving force behind the search for alternative energy sources.The first asked for the oldest, known for centuries solutions. It belongs to the use of wind and solar power.
Wind turbines have a capacity of approximately 200 kW.The advantage of this type of plant is that it is environmentally friendly.
The little solar energy is used. Opportunities preclude the use of technology. Solar power of 1000 MW would need to have an area 104 m2.Keep in mind that most of sunny days per year are located in areas of low latitudes. For these reasons, solar panels are popular only in households and small farms. Placed on the roofs of buildings, heat water or are used for drying grain or feed.
In the household or farm for years used geothermal resources, the energy of hot springs and geysers.Thermal waters at a depth of 250-600m can reach a temperature of 3000 C.
The future of the project using seawater temperature difference. In a hot climate zones at the surface temperature may reach over 300 ° C, while the deep water drops to 3-40 C.Creation of recirculated water between the layers of different temperatures allow for the driving steam generators. Also in the design phase of the experiment is the use of sea water as a raw material for the production of hydrogen-fuel hydrogen fusion. As can be seen in the field of energy is still much to be done.