Verbs in English

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A complete explanation on how verbs are made and used in English vs Spanish. Good grammar information and also useful for reading practice.

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Verbs in English

  1. 1. Verbos: Tiempos de conjugación y significados David Hiram Verduzco, Enrique Meneses, Stephanie Santamaría
  2. 2. ¿ QUÉ ES UN VERBO? Clase de palabra con la que se expresan acciones, procesos, estados o existencia que afectan a las personas o las cosas; tiene variación de tiempo, aspecto, modo, voz, número y persona; y funciona como núcleo del predicado. El verbo inglés es diferente al verbo español por dos razones principales: Primero, lleva pocas inflexiones. Los verbos regulares e irregulares, con la excepción del verbo "to be", cambian solamente en la tercera persona singular (él, ella - he, she, it) en el tiempo presente. Este cambio se presenta en la terminación de una "s". Segundo, se puede decir que el verbo inglés solamente posee dos tiempos: pasado y presente (anduve - I walked; ando - I walk). Para hablar del futuro hay que emplear aspectos compuestos del verbo o auxiliares (andaré - I will walk; I'm going to walk etc.), los cuáles se llaman los auxiliares modales (modal auxiliaries). ¿ EN QUE ES DIFERENTE ?
  3. 3. ¿CUANTOS TIPOS DE VERBOS HAY?  Podemos clasificar los verbos en cuatro clases. Verbos regulares. Son los que se conjugan siguiendo dos reglas: el Simple Past y el Past Participle tienen exactamente la misma terminación – ed Ejemplo: dance - danced – danced Verbos irregulares. Los verbos irregulares en inglés son aquellos cuyo pasado simple y participio pasado no siguen ninguna regla ; la palabra cambia en su totalidad . Ejemplo: eat - ate – eaten Verbos auxiliares. Sólo hay tres pero son muy importantes: to be, to do y to have. Se llaman así porque aparte de poder utilizarse como verbos principales se usan como auxiliares, es decir, acompañan a cualquier otro verbo, que será el verbo principal, para construir los tiempos verbales. Ejemplo: you are eating I have eaten Do you speak English?
  4. 4. Verbos Modales. Son verbos auxiliares que no pueden funcionar como un verbo principal. Pueden expresar habilidad, posibilidad, necesidad u otra condición. Son verbos auxiliares del futuro y del condicional. Como verbos complementarios que son, no funcionan sin otro verbo. Este otro verbo siempre va después del verbo modal y está en la forma de base (el infinitivo sin "to"). No se conjugan los verbos modales y no tienen tiempo. Los verbos modales son: can, could, may, might, will, shall, should, ought to, must y would. Ejemplo. I can speak five languages. I couldn't sleep last night May I leave now? (http://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/irregular-verbs.php)
  5. 5. CONJUGACION DE VERBOS EN INGLES TIEMPOS SIMPLES. Compuestos por el sujeto y el verbo TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. (presente, pasado y futuro). Estan compuestos por el verbo “estar” (to be) convenientemente conjugado Y el verbo principal en “gerundio” TIEMPOS PERFECTOS. están compuestos por el verbo “haber” (to have) convenientemente conjugado Y el verbo principal en participio
  6. 6. Presente Simple: En general, el presente simple expresa hechos o situaciones que existen, por lo general, habitualmente, sino que ahora existen, han existido en el pasado, y es probable que existan en el futuro. Ejemplos: It snows in Alaska. I watch television everyday. I visit my cousin all the time. Pasado Simple: Actividad ocurrida en un momento dado en el pasado, esto ocurrió. Comenzó y terminó en el pasado. Ejemplos: It snowed yesterday. I watched television last night. I visited my cousin last year. Futuro Simple : En un determinado momento en el futuro esta acción va a suceder. Ejemplos: It will snow tomorrow. I will watch television tonight. I will visit my cousin later. Tiempos Simples
  7. 7. PRESENTE SIMPLE Sujeto + verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Infinitive He/she/it + -s I work He Works I go He goes I don’t work He doesn’t work I don’t go He doesn’t go Do I work? Does he work? Do I go? Does go?  I go to the party.  He/she goes to the party PRESENTE CONTINUO Sujeto + to be + verbo –ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative To be (am/are/is)+ Infinitive + ing (I’m) I am working (He’s) He is working I am going He is going I’m not working He isn’t working I’m not going He isn’t going Am I working? Is he working? Am i going? Is he going?  He is going to the party  She is always shouting USO: Acción que se esta desarrollando en este momento /Acción habitual que se repite frecuentemente  TIEMPOS DE CONJUGACIÓN
  8. 8. PRESENTE PERFECTO Sujeto + have/has + p.p v FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Have/has + past participle* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I have worked He has worked I have gone He has gone I haven’t worked He hasn’t worked I haven’t gone He hasn’t gone Have I worked? Has he worked? Have I gone? Has he gone?  He has cleaned the window  I have bought a car PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO Sujeto + have/has + been + verbo -ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Have/has + been+ infinitive + ing I have been working He has been working I have been going He has been going I haven’t been working He hasn’t been working I haven’t been going He hasn’t been going Have I been working? Has he been working? Have I been going? Has he been going?  I have been studying  I have been waiting for you USO: describe acciones que acaban de suceder en el pasado y que guardan alguna relación con el presente. Describe acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que aun no han finalizado USO: se refiere acciones que se iniciaron en el pasado y que en el momento prsente se siguen desarrollando / acciones que se iniciaron en el pasado y que acaban de finalizar.
  9. 9. PASADO SIMPLE Sujeto + verbo en pasado FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Regular: Infinitive + -ed Irregular: 2nd column of table of irregular verbs I worked He worked I went He went I didn’t work He didn’t work I didn’t go He didn’t go Did I work? Did he work? Did I go? Did he go?  I studied English USO: se refiere a una acción que se desarrollo en el pasado. PASADO CONTINUO Sujeto + to be pasado + verbo -ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Was / were + infinitive + ing I was working He was working I was going He was going I wasn’t working He wasn’t working I wasn’t going He wasn’t going Was I working Was he working Was I going Was he going  Last Monday he was travelling USO:describe acciones que se estaban desarrollando en el momento del pasado al que nos estamos refiriendo y que continuaron después de ese momento.
  10. 10. PASADO PERFECTO Sujeto + had + participio del verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Had + past participe* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I had worked He had worked I had gone He had gone I hadn’t worked He hadn’t worked I hadn’t gone He hadn’t gone Had I worked? Had he worked? Had I gone? had he gone?  She had waited for you USO: es el pasado del presente perfecto.
  11. 11. FUTURE – WILL Sujeto + will + infinitivo del verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Will + infinitive I’ll work He’ll work I’ll go He’ll go I won’t work He won’t work I won’t go He won’t go Will i work? Will he work? Will I go? Will he go?  I think it will snow USO: Se utiliza para hablar de un futuro no planificado o incierto También para hacer predicciones FUTURE – GOING TO Sujeto + be going to + verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Be (am/are/is) + going to + infinitive I’m going to work He’s going to work I’m going to go He’s going to go I’m not going to work He’s not going to work I’m not going to go He’s not going to go Am I going to work Is he going to work Am I going to go Is he going to go  Are you going to take the car tonight? USO: Accion relativa a una intensión o una decisión que se había tomado con anterioridad, se utiliza para expresar planes,citas, etc.
  12. 12. FUTURE CONTINUOS Sujeto + will + be+ verbo -ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Will + be infinitive + ing I’ll be working He’ll be working I’ll be going He’ll be going I won’t be working He won’t be working I won’t be going He won’t be going will I be working will he be working Will I be going Will he be going  She will be visiting her mother USO: se utiliza el “future continuos” para describir una acción que va a tener lugar en el futuro y que en el momento del tiempo al que nos referimos aun seguirá desarrollándose. Este momento del futuro puede mencionarse o no en la oración.
  13. 13. FUTURO PERFECTO Sujeto + will + have + pp verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Will + have + past participe* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I’ll have worked He’ll have worked I’ll have gone He’ll have gone I won’t have worked He won’t have worked I won’t have gone He won’t have gone will I have worked? will he have worked? Will I have gone? Will he have gone?  Before summer you will have sold your house USO: describir acciones que están ya desarrollando o que se van a desarrollar en el futuro, pero que, en cualquier caso, cuando llegue ese momento futuro al nos estamos refiriendo la acción ya habrá finalizado. Esta forma suele utilizar con una expresión temporal.
  14. 14. CONDICIONAL SIMPLE If+ sujeto+ verbo pasado sujeto + would + infinitivo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Would + infinitive I would work He would work I would go He would go I wouldn’t work He wouldn’t work I wouldn’t go He wouldn’t go would I work? would he work? would I go? would he go?  if I worked, I would pass the exam USO: Que podría suceder. Clausula tipo II de “if” CONDICIONAL CONTINUO FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Would + be + infinitive + ing I would be working He would be working I would be going He would be going I wouldn’t be working He wouldn’t be working I wouldn’t be going He wouldn’t be going would I be working? would he be working? would I be going? would he be going? USO: Que podría suceder. Longitud de tiempo en una acción
  15. 15.  if I had worked, I would have passed the exam CONDICIONAL PERFECTO If + sujeto + past perfect + Sujeto + would have + pp FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Woluld + have + past participe* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I would have worked He would have worked I would have gone He would have gone I wouldn’t have worked He wouldn’t have worked I wouldn’t have gone He wouldn’t have gone would I have worked? would he have worked? would I have gone? would he have gone? USO: Que podría haber sucedido en el pasadol Clausula tipo III de “if”
  16. 16. PASSIVE Formas del verbo VERB TENSE STRUCTURE EXAMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE Am/are/is + pp Spanish is poken here PRESENT CONTINUOS Am/are/is being + pp Your questions are being answered FUTURE (will) Will be + pp It’llbe painted bu next week FUTURE (going to) Am/are/is going tobe + pp This house going to be built by my father PAST SIMPLE Was/were being + pp We were invited to the party PAST CONTINUOS Was/were + pp The hotel room was being cleaned, when… PRESENT PERFECT Have/has been + pp The President has been shot PAST PERFECT Had been + pp His money had been stolen when…
  17. 17. Ejemplos: arise arose arisen surgir, originarse awake awoke awoken despertar(se) bear bore borne soportar beat beat beaten golpear become became become convertirse en begin began begun empezar bend bent bent doblar(se) bet bet bet apostar bid bid bid pujar (en apuestas) bind bound bound encuadernar bite bit bitten morder bleed bled bled sangrar blow blew blown soplar break broke broken romper breed bred bred criar bring brought brought traer build built built construir burn burnt burnt quemar(se) burst burst burst estallar buy bought bought comprar cast cast cast tirar catch caught caught atrapar choose chose chosen elegir cling clung clung aferrarse come came come venir cost cost cost costar creep crept crept arrastrar cut cut cut cortar deal dealt dealt tratar dig dug dug cavar
  18. 18. do did done hacer draw drew drawn dibujar dream dreamt dreamt soñar drink drank drunk beber drive drove driven conducir eat ate eaten comer fall fell fallen caer(se) feed fed fed alimentar feel felt felt sentirse fight fought fought pelearse find found found encontrar flee fled fled huir fly flew flown volar forbid forbade forbidden prohibir forget forgot forgotten olvidar(se) forgive forgave forgiven perdonar freeze froze frozen congelar(se) get got got conseguir give gave given dar go went gone irse
  19. 19. ESTRATEGIAS DE APRENDIZAJE Y ACTIVIDAD

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