WHAT DO THESEWORDSHAVE IN COMMON?   Which              Us     He             Ones    This            Those  Former ...
PRONOUNSA  pronountakesthe place of a nounornouns. Pronouns can be singular or plural, andthey  can be masculine, femini...
EXAMPLEArtisonly   a substitutewhilethebeautyoflifei sstilldeficient. Itwilldisappear in proportion as lifegains in equil...
PRONOUNS Anantecedentisthenounornounstowhich   a  pronounrefers. A pronounshouldagreewithitsantecedent in  number, perso...
EXAMPLEEven  before he beganit, Picasso knew that theDemoiselles d’Avignonwas noordinary work. The sources onwhich he dre...
EXAMPLEEven  before he beganit, Picasso knew that theDemoiselles d’Avignonwasno ordinary work. The sourceson whichhe drew...
 Itwas  in 1919 when Walter Gropiousopenedthe Bauhaus in Weimar. Thiswastobecometheschoolthatpioneeredthete achingandprac...
I / YOU / HE / SHE / IT / WE / YOU / THEYTaylordiagnosedthethre emainproblemsof industrial psychology. Hetriedtoprovehisp...
ME / YOU / HIM / HER / IT / US / YOU / THEMWhen    a childsellsroses at thestreetandyoubuyt hem, you are participating in...
THIS / THAT / THESE / THOSEUndergroundeconom yisalsoknown as theinformal market. Thisisoneofthemanyt ermsit has received.
People  producegoodsandservices.Thisoriginatesmarkets.
People producegoodsandservices.Thisoriginatesmarkets.
ONE / ONESThecollapseofanecon omyistheresultofmany factors. Oneisthattheconversi onofprofittointernalsav ingsisnotautomat...
Thecollapseofaneconomyistheresultofmanyfactors.Oneisthattheconversionofprofittointernalsavingsisnotautomatic.
SUCH (+ NOUN)Our   era isdistinguished by muchdiscussiononpatriotism,  social welfare, law, andorder. Somepeoplebelieveth...
Our era isdistinguished bymuchdiscussiononpatriotism, socialwelfare, law, andorder.Somepeoplebelievethatsuch talk isonly ...
SOThetreasurerisworrieda boutthepresenteconomic situation. He thinkstherateofinflationwi llrise. I think so, too.
Thetreasurerisworriedaboutthepresenteconomicsituation.Hethinkstherateofinflationwillrise. Ithinkso, too.
THEFORMER / THELATTERIndustrious, useful human beings may be dividedintotwoclasses: peopleforwhomworkisworkandpl easureis...
Industrious, useful human beings may be dividedintotwoclasses: peopleforwhomworkisworkan dpleasureispleasureandpeopl efor...
Politicalauthorityandeducation arecommonsourcesofsocial status.Thelatter, however, isusuallyeasytoachieve.
Politicalauthorityandeducation arecommonsourcesofsocial status.Thelatter, however, isusuallyeasytoachieve.
THERE Engels returnedfromEngland a changedman, what he witnessedthereledhimtowrit ehisbookontheconditionofth eEnglishwork...
EngelsreturnedfromEngland a changedman, what hewitnessedthereledhimtowritehisbookontheconditionoftheEnglishworkingclass, ...
   For more informationseethegrammarbook:       Unit 10 “The Use ofAntecedents”           pp 155 - 163
 1. The simplest Keynisian theory of the  business cycle called the multiplier  accelerator theory provides only a brief ...
 3. Market forces are capable of  regulating the economy, however  experience tells us that this is not true. 4. Althoug...
 6. States interested in stimulating  economic growth compete for jobs and  new businesses in a variety of ways. They  pr...
 8. In the world of business  executives, images of status and  achievement pedominate.  These, however, are so uniform t...
 10. In what may behismost famous  contribution, Thorstein Veblen challenged  the assumptions built into the laws of  sup...
 12.Most of the work involved with credit card operations is now handled by comoputers. Charges for the use of credit car...
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Pronouns Explanation

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Pronouns Explanation

  1. 1. WHAT DO THESEWORDSHAVE IN COMMON? Which Us He Ones This Those Former Himself Them such
  2. 2. PRONOUNSA pronountakesthe place of a nounornouns. Pronouns can be singular or plural, andthey can be masculine, feminineorneuter. They can be in thenominativeortheobjective case. Thepronounsthat are usedmostfrequently are called personal pronouns.
  3. 3. EXAMPLEArtisonly a substitutewhilethebeautyoflifei sstilldeficient. Itwilldisappear in proportion as lifegains in equilibrium. • Piet Mondrian
  4. 4. PRONOUNS Anantecedentisthenounornounstowhich a pronounrefers. A pronounshouldagreewithitsantecedent in number, person, andsometimesgender. There are manydifferentkindsofpronouns, theimportant thingistolearntorecognizetheirantecedents, which can occurbeforeorafterthepronoun in thetext. A pronoun’santecedent can be onewordor a complete sentenceor idea.
  5. 5. EXAMPLEEven before he beganit, Picasso knew that theDemoiselles d’Avignonwas noordinary work. The sources onwhich he drew to create thisremarkable work have beenfrequently discussed andanalysed.
  6. 6. EXAMPLEEven before he beganit, Picasso knew that theDemoiselles d’Avignonwasno ordinary work. The sourceson whichhe drew tocreatethisremarkable workhave been frequently discussedand analysed.
  7. 7.  Itwas in 1919 when Walter Gropiousopenedthe Bauhaus in Weimar. Thiswastobecometheschoolthatpioneeredthete achingandpracticeofmodern industrial andarchitecturaldesign. Thepainterwhodominatedtheschoolduringitsfirst fouryearswas Johannes Itten, whosestudentsvariedconsiderably in abilitiesandinclinations. Thus, Ittendiscoveredwhatbecamethebasicorfou ndationcourse, whichwasdesignedtofamiliarizet hestudentwiththecharacterofthematerialshehan dledandthepotentialitiesofhisownart.
  8. 8. I / YOU / HE / SHE / IT / WE / YOU / THEYTaylordiagnosedthethre emainproblemsof industrial psychology. Hetriedtoprovehispoint by comparingresults.
  9. 9. ME / YOU / HIM / HER / IT / US / YOU / THEMWhen a childsellsroses at thestreetandyoubuyt hem, you are participating in theundergroundecon omy.
  10. 10. THIS / THAT / THESE / THOSEUndergroundeconom yisalsoknown as theinformal market. Thisisoneofthemanyt ermsit has received.
  11. 11. People producegoodsandservices.Thisoriginatesmarkets.
  12. 12. People producegoodsandservices.Thisoriginatesmarkets.
  13. 13. ONE / ONESThecollapseofanecon omyistheresultofmany factors. Oneisthattheconversi onofprofittointernalsav ingsisnotautomatic.
  14. 14. Thecollapseofaneconomyistheresultofmanyfactors.Oneisthattheconversionofprofittointernalsavingsisnotautomatic.
  15. 15. SUCH (+ NOUN)Our era isdistinguished by muchdiscussiononpatriotism, social welfare, law, andorder. Somepeoplebelievethatsuch talk isonly a masktohideprivateindifferenc etopublicissues.
  16. 16. Our era isdistinguished bymuchdiscussiononpatriotism, socialwelfare, law, andorder.Somepeoplebelievethatsuch talk isonly amasktohideprivateindifferencetopublicissues.
  17. 17. SOThetreasurerisworrieda boutthepresenteconomic situation. He thinkstherateofinflationwi llrise. I think so, too.
  18. 18. Thetreasurerisworriedaboutthepresenteconomicsituation.Hethinkstherateofinflationwillrise. Ithinkso, too.
  19. 19. THEFORMER / THELATTERIndustrious, useful human beings may be dividedintotwoclasses: peopleforwhomworkisworkandpl easureispleasureandpeopleforw homworkandpleasure are one. Theformer are themajority.
  20. 20. Industrious, useful human beings may be dividedintotwoclasses: peopleforwhomworkisworkan dpleasureispleasureandpeopl eforwhomworkandpleasure are one. Theformer are themajority.
  21. 21. Politicalauthorityandeducation arecommonsourcesofsocial status.Thelatter, however, isusuallyeasytoachieve.
  22. 22. Politicalauthorityandeducation arecommonsourcesofsocial status.Thelatter, however, isusuallyeasytoachieve.
  23. 23. THERE Engels returnedfromEngland a changedman, what he witnessedthereledhimtowrit ehisbookontheconditionofth eEnglishworkingclass, as seenfrom a socialistperspective.
  24. 24. EngelsreturnedfromEngland a changedman, what hewitnessedthereledhimtowritehisbookontheconditionoftheEnglishworkingclass, asseenfrom asocialistperspective.
  25. 25.  For more informationseethegrammarbook:  Unit 10 “The Use ofAntecedents”  pp 155 - 163
  26. 26.  1. The simplest Keynisian theory of the business cycle called the multiplier accelerator theory provides only a brief outline of reality but it is an excellent analytical framework for other realistic theories. 2. The Western philosophies most influential in 20th century China have been pragmatism and materialism. The former, illustrated in the writings of Hu Shi, conceived of ideas as instruments to cope with actual situations and emphasized results.
  27. 27.  3. Market forces are capable of regulating the economy, however experience tells us that this is not true. 4. Although in recent years people frequent cinemas less and less, film making is still a major industry. There are a number of reasons for this. Although many economists agree with Keynesian theories, they are too simple to explain many of the complexities of today’s economies.
  28. 28.  6. States interested in stimulating economic growth compete for jobs and new businesses in a variety of ways. They provide tax incentives and special funds to lure foreign or domestic companies to move to their state. 7. Keynes not only explained the possibility of depressions and inflation but also laid down possible solutions for these problems within the private enterprise system.
  29. 29.  8. In the world of business executives, images of status and achievement pedominate. These, however, are so uniform that it is often difficult to evaluate any act that does not conform to an absolute standard. 9. In spite of the increased risk associated with socially undesirable activities, prohibition of these makes them highly lucrative and profitable. It is debatable whether the legalization of some products and theirdistribution would make themdisappear or diminish.
  30. 30.  10. In what may behismost famous contribution, Thorstein Veblen challenged the assumptions built into the laws of supply and demand. 11. The practice of employing children to work in factories proved profitable and popular from the outset of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s. This was highly critized by state governments in the 19th and early 20th century and actions were initiated to abolish it.
  31. 31.  12.Most of the work involved with credit card operations is now handled by comoputers. Charges for the use of credit cards are sometimes paid directly by the cardholder, and sometimes borne by the reail establishments that accept them. In the latter case, the cost is absorbed into the price of the merchandise.

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