Negotiation and Aristotle

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The three modes of persuasion described in Aristotle's Rhetoric are useful strategic tools for the negotiator.

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Negotiation and Aristotle

  1. 1. ARISTOTLE 384 - 322 B.C.
  2. 2. THE RHETORIC The Art of Persuasion <ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Personal character makes speech credible </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Stirring the emotions of the listener </li></ul><ul><li>Rational </li></ul><ul><li>Proving a truth by demonstrative argument </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhetoric is a toolbox for political orators </li></ul>
  3. 3. RATIONAL MODE 1 <ul><li>Western thought processes are Aristotelian </li></ul><ul><li>We can not hold contradictory points of view </li></ul><ul><li>Basic logic must be adhered to </li></ul><ul><li>Propositions supported by verifiable facts </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Refutation </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Degree </li></ul>
  4. 4. RATIONAL MODE 2 Case Study 1 : Irish Social Partnership <ul><li>Employer/Union relations pre 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Adversarial pay bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>High inflation = economic stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Bertie Ahern’s proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Tax + inflation erode pay increases </li></ul><ul><li>Offer tax cuts in return for pay restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened union leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic attitude, open to rational argument </li></ul><ul><li>Investment the motor of growth and employment </li></ul>
  5. 5. RATIONAL MODE 3 Differing rational systems <ul><li>Within Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>France : Cartesian rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>British Isles : Baconian empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Europe </li></ul><ul><li>China : rational approach may be inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>« Rhetoric is concerned not with what seems probable to a given individual … but with what seems probable to men of a given type » </li></ul>
  6. 6. ETHICAL MODE 1 Gaining trust requires going beyond fact and argument <ul><li>3 qualities inspire confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Good sense </li></ul><ul><li>Good moral character </li></ul><ul><li>Goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity, credibility and reputation are key </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul>
  7. 7. ETHICAL MODE 2 <ul><li>Case Study 2 : Jimmy Carter </li></ul><ul><li>Camp David, SALT II, Conflict mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Justice for all parties involved </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 3 : Robert Maxwell </li></ul><ul><li>Buyout of Daily Mirror, breaking union power </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty tricks </li></ul>
  8. 8. EMOTIONAL MODE 1 Get the other party to like (or fear) you <ul><li>Friendly feeling </li></ul><ul><li>We call this building rapport, networking </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior likely to elicit positive attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Good temper </li></ul><ul><li>Humour </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t criticize </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t hold grudges </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t badmouth others </li></ul><ul><li>Admiration </li></ul><ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul>
  9. 9. EMOTIONAL MODE 2 <ul><li>Emotional strategy is key </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional strategy is inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul>
  10. 10. EMOTIONAL MODE 3 <ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>« the expectation that something destructive will happen » </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 4 : P&G Joint Venture Company </li></ul><ul><li>Insist on concessions </li></ul><ul><li>Apply pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Make threats </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>« the expectation associated with a mental picture of </li></ul><ul><li>the nearness of what keeps us safe and the absence </li></ul><ul><li>or remoteness of what is terrible » </li></ul>
  11. 11. EPILOGUE <ul><li>Make the audience well-disposed towards yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Magnify or minimize the leading facts </li></ul><ul><li>Excite the required state of emotion in audience </li></ul><ul><li>Refresh their memories </li></ul>
  12. 12. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The modes of persuasion described by Aristotle were reserved for an elite of lawyers and politicians. Yet they are timeless, still relevant and useful in today’s global marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li> The 3 modes find their parallels in current concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Business ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Applied artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. FUTURE OF NEGOTIATION <ul><li>Constructing software agents that will optimally negotiate on behalf of the real world parties that they represent. That will put experienced and poor human negotiators on an equal footing, and save them negotiating effort. </li></ul><ul><li>- Tuomas W. Sandholm </li></ul><ul><li> This generation of negotiators is required to </li></ul><ul><li>Operate in a truly global marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with partners from a variety of cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Be adaptable and flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Possess a variety of negotiating strategies and styles </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>

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