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Artificial Unintelligence:
Why and How Automated Essay
Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the
time) & the Perils and Promise of...
Definition of Terms
Automated Essay Scoring
(AES)
• Computer produces
summative assessment for
evaluation
Automated Essay ...
Overview
1. Brief recounting of mass-market writing
assessment in the United States
2. AES: how it works and its major fla...
The First College Board Entrance
Examination in English − June 1901
• The two sides of the character of Achilles as
shown ...
SAT Essay June 2005
• Think carefully about the issue presented in the
following excerpt and the assignment below.
– Most ...
The timed impromptu is an unnatural act
• The timed
impromptu does
not occur in the
real world
• No one writes on
demand w...
Why the change?
• Reliability
– Godshalk, F. et al.
The Measurement of
Writing Ability ETS
1966
– A. Myers et al. (1966)
S...
Where the reliability comes from:
Correlation between length and score is a
negative function of time allotted
0.0%
10.0%
...
College Board’s ScoreWrite
Colbert Report on SAT Word Length
Graders were trained to read for
length and pretentious diction
Ellis B. Page – Project Essay Grade
• Trin -- Intrinsic variable of interest (e.g. word choice, diction;
sentence complexi...
e-Rater construct
Quinlan, T., Higgins, D., & Wolff, S. (2009) Evaluating the Construct-
Coverage of the e-rater® Scoring ...
E-rater 2.0 Proxies
• Organization = # of Discourse Elements (i.e.
paragraphs)
• Development = Length of Discourse Element...
Machines Consistently Overvalue
Essay Length
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
1 Argument
2A Argument
Holistic
2B Arg...
AES Machines Maintain Artificial
Correlations Through the Steroids of
Word Counting
Percentage for Reader 1
# of
words
Other
Percentage for Reader 2
# of
words
Percentage AES Machine
Other
# of words
Other
...
But what about voice recognition?
• Relatively very small set + Moore’s Law
What kind of writing AES can’t grade
• Long essays
– ETS’s e-rater has a 1,000 word limit
• Broad and open Writing Tasks
–...
The Turing Test: The Imitation Game
CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing
test to tell Computers and Humans Apart)
The Reverse Turing Test
Coherent
prose
Gibberish
The Basic Automatic BS Essay
Language (BABEL) Generator
http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/
http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/
What we can conclude
• The software does not do what it tells
students and teachers it is doing
• The metrics (proxies) us...
Some Evidence that Students Are
Using BABEL to Game AEE Products
4. What is meant by a “good faith” essay?
It is important...
Most of the Studies Are Conducted
and / or Controlled by the Vendors
Important Unanswered Questions
1. How easy will it be for students to “game” these
machines?
2. When essays are read by a ...
Negative Consequences
• What is tested is what is taught
• Emphasis on short writing
• Emphasis on impromptu on-demand wri...
When can AES be useful?
• Grading short content-based writing
– Already useful applications
• Use in MOOC’s in conjunction...
Why are the testing companies so in
love with AES?
• ῥίζα γὰρ πάντων τῶν κακῶν ἐστιν ἡ
φιλαργυρία
• Radix omnium malorum e...
Chase the Moneychangers out of the
Temple
Three Proposals
• First, some sort of professional system of
disclosure for large sums of money, let’s say
more than $10,0...
Second, Grass roots development of
several different Honors English and
Writing curricula
• Teach skills students will nee...
Create Tests of Our Own
• Design Criteria:
– Valid
– Fair
• Coaching has minimal effect
• Does not discriminate against bi...
Show warts and all
Decentralized Development and Grading
Opportunities for Professional Development
Test to the Teaching
• Different tests and testing communities for
different approaches
• Technology enabled
• Diverse and...
So let us
• Urge our schools to stop using the SAT, ACT, &
even AP
• Begin a conversation with professional
organizations ...
Act
• Act to divert some of the billions spent on testing to
improve teaching
• Act to reclaim testing from business and b...
Automated Essay Scoring (AES)
becomes Automated Essay Evaluation
(AEE)
• Teaching writing in the classroom
First-generation retrofitted trait
numeric scores
My Access / IntelliMetric
• Holistic Writing Score: 5.3 / 6.0 88%
Some advice makes writing less effective
Grammar Checkers are Unreliable
Nick Carbone’s Comparison of Grammarly, MS Word,
and WriteCheck
Grammarly MS Word WriteChe...
MS Word Grammar & Style Checker is
also not infallible
Dean Mark D. Shermis on Microsoft
Word and AEE
The feedback provided by the Web-based software is both quantitative and
qu...
Category: Usage
• Missing or Extra Article
– Rather than rely on commercials or expert
opinions about a film, individuals ...
Category: Usage
• Type: Confused Words
– Because the consumption of entertainment is so
ephemeral, one could posit that ad...
Category: Usage
• Type: Preposition Error
– Rather than rely on commercials or expert
opinions about1 a film, individuals ...
Category: Organization & Development
• Type: Thesis Statement
– The question of how important advertising is to the sale o...
Category: Organization &
Development
• Type: Supporting Ideas
– First, the motives behind this particular argument
need to...
The Missing Piece in Research on
Classroom Use
• Controlled
experiments to avoid
placebo effect
• Comparison with the
defa...
Both Pearson and Measurement Inc. Concede
that Grammar Checkers are Imperfect
http://doe.sd.gov/oats/documents/WToLrnFAQ.p...
PEG Writer
8. Why does PEG seem to ignore some grammar “trouble spots” identified
by Microsoft Word (or other programs)?
P...
What kind of AEE can be useful & effective?
Basic design principle
Primum non nocere!
Focus on style
• MS Word is flawed but it may be hard to build
something better that won’t confuse students
• What can be ...
What we need to do to build effective
AEE tools
• Start with General Principles
– Then use statistical modeling
– Follow t...
The right way: by asking questions not
giving answers
Letting the student own the process
Products should be transparent in
displaying their limitations – again,
showing warts and all
The Real Danger of AES and bad AEE:
Widening the Educational Divide
• Private well-endowed institutions
do not use AES
• F...
But AEE also provides a real opportunity to
provide a cheap accessible tool to teach
and improve writing in multiple conte...
Demo of BABEL Generator
• http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/
• https://www.dxrgroup.com/cgi-
bin/scoreitnow/password.pl
Break Up into Six Groups for
MyAccess Experiment
• Hypothesis: MyAccess will give high scores to computer-generated
gibber...
Instructions
1. Click ASSIGNMENTS
2. Select Ages 15-18
3. Select one of the following topics (suggested keywords for
BABEL...
References
• Attali, Yigal & Burstein, J. (2006). Automated essay scoring with e-rater V.2. Journal of Technology,
Learnin...
c
• Higgins, D. & Heilman, M. Managing what we can measure: Quantifying the susceptibility of
Automated Scoring Systems to...
• Perelman, L. (August 2013). Critique of Mark D. Shermis & Ben Hammer,
“Contrasting State-of-the-Art Automated Scoring of...
• Shermis, M. D. (In press). The challenges of emulating human behavior in
writing assessment.
http://www.sciencedirect.co...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of ...
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Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of Automated Essay Evaluation

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My experiments with the BABEL Generator demonstrate that Automated Essay Scoring has little to do with human communication.

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Artificial Unintelligence:Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of Automated Essay Evaluation

  1. 1. Artificial Unintelligence: Why and How Automated Essay Scoring Doesn’t Work (most of the time) & the Perils and Promise of Automated Essay Evaluation Les Perelman Comparative Media Studies / Writing MIT
  2. 2. Definition of Terms Automated Essay Scoring (AES) • Computer produces summative assessment for evaluation Automated Essay Evaluation (AEE) • Computer produces formative assessment and responses for learning
  3. 3. Overview 1. Brief recounting of mass-market writing assessment in the United States 2. AES: how it works and its major flaws 3. The Turing Test: evaluate AES 4. AEE: a brief overview 5. AEE: evaluating current implementations 6. AEE: what we can reasonably hope to achieve – Writelab 7. Demonstration: Playing with the BABEL Generator
  4. 4. The First College Board Entrance Examination in English − June 1901 • The two sides of the character of Achilles as shown in The Iliad. Illustrate each and tell whether we find anything like this contrast in the character of Hector. • At least two pages • Four hours to write -- two in the morning & two in the afternoon
  5. 5. SAT Essay June 2005 • Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below. – Most of our schools are not facing up to their responsibilities. We must begin to ask ourselves whether educators should help students address the critical moral choices and social issues of our time. Schools have responsibilities beyond training people for jobs and getting students into college. • Adapted from Svi Shapiro • Assignment: – Should schools help students understand moral choices and social issues? • 25 minutes
  6. 6. The timed impromptu is an unnatural act • The timed impromptu does not occur in the real world • No one writes on demand without reflecting about a topic they may never have thought about
  7. 7. Why the change? • Reliability – Godshalk, F. et al. The Measurement of Writing Ability ETS 1966 – A. Myers et al. (1966) Simplex structure in the grading of essay tests. Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol 26(1), 1966, 41-54.
  8. 8. Where the reliability comes from: Correlation between length and score is a negative function of time allotted 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% SharedVariancebetween#Words&Score 25 min 1 hr. 72 hrs. N=247 N =6498 N=2820 N=115 N= 106 N=106 N=660 N=1458 N=798 The greater the time; the smaller the correlation
  9. 9. College Board’s ScoreWrite
  10. 10. Colbert Report on SAT Word Length
  11. 11. Graders were trained to read for length and pretentious diction
  12. 12. Ellis B. Page – Project Essay Grade • Trin -- Intrinsic variable of interest (e.g. word choice, diction; sentence complexity) • Prox – “some variable which it is hoped will approximate the variable of true interest”
  13. 13. e-Rater construct Quinlan, T., Higgins, D., & Wolff, S. (2009) Evaluating the Construct- Coverage of the e-rater® Scoring Engine. ETS Research Report 09-01. p. 15
  14. 14. E-rater 2.0 Proxies • Organization = # of Discourse Elements (i.e. paragraphs) • Development = Length of Discourse Elements (i.e. # of sentences & # of words in paragraphs) • Lexical Complexity = average word length + frequency of infrequently used words + absence of frequently repeated words
  15. 15. Machines Consistently Overvalue Essay Length 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 1 Argument 2A Argument Holistic 2B Argument Grammar 3 Literary Analysis 4 Literary Analysis 5 Reading Summary 6 Reading Summary 7 Narrative Composite 8 Narrative Compositive AverageSharedVariance Essay Sets Hewlett ASAP Study (2012) Average Shared Variance (r2) between # of Words and Score for AES Machines & Human Readers (7 of 9 vendors -- 2 vendors would not allow data to be released) Average Vendors Average Human Readers
  16. 16. AES Machines Maintain Artificial Correlations Through the Steroids of Word Counting
  17. 17. Percentage for Reader 1 # of words Other Percentage for Reader 2 # of words Percentage AES Machine Other # of words Other Shared Variance # Words Human Machine
  18. 18. But what about voice recognition? • Relatively very small set + Moore’s Law
  19. 19. What kind of writing AES can’t grade • Long essays – ETS’s e-rater has a 1,000 word limit • Broad and open Writing Tasks – Two AES machines could not approximate scores on the essay portion of the Australian Scholastic Aptitude Test that called for a fixed length (600 word) essay on a fairly open topic McCurry (2010)
  20. 20. The Turing Test: The Imitation Game
  21. 21. CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart)
  22. 22. The Reverse Turing Test Coherent prose Gibberish
  23. 23. The Basic Automatic BS Essay Language (BABEL) Generator http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/
  24. 24. http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/
  25. 25. What we can conclude • The software does not do what it tells students and teachers it is doing • The metrics (proxies) used are irrelevant, at best, and, probably, are largely antithetical to good writing or communication. • Students can probably be trained to memorize language and strategies to obtain high scores (construct-irrelevant-strategies)
  26. 26. Some Evidence that Students Are Using BABEL to Game AEE Products 4. What is meant by a “good faith” essay? It is important to note that although PEG software is extremely reliable in terms of producing scores that are comparable to those awarded by human judges, it can be fooled. Computers, like humans, are not perfect. PEG presumes “good faith” essays authored by “motivated” writers. A “good faith” essay is one that reflects the writer’s best efforts to respond to the assignment and the prompt without trickery or deceit. A “motivated” writer is one who genuinely wants to do well and for whom the assignment has some consequence (a grade, a factor in admissions or hiring, etc.). Efforts to “spoof” the system by typing in gibberish, repetitive phrases, or off-topic, illogical prose will produce illogical and essentially meaningless results.
  27. 27. Most of the Studies Are Conducted and / or Controlled by the Vendors
  28. 28. Important Unanswered Questions 1. How easy will it be for students to “game” these machines? 2. When essays are read by a human reader and a machine and there is a discrepancy between scores, after the adjudication procedure, what percentage the machine’s scores are omitted or changed compared to the scores of human reader? 3. When gamed essays are read by a reader and a machine, will the human reader’s score always catch the gamed score? 4. Can human readers also be “gamed”?
  29. 29. Negative Consequences • What is tested is what is taught • Emphasis on short writing • Emphasis on impromptu on-demand writing
  30. 30. When can AES be useful? • Grading short content-based writing – Already useful applications • Use in MOOC’s in conjunction with Peer Review Applications such as Calibrated Peer Review
  31. 31. Why are the testing companies so in love with AES? • ῥίζα γὰρ πάντων τῶν κακῶν ἐστιν ἡ φιλαργυρία • Radix omnium malorum est cupiditas • The love of money is the root of all evil • 1st Timothy 6:10
  32. 32. Chase the Moneychangers out of the Temple
  33. 33. Three Proposals • First, some sort of professional system of disclosure for large sums of money, let’s say more than $10,000, received from outside professional organizations such as the College Board. – With textbooks, the disclosure is transparent.
  34. 34. Second, Grass roots development of several different Honors English and Writing curricula • Teach skills students will need in college • Developed jointly by high school and college teachers • Developed through organizations such as NCTE, WPA, and NWP & College Admissions • Accompanied by some sort of certification procedure • Pacesetter Program as model
  35. 35. Create Tests of Our Own • Design Criteria: – Valid – Fair • Coaching has minimal effect • Does not discriminate against bilingual or bidialectical students – Feasible • Not College Board’s bad version of reverse engineering – “The plane doesn’t fly, but we can make money on it” – Transparent design, development, and administration
  36. 36. Show warts and all
  37. 37. Decentralized Development and Grading Opportunities for Professional Development
  38. 38. Test to the Teaching • Different tests and testing communities for different approaches • Technology enabled • Diverse and linked group of readers – Opportunity to address problems of low- performing minorities – Show students that their essay will be read by a diverse group of readers
  39. 39. So let us • Urge our schools to stop using the SAT, ACT, & even AP • Begin a conversation with professional organizations to involve – K-12 teachers – College admission officers – College teachers To envision new and different kinds of writing tests
  40. 40. Act • Act to divert some of the billions spent on testing to improve teaching • Act to reclaim testing from business and bring it back to education • Act to make testing a form of learning not only for students but also for us • And act by doing sound research on writing and testing; because if we don’t do it we are leaving it to people like the gang at Pearson.
  41. 41. Automated Essay Scoring (AES) becomes Automated Essay Evaluation (AEE) • Teaching writing in the classroom
  42. 42. First-generation retrofitted trait numeric scores
  43. 43. My Access / IntelliMetric • Holistic Writing Score: 5.3 / 6.0 88%
  44. 44. Some advice makes writing less effective
  45. 45. Grammar Checkers are Unreliable Nick Carbone’s Comparison of Grammarly, MS Word, and WriteCheck Grammarly MS Word WriteCheck (e-rater) # Errors Flagged 52 30 23 # misdiagnosed, false positives, or poorly explained 11 8 14 % misdiagnosed, false positives, or poorly explained 21% 27% 61% http://nccei12carbone.blogspot.com/2012/10/an-experiment-with-grammar-checkers.html
  46. 46. MS Word Grammar & Style Checker is also not infallible
  47. 47. Dean Mark D. Shermis on Microsoft Word and AEE The feedback provided by the Web-based software is both quantitative and qualitative. That is, in addition to an overall rating, students may receive scores on individual attributes of writing, and the software may summarize or highlight a variety of errors, ranging from simple grammar to style or content. Some of the software packages also provide a discourse analysis of the work Shermis, M. (May11, 2012). How automated grading can make good writers. Los Angeles Times
  48. 48. Category: Usage • Missing or Extra Article – Rather than rely on commercials or expert opinions about a film, individuals often make their viewing choices based on blogs and the1 collected reviews of peers on various sites on the Internet. • 1 You may need to remove this article.
  49. 49. Category: Usage • Type: Confused Words – Because the consumption of entertainment is so ephemeral, one could posit that advertising might affect1 a consumer's decision more than when by buying a durable good, such as a toaster or a blender. • 1 You have used affect in this sentence. You may need to use effect instead.
  50. 50. Category: Usage • Type: Preposition Error – Rather than rely on commercials or expert opinions about1 a film, individuals often make their viewing choices based on blogs and the collected reviews of peers on various sites on the Internet. • 1 You may be using the wrong preposition.
  51. 51. Category: Organization & Development • Type: Thesis Statement – The question of how important advertising is to the sale of any product is an important one. This question is extremely important in the media industries.1 Because the consumption of entertainment is so ephemeral, one could posit that advertising might affect a consumer's decision more than when by buying a durable good, such as a toaster or a blender.2 The advertising department of the Silver Screen Movie Production Company has recommended spending more on advertising and less on movie production. The advertising director's arguments are not only self-serving, but also logically flawed and, at the least, inconclusive, resting on several very dubious assumptions. • 1 Is this part of the essay your thesis? The purpose of a thesis is to organize, predict, control, and define your essay. Look in the Writer's Handbook for ways to improve your thesis. • 2 Is this sentence really a part of your thesis? Remember that a thesis controls the whole content of your essay. You need to strengthen this thesis so that you clearly state the main point you will be making. Look in the Writer's Handbook for tips on doing this.
  52. 52. Category: Organization & Development • Type: Supporting Ideas – First, the motives behind this particular argument need to be questioned. In essence, the advertising director is arguing that resources should be taken away from producing films and given to his department.1 Although people often make reasonable requests in their own self-interest, that this policy would greatly enhance the director's fiefdom is a consequence that should elicit some skepticism.1 • 1 Criterion has identified only two sentences to support your topic sentence. Try to include one more sentence in this paragraph.
  53. 53. The Missing Piece in Research on Classroom Use • Controlled experiments to avoid placebo effect • Comparison with the default writing tool of the 21st century, MS Word.
  54. 54. Both Pearson and Measurement Inc. Concede that Grammar Checkers are Imperfect http://doe.sd.gov/oats/documents/WToLrnFAQ.pdf Q: Why does the grammar check not catch all of a student’s errors? A: The technology that supports grammar check features in programs such as Microsoft Word often return false positives. Since WriteToLearn is a educational product, the creators of this program have decided, in an attempt to not provide students with false positives, to err on the side of caution. Consequently, there are times when the grammar check will not catch all of a student’s errors. Teachers can address these missed grammar errors by using the post‐it note feature within the program to flag additional errors students might have missed.
  55. 55. PEG Writer 8. Why does PEG seem to ignore some grammar “trouble spots” identified by Microsoft Word (or other programs)? PEG’s grammar checker can detect and provide feedback for a wide variety of syntactic, semantic and punctuation errors. These errors include, but are not limited to, run-on sentences, sentence fragments and comma splices; homophone errors and other errors of word choice; and missing or misused commas, apostrophes, quotation marks and end punctuation. In addition, the grammar checker can locate and offer feedback on style choices inappropriate for formal writing. Unlike commercial grammar checkers, however, PEG only reports those errors for which there is a high degree of confidence that the “error” is indeed an error. Commercial grammar checkers generally implement a lower threshold and as a result, may report more errors. The downside is they also report higher number of “false positives” (errors that aren’t errors). Because PEG factors these error conditions into scoring decisions, we are careful not to let “false positives” prejudice an otherwise well constructed essay.
  56. 56. What kind of AEE can be useful & effective?
  57. 57. Basic design principle Primum non nocere!
  58. 58. Focus on style • MS Word is flawed but it may be hard to build something better that won’t confuse students • What can be emphasized is style: – Clarity – Cohesion – Emphasis – Concision – Elegance • e. g. Parallel structures
  59. 59. What we need to do to build effective AEE tools • Start with General Principles – Then use statistical modeling – Follow the model of the development of voice recognition apps • Transparency • Independent Research
  60. 60. The right way: by asking questions not giving answers Letting the student own the process
  61. 61. Products should be transparent in displaying their limitations – again, showing warts and all
  62. 62. The Real Danger of AES and bad AEE: Widening the Educational Divide • Private well-endowed institutions do not use AES • Flawed AEE will be used in large classes to “give students more opportunities to write” poorly • But what flawed AEE teaches not only dumbs down the ability to communicate – it has the potential to almost totally eliminate it
  63. 63. But AEE also provides a real opportunity to provide a cheap accessible tool to teach and improve writing in multiple contexts • In classrooms • Writing at home • In the workplace
  64. 64. Demo of BABEL Generator • http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/ • https://www.dxrgroup.com/cgi- bin/scoreitnow/password.pl
  65. 65. Break Up into Six Groups for MyAccess Experiment • Hypothesis: MyAccess will give high scores to computer-generated gibberish • Login to MyAccess – http://www.vantagelearning.com/login/myaccess-home-edition/ Username Password studentone one studentwo two studentthree three studentfour four studentfive five studentsix six • Open new window and open BABEL Generator http://babel-generator.herokuapp.com/
  66. 66. Instructions 1. Click ASSIGNMENTS 2. Select Ages 15-18 3. Select one of the following topics (suggested keywords for BABEL generator are in parentheses) & click START ESSAY or START REVISION a. Nature v. nurture (nature, nurture) b. A sense of wonder (wonder) c. Invasion of privacy (privacy) d. Rating movies, music, & video games (violence, obscenity, teenagers) e. What makes a good coach (coach, encouragement) 4. Open another window, open BABEL Generator, generate essay, & then copy and paste it into the MY ACCESS window 5. Click SUBMIT ESSAY
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  68. 68. c • Higgins, D. & Heilman, M. Managing what we can measure: Quantifying the susceptibility of Automated Scoring Systems to gaming behavior. Educational Measurement 33:3. pp. 36-46. • Klobucar, Andrew, Paul Deane, Norbert Elliot, Chaitanya Ramineni, Perry Deess, & Alex Rudniy. (2012).“Automated Essay Scoring and the Search for Valid Writing Assessment.” International Advances in Writing Research: Cultures, Places, Measures. Ed. Charles. Bazerman, Chris Dean, Jessica Early, Karen Lunsford, Suzie Null, Paul Rogers, and Amanda Stansell. Fort Collins, Colorado: WAC . pp. 103-119 http://wac.colostate.edu/books/wrab2011/chapter6.pdf • McCurry, D. (2010). Can machine scoring deal with broad and open writing tests as well as human readers? Assessing Writing. Vol. 15 pp. 118–129 • Morgan, J., Shermis, M. D., Van Deventer, L., & Vander Ark, T. (2013). Automated Student Assessment Prize: Phase 1 & Phase 2: A case study to promote focused innovation in student writing assessment. Seattle, WA: Getting Smarthttp://gettingsmart.com/cms/wp- content/uploads/2013/02/ASAP-Case-Study-FINAL.pdf • Nehm, R. H., Ha, M., Mayfield, E. (2011). Transforming biology with machine learning: automated scoring of written evolutionary explanations. Journal of Science Education and Technology. 21:1, pp. 183-196 • Page, E. B.(1966). The imminence of grading essays by computer. Phi Delta Kappan 76:7 pp. 561-565 • Perelman, L. (July, 2014). When ‘the state of the art’ is counting words. Assessing Writing Vol. 21 pp. 104–111 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2014.05.001
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