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May 2, 2012 1
May 2, 2012
Leor Nevo – Intel PE
Courtesy of Intel mates: John Giacobbe
Rick Livengood, Donna Medeiros
Rev 0...
May 2, 2012 2
Outline
• ACRONYMS (alphabetically)
• From DFM to PDFD - Transition motivation
• PDFD capabilities overview
...
May 2, 2012 3
ACRONYMS (alphabetically(
Al Aluminums
Cu Copper
CAD Computer Aided Design
CNC Computer Numerical Control
DF...
May 2, 2012 4
Transition Motivation
PDFD - Leor Nevo, Intel
• DFM – we all got used talking about DFM.. For years..
Taking...
May 2, 2012 5
Overview
• What is PDFD?
 Design hooks placed in layout to enable optimized access to nodes
during silicon ...
May 2, 2012 6
PDFD Scope
• PDFD provides back side entries into the design to
enhance and enable analysis of Integrated Ci...
May 2, 2012 7
Flip-Chip Substrate
Chip A Chip BCaps Caps
Lands
Global thinning of Silicon Substrate:
May 2, 2012 8
Flip-Chip Substrate
Chip ACaps Caps
Lands
Chip B first thinned down from 720m to < 200m
using Mechanical Pol...
May 2, 2012 9
Trench (Top View(
Silicon
Substrate
Fine
Trench Etch Step
Trench Etch Step
Trenching Process
Silicon
Substra...
May 2, 2012 10
The big Fiducials provide navigation
points for FIB (for circuit edits(
The more spreading- the more
accura...
May 2, 2012 11
Navigation Features
• The fiducial alignment points are the most utilized PDFD
features as they are used on...
May 2, 2012 12
Discover bug
through
production,
debug or
system level
test
Generate
or
customize
specific
pattern to
highl...
May 2, 2012 13
Circuit Edit Geometry and RC Challenges
• The device scaling and layout efficiency improvements have
reduce...
May 2, 2012 14
FIB SiO2
Circuit Edit Geometry and RC Challenges
M1
M2
Gate
V1
Diff
Contacts
Si
FIB Line
STR
FIB Via
Demo
•...
May 2, 2012 15
PDFD Building Blocks
• Basic building block features
are designed to meet FIB
rules (Focused Iron Beam)
 T...
May 2, 2012 1616
Design For Debug (Node Access Points(
Auto placement tool can
first place FIB (edit) node
access points. ...
May 2, 2012 17
Design For Debug (Spare Logic Gates)
o Designed in FIB Cut
Points
Diff
Diff
Spare Logic Gate
(3 input devic...
May 2, 2012 18
Bonus Combinational and
Sequential Cells• Bonus logic and sequential
elements are added to a
design to vali...
May 2, 2012 19
Bonus Combinational and Sequential Cells
• In the below example Signal-B is driving a buffer but now should...
May 2, 2012 20
PDFD In Clock Elements
• The ability to alter the timing of clocks is one of the main
activities performed ...
May 2, 2012 21
PDFD In Clock Elements
• A second type of PDFD feature designed into clocks are
mechanical probe points/FIB...
May 2, 2012 22
Insertion and Placement Methodologies
• Historically each functional block owner has had to manually insert...
May 2, 2012 23
PDFD Utilization for Product Stepping's
• The production of a VLSI DIE might require multiple validation lo...
May 2, 2012 24
Wait.. Did we miss something?
• With future Deep sub-micron design < 32nm –
– How can one navigate to the e...
May 2, 2012 25
Flip-Chip Substrate
Chip ACaps CapsChip B
First Conclusion
The transition from DFM to PDFD is due:
 While ...
May 2, 2012 26
Second Conclusion
 Optimal coverage of PDFD will become even more critical as
the semiconductor industry m...
May 2, 2012 27
Q & A
Leor Nevo - Intel DFM-PDFD PE
Thanks.
Leor Nevo, Intel Corporation
May 2, 2012 28
References (Back-up(
• There is a very small set of literature outside and projects are
trying to do their ...
May 2, 2012 29
PDFD In Clock Elements
• The ability to alter the timing of clocks is one of the main
activities performed ...
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The 2012 transition from DFM to PDFD ChipEx2012LeorNevoRev 08new

  1. 1. May 2, 2012 1 May 2, 2012 Leor Nevo – Intel PE Courtesy of Intel mates: John Giacobbe Rick Livengood, Donna Medeiros Rev 08 The 2012 transition from DFM to PDFD DESIGN FOR (PHYSICAL) DEBUG FOR SILICON MICROSURGERY AND PROBING OF FLIP-CHIP PACKAGED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
  2. 2. May 2, 2012 2 Outline • ACRONYMS (alphabetically) • From DFM to PDFD - Transition motivation • PDFD capabilities overview • PDFD scope & flow • Flip-chip mechanical preparation and navigation • Bonus combinational and sequential cells • PDFD in Clock Elements • Insertion, placement and automation • Summary & Conclusions PDFD - Leor Nevo, Intel
  3. 3. May 2, 2012 3 ACRONYMS (alphabetically( Al Aluminums Cu Copper CAD Computer Aided Design CNC Computer Numerical Control DFD Design For Debug DFM Design for Manufacture DFT Design For Test DRC Design Rule Checker ECO’s Engineering Change Order EDA Electronic Design Automation FAB Fabrication Plant FIB Focused Ion Beam LVP Laser Voltage Probe HVM High Volume Manufacturing HW HardWare IC Integrated Circuits IR Infra Red. PDFD Physical Design For Debug PE Principal Engineer TPT Throughput Time RC Resistance & Capacitance SW SoftWare VLSI Very Large Scale Integrated
  4. 4. May 2, 2012 4 Transition Motivation PDFD - Leor Nevo, Intel • DFM – we all got used talking about DFM.. For years.. Taking care for high Yield, reduced variation by optimized density, etc. • While DFM mostly moved to become a hard DRC (~> 1000) –HVM Fabs can’t count on designers “good will” (High Volume manufacturing) –They have moved most of the DFM guidelines into strict rules !! • We assume that the VLSI design timeline is quite predictable –But the silicon debug for sub-micron becomes a big challenge.. –The Micro-surgery HW has difficulty in following Moore’s law – The relevant HW can not keep scaling every 2 years ! Conclusion: PDFD provides hooks in the design enabling analysis of the deep sub-micron IC beyond DFT & system debugging.
  5. 5. May 2, 2012 5 Overview • What is PDFD?  Design hooks placed in layout to enable optimized access to nodes during silicon debug: FIB probe access, backside circuit edit, probing.  PDFD Feature types include:  Bonus/happy devices,  probe points,  debug tool navigation features,  FIB cut / Connect cells. • PDFD provides critical bug research during the debug phase of a VLSI product for faster time-to-market.  Features designed to add capability or to improve productivity.  Bugs can be root caused and validated in a few days compared to weeks or months required for a new mask set.  Reduces the number of steppings/masks required to certify for HVM. M1 Poly B C
  6. 6. May 2, 2012 6 PDFD Scope • PDFD provides back side entries into the design to enhance and enable analysis of Integrated Circuits in a more reasonable time frame. • This paper will cover design automation/cad SW solutions and real life technical proposal to enable:  Smooth & accurate Backside Navigation (flip-chip)  Pre-placed Enhanced Probe-ability (cut/connect)  Enhanced Silicon Microsurgery (able to Trim, Cut, connect by- pass using external low-res wires).  Fibable and Spare Logic Gate for FIB or design ECO’s to be tested on silicon before reproducing on next design step/retrofit.
  7. 7. May 2, 2012 7 Flip-Chip Substrate Chip A Chip BCaps Caps Lands Global thinning of Silicon Substrate:
  8. 8. May 2, 2012 8 Flip-Chip Substrate Chip ACaps Caps Lands Chip B first thinned down from 720m to < 200m using Mechanical Polishing or CNC Milling Chip B Global thinning of Silicon Substrate Reminder : If we will go too deep – we will start impact the devices functionality too…
  9. 9. May 2, 2012 9 Trench (Top View( Silicon Substrate Fine Trench Etch Step Trench Etch Step Trenching Process Silicon Substrate SiCl4 Cl2 Argon Ion Laser Scanning Mirrors Cl2 SiCl4 Physical Debug Overview: example only Laser Chemical Etcher 10/05/15
  10. 10. May 2, 2012 10 The big Fiducials provide navigation points for FIB (for circuit edits( The more spreading- the more accurate hit point. Don't forget – we are drilling from the back with eyes like blind folded. High density of Fiducials improve beam placement accuracy < 100nm Design For Debug (Flip-Chip Navigation Fiducial( Die
  11. 11. May 2, 2012 11 Navigation Features • The fiducial alignment points are the most utilized PDFD features as they are used on every edit. – The larger cell referred to as a global fiducial is placed with a 5-10mm pitch and provides the 1st level of navigation.. – The smaller local fiducial has a much higher pitch typically around 70u and is used to achieve sub 100nm accuracy. • Both have an array of contacts and diffusion that are exposed in the FIB and locked to CAD database of the chip Global Local EDIT AREA
  12. 12. May 2, 2012 12 Discover bug through production, debug or system level test Generate or customize specific pattern to highlight bug Isolate bug using DFT to functional area or clk region Navigate Accurately & Root cause bug using probe and design data/tools Confirm fix by performing FIB edit or rely on re-simulation Implement Fix in layout and generate new mask set PDFD flow overview Silicon arrived
  13. 13. May 2, 2012 13 Circuit Edit Geometry and RC Challenges • The device scaling and layout efficiency improvements have reduced the physical debug tools ability to access transistors and metal signals: – 65nm to 32nm and below= meaningful reduction in white space. – This drives the FIB which has not been able to support the Nano. – Probe tools have been able to scale but at reduced productivity. – This limit in technology scaling has resulted in a greater need for features to be placed in silicon to enable access (i.e., PDFD(. 130nm Gate FIB Box 90nm 65nm 45nm 32nm M1 Poly Diffusion M1 S/D 130nmM1 S/D
  14. 14. May 2, 2012 14 FIB SiO2 Circuit Edit Geometry and RC Challenges M1 M2 Gate V1 Diff Contacts Si FIB Line STR FIB Via Demo • PDFD features provide guaranteed access to critical signals on the 2-3 lowest metals. – Excellent correlation of FIB wire resistance: same ballpark. – Shown here on the left is a metal 1 PDFD connection point and on the right is an opportunistic metal 1.
  15. 15. May 2, 2012 15 PDFD Building Blocks • Basic building block features are designed to meet FIB rules (Focused Iron Beam)  The features are created as cells that can get auto spread by CAD. • The Metal 1 connection pad provides safe access to signals  Optimized to keep the FIB via resistance close to real via resistance.  Cell area driven to min required – mostly meet projects cells.  [A] - Metal 1 area maximized to decrease contact resistance. M1 Poly B C Probepoint M1 Cut option Poly cut option A • Cut cells provide guaranteed access to target signals.  [B] Metal 1 version typically used for active signals (not impact timing(  [C] Poly cut cell introduced when metal signals migrated from Al to Cu
  16. 16. May 2, 2012 1616 Design For Debug (Node Access Points( Auto placement tool can first place FIB (edit) node access points. (Focused Iron Beam) Consider auto route in upper metal?? Auto placement tool follow up with placement of LVP access points.(Laser Voltage Probe) Layout showing Metal lines without PDFD coverage
  17. 17. May 2, 2012 17 Design For Debug (Spare Logic Gates) o Designed in FIB Cut Points Diff Diff Spare Logic Gate (3 input device) o Designed in FIB Connection Points FIB-able Bonus Logic
  18. 18. May 2, 2012 18 Bonus Combinational and Sequential Cells• Bonus logic and sequential elements are added to a design to validate functions and speed path bugs. – Typical cells include NAND, NOR, Buffer, latch, and Flop. – They can be used in dash. • Chose cell from a standard library that has the ability to drive FIB metal ~100-200um. – The cell is enlarged so that building block cut & connect cells can be inserted. – Input tied to ground. – output left floating.
  19. 19. May 2, 2012 19 Bonus Combinational and Sequential Cells • In the below example Signal-B is driving a buffer but now should get the NAND of Signal-A and Signal-B. • The FIB connects Signal-A and Signal-B which are then routed using FIB metal to the inputs of a bonus NAND. – The output of the NAND is connected back to Signal-B before the input to the next stage. • Once the routing and connecting are done the FIB will cut Signal-B as shown by the “X” and the FIB CUT cells at the NAND’s input.
  20. 20. May 2, 2012 20 PDFD In Clock Elements • The ability to alter the timing of clocks is one of the main activities performed during speed path debug.  On current generation processes it has become essential to design PDFD features and accessibility into the clock elements themselves. • To provide FIB access in such small geometries clock elements are designed with increased spacing's.  In this case a multi legged clock inverter can be trimmed successfully without damaging the unrelated adjacent device (Trim= ability to reduce device/driver size = modify the strength) ).  For optical probe accessing the separation helps minimize cross talk.
  21. 21. May 2, 2012 21 PDFD In Clock Elements • A second type of PDFD feature designed into clocks are mechanical probe points/FIB access cells. o A building block with connect cells is placed in free space. o The connection point allows for a FIB load capacitor to be connected thus delaying the signal. o It allows the output to be routed to another circuit using FIB. o Since density rules might require fills in empty areas for DFM – why not use it for PDFD? M1 Poly Diffusion M1 FIB Connect Large Clock inverter with Offset Diffusion
  22. 22. May 2, 2012 22 Insertion and Placement Methodologies • Historically each functional block owner has had to manually insert PDFD features resulting in wasted effort and inconsistent implementation. Some alternate options would be: integrate features directly into cells from the common lib. Another method : use of automated scripts and customized flows. –Can be developed by central CAD team into design flows –An insertion example is shown here where a script pre-placed bonus combinational and sequential cells as well as navigation cells into a block prior to the synthesis flow. –Flow customized to meet individual product’s needs for cell types, strength and pitches. For example: A product that utilizes proven design may decide to have larger pitches then a design with untested logic and verified circuits. • The bonus cell pitch is also determined by FIB routing technology and RC impact. • The pitch for the fiducial [+] is based on FIB labs & navigation equipment accuracy.
  23. 23. May 2, 2012 23 PDFD Utilization for Product Stepping's • The production of a VLSI DIE might require multiple validation loops.. – So while DFM helps long term and HVM yield – current business need is for development and implementation of PDFD so that some of the below scenarios can be avoided. For e.g. $ A full stepping requires a complete set of masks- IMPACTs TTM, TPT & Cost. (Time To Money) $ Products use dash or sub stepping's which requires only few new backend masks = potential saving month's / weeks of time – IMPACTs TTM, TPT & Cost. (Throughput Time) $ This reduces time to market as product can be held in the FAB at a specific layer until the new backend masks are generated – IMPACTS TTM. $ DFM : For simplistic timing or electrical issues a dash stepping typically can be performed at metal layers only since they do not require additional transistors. IMPACTS TTM, TPT & Cost. • The implementation of strategically placed PDFD cells allow these type of logic or complex bugs to be fixed in a dash. Silicon READY for the coming upper Metals As Dash/Retrofit.
  24. 24. May 2, 2012 24 Wait.. Did we miss something? • With future Deep sub-micron design < 32nm – – How can one navigate to the exact location? – Is the ability to navigate to +/- 1 u good enough? – While metals width is less than 100nm: 1u means I will get to few signals but not to the specific one … not good. • So we: – innovated Global fiducials to get to the 1u Local Fiducials so as to facilitate reaching the exact signal.. – Even if it is deep inside the silicon. We have lots of challenges to get to the upper metals… across M1-M2 to M3-M4 .. Deeper? – Assuming design will budget the area for the Global fiducials.. (~10*10u) and for the local fiducials 1-2x basic cells size, CAD/SW automation will be needed to place the fiducials. • After all – it require 3 notable spots to find a new location PDFD - Leor Nevo, Intel Corporation
  25. 25. May 2, 2012 25 Flip-Chip Substrate Chip ACaps CapsChip B First Conclusion The transition from DFM to PDFD is due:  While DFM ensures HVM a clean design is of equal importance.  PDFD implementation in next generations VLSI products is a critical part of the overall DFD concept that must be employed by VLSI Product teams.  Placing design access hooks into the silicon and mainly on critical nodes and cell types results in higher productivity and capability for physical debug tools which further enables faster TPT from 1st silicon to product.  The utilization of PDFD results in fewer stepping's or partials layers retrofits which translates to faster TTM. Having each new step already validated on silicon has a big upside potential to save millions of $$$
  26. 26. May 2, 2012 26 Second Conclusion  Optimal coverage of PDFD will become even more critical as the semiconductor industry moves into the 45nm,32nm and below or else “no bug” guarantee is questionable.  It is clear that improvements are needed in scaling circuit edit equipment's and material properties! Is that enough?  A comprehensive PDFD strategy is required on future technologies if the industry is to continue to realize the benefits of performing in-silicon validation of speed, yield & logic bugs.  SO while old traditional DFM guides have became strict rules - a better usage of the white space would be to add use DFM fillers for DFD – Right ?  This is true for front-side as the same as Flip-chips.  So we see here wide opportunities for:  SW solutions.  HW manufacturer or Start-Ups to leap-ahead into the future.
  27. 27. May 2, 2012 27 Q & A Leor Nevo - Intel DFM-PDFD PE Thanks. Leor Nevo, Intel Corporation
  28. 28. May 2, 2012 28 References (Back-up( • There is a very small set of literature outside and projects are trying to do their best using DFT features to debug by the flip- chip pins - but it requires more and more area. • The Design Automation Conference, EDA, test and silicon debug companies announced the creation of the Design-for-Debug Consortium to address silicon debug challenges and collaboratively define the tools needed. PDFD - Leor Nevo, Intel Corporation
  29. 29. May 2, 2012 29 PDFD In Clock Elements • The ability to alter the timing of clocks is one of the main activities performed during speed path debug. – On current generation processes it has become essential to design PDFD features and accessibility into the clock elements themselves. • To provide FIB access in such small geometries clk cells must be designed with extra spacing between transistor’s. – In this case a multi legged clock inverter can be trimmed successfully without damaging the unrelated adjacent device. • For optical probe access the separation helps minimize cross talk.

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