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On this SlideShare page, you will find several Power Point presentations, one for each of themost popular essays to read a...
The GoodOak
There are two spiritual dangers innot owning a farm. One is the dangerof supposing that breakfast comesfrom the grocery, a...
To avoid the first danger, one should plant a garden, preferably wherethere is no grocer to confuse the issue.
To avoid the second, he should lay a split of good oak on theandirons, preferably where there is no furnace, and let it wa...
If one has cut, split, hauled, and piled his own good oak, and let his mindwork the while, he will remember much about whe...
and with a wealth of detail denied to those whospend the week-end in town astride a radiator.
The particular oak now aglow onmy andirons grew on the bankof the old emigrant road where itclimbs the sandhill.
The stump, which I measured upon felling thetree, has a diameter of 30 inches.
It shows 80 growth rings, hence the seedlingfrom which it originated must have laid its firstring of wood in 1865, at the ...
But I know from the history of present seedlings that no oak grows abovethe reach of rabbits without a decade or more of g...
Some day some patient botanist will draw a frequency curve of oak birth-years, and show that the curve humps every ten yea...
It is likely, then, that a low in rabbits occurred in the middle sixties, whenmy oak began to lay on annual rings, but tha...
It may have been the wash and wearof the emigrant traffic that bared thisroadbank, and thus enabled thisparticular acorn t...
Only one acorn in a thousand ever grew large enough to fight rabbits;the rest were drowned at birth in the prairie sea
It is a warming thought that this one wasnt, and thus lived to garnereighty years of June sun. It is this sunlight that is...
And with each gust a wisp of smoke from mychimney bears witness, to whomsoever it mayconcern that the sun did not shine in...
My dog does not care where heat comes from, but he cares ardentlythat it come, and soon.
Indeed he considers my ability to make it come assomething magical, for when I rise in the cold blackpre-dawn and kneel sh...
It was a bolt of lightning that put anend to wood-making by thisparticular oak. We were allawakened, one night in July, by...
Next morning, as we strolled overthe sandhill rejoicing with thecone-flowers and the prairieclovers over their fresh acces...
The trunk showed a longspiral scar of barklesssapwood, a foot wide and notyet yellowed by the sun. Bythe next day the leav...
We mourned theloss of the oldtree, but knew that adozen of its progenystanding straightand stalwart on thesands had alread...
We let the dead veteran season for a year in the sun it could nolonger use, and then on a crisp winter’s day we laid a new...
It took only a dozen pulls of the saw to transect the few years of ourownership, during which we had learned to love and c...
Abruptly we began to cut the years of our predecessor the bootlegger,
who hated this farm, skinned it ofresidual fertility, burned itsfarmhouse, threw it back into the lapof the County (with d...
Yet the oak had laid down good wood for him;his sawdust was as fragrant, as sound, and aspink as our own. An oak is no res...
The reign of the bootlegger endedsometime during the dust-bowldrouths of 1936, 1934, 1933, and1930.
Oak smoke from his still and peat from burning marshlands must haveclouded the sun in those years, and alphabetical conser...
Rest! cries thechiefsawyer, and wepause forbreath.
Now our saw bites into the 1920s, the Babbittian decade when everythinggrew bigger and better in heedlessness and arroganc...
If the oak heard them fall, its wood gives no sign. Nor did it heed theLegislatures several protestations of love for tree...
Neither did it notice the demise of the states last marten in 1925, nor thearrival of its first starling in 1923.
In March 1922, the ‘Big Sleet’ tore the neighboring elms limb fromlimb, but there is no sign of damage to our tree. What i...
Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
Now the saw bites into 1910-20,the decade of the drainage dream,when steam shovels sucked drythe marshes of central Wiscon...
Our marsh escaped, not because of any caution or forbearance amongengineers, but because the river floods it each April, a...
The oak laid on wood just the same, even in 1915, when theSupreme Court abolished the state forests and GovernorPhillip po...
(It did not occur to the Governor that there might be more than onedefinition of what is good, and even of what is busines...
While forestry receded during this decade, game conservation advanced.In 1916 pheasants became successfully established in...
in 1912 a buck law’ protected female deer; in 1911 anepidemic of refuges spread over the state. ‘Refugebecame a holy word,...
Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
Now we cut 1910, when a great university president published a book onconservation, a great sawfly epidemic killed million...
We cut 1909, when smelt were first planted in theGreatLakes, and when a wet summer induced the Legislatureto cut the fores...
We cut 1908, a dry year when the forests burned fiercely, and Wisconsinparted with its last cougar. We cut 1907, when a wa...
We cut 1906, when the first state forester took office, and fires burned17,000 acres in these sand counties; we cut 1905 w...
We cut 1902-3, a winter ofbitter cold; 1901, whichbrought the most intensedrouth of record (rainfall only17 inches); 1900,...
Now our saw bites into the 1890s,called gay by those whose eyes turncityward rather than landward. We cut1899, when the la...
we cut 1898 when a dry fall, followedby a snowless winter, froze the soilseven feet deep and killed the appletrees; 1897, ...
1895, another year of fires; 1894, anotherdrouth year; and 1893, the year of ‘TheBluebird Storm, when a March blizzardredu...
We cut 1892, another year of fires; 1891, a low in the grouse cycle;and 1890, the year of the Babcock Milk Tester, which e...
It was likewise in 1890 that the largestpine rafts in history slipped down theWisconsin River in full view of my oak,to bu...
Thus it is that good pine now stands between the cow and theblizzard, just as good oak stands between the blizzard and me.
Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
Now our saw bites into the 1880s; into 1889, a drouth year in which ArborDay was first proclaimed; into 1887, when Wiscons...
into 1885,preceded by a winter of unprecedented length andseverity; into 1883, when Dean W. H. Henry reported that thespri...
It was likewise in 1881 that the Wisconsin Agricultural Society debated thequestion, How do you. account for the second gr...
One debater claimedspontaneous generation,another claimed regurgitation ofacorns by southbound pigeons.Rest! cries the chi...
Now our saw bites the 1870s, the decade of Wisconsins carousal inwheat. Monday morning came in 1879, when chinchbugs, grub...
I suspect that this farm played its share in the game, and that the sandblow just north of my oak had its origin in over-w...
This same year of 1879 saw the first plantingof carp in Wisconsin, and also the first arrivalof quack-grass as a stowaway ...
On 27 October 1879, sixmigrating prairie chickensperched on the rooftree ofthe German MethodistChurch in Madison, and took...
On 8 November the marketsat Madison were reported tobe glutted with ducks at 10cents each.
In 1878 a deer hunter from Sauk Rapidsremarked prophetically, ‘The hunterspromise to outnumber the deer.
On 10 September 1877, twobrothers, shooting MuskegoLake, bagged 210 blue-winged teal inone day.
In 1876 came the wettest year of record; the rainfall piled up 50 inches.Prairie chickens declined, perhaps owing to hard ...
In 1875 four hunters killed 153 prairiechickens at York Prairie, one county tothe eastward.
In the same year the U.S. Fish Commission planted Atlantic salmon inDevils Lake, 10 miles south of my oak.
In 1874 the firstfactory-made barbedwire was stapled tooak trees; I hope nosuch artifacts areburied in the oak nowunder saw!
In 1873 one Chicago firm received andmarketed 25,000 prairie chickens. TheChicago trade collectively bought 600,000at $3.2...
In 1872 the last wild Wisconsinturkey was killed, two countiesto the southwest.
It is appropriate that the decade ending the pioneer carousal in wheatshould likewise have ended the pioneer carousal in p...
Pigeon hunters by scores plied their trade with net and gun, club and saltlick, and trainloads of prospective pigeon pie m...
This same year 1871 broughtother evidence of the march ofempire: the Peshtigo Fire, whichcleared a couple of counties oftr...
In 1870 the meadow mice had alreadystaged their march of empire; they ate upthe young orchards of the youngstate, and then...
It was likewise in 1870 that amarket gunner boasted inthe American Sportsman ofkilling 6000 ducks in oneseason near Chicago.
Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
Our saw now cuts the 1860s, when thousands died to settle the question:Is the man-man community lightly to be dismembered?...
This decade was not without its gropings toward the larger issue. In 1867Increase A. Lapham induced the State Horticultura...
In 1866 the last native Wisconsin elk was killed.
The saw now severs1865, the pith-year ofour oak. In that yearJohn Muir offered tobuy from hisbrother, who thenowned the ho...
His brother declined to part with the land, but he could not suppress theidea: 1865 still stands in Wisconsin history as t...
We have cut the core. Our saw now reverses its orientation in history; wecut backward across the years, and outward toward...
Now comes the job of making wood. The maul rings on steel wedges asthe sections of trunk are up-ended one by one, only to ...
There is an allegory for historians in the diverse functions of saw,wedge, and axe.
The saw works only across theyears, which it must deal with oneby one, in sequence. From eachyear the raker teeth pull lit...
It is not until the transect is completed that the tree falls, and thestump yields a collective view of a century. By its ...
The wedge, on theother hand, works onlyin radial splits; such asplit yields a collectiveview of all the years atonce, or n...
(If in doubt, let the section season for a year untila crack develops. Many a hastily driven wedgelies rusting in the wood...
The axe functions only at anangle diagonal to the years, andthis only for the peripheral ringsof the recent past.
Its special function is to lop limbs, for which both saw and wedge areuseless. The three tools are requisite to good oak, ...
These things I ponder as the kettle sings, and thegood oak burns to red coals on white ashes. Thoseashes, come spring,
I will return to the orchard at the foot of the sand-hill. They will come backto me again, perhaps as red apples, or perha...
Photo Credits•Historic photographs: Aldo Leopold Foundation archives•A Sand County Almanac photographs by Michael Sewell•D...
The Good Oak
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The Good Oak

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This is the text of Leopold's essay "The Good Oak" paired with beautiful images. The presentation can be used as a backdrop to help illustrate public readings of the essay.

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The Good Oak

  1. 1. On this SlideShare page, you will find several Power Point presentations, one for each of themost popular essays to read aloud from A Sand County Almanac at Aldo Leopold Weekendevents. Each presentation has the essay text right on the slides, paired with beautiful images thathelp add a visual element to public readings. Dave Winefske (Aldo Leopold Weekend eventplanner from Argyle, Wisconsin) gets credit for putting these together. Thanks Dave!A note on images within the presentations: we have only received permission to use theseimages within these presentations, as part of this event. You will see a photo credit slide as thelast image in every presentation. Please be sure to show that slide to your audience at leastonce, and if you dont mind leaving it up to show at the end of each essay, that is best. Also pleasenote that we do not have permission to use these images outside of Aldo Leopold Weekendreading event presentations. For example, the images that come from the Aldo LeopoldFoundation archive are not “public domain,” yet we see unauthorized uses of them all the time onthe internet. So, hopefully that’s enough said on this topic—if you have any questions, just let usknow. mail@aldoleopold.orgIf you download these presentations to use in your event, feel free to delete this intro slide beforeshowing to your audience.
  2. 2. The GoodOak
  3. 3. There are two spiritual dangers innot owning a farm. One is the dangerof supposing that breakfast comesfrom the grocery, and the other thatheat comes from the furnace.
  4. 4. To avoid the first danger, one should plant a garden, preferably wherethere is no grocer to confuse the issue.
  5. 5. To avoid the second, he should lay a split of good oak on theandirons, preferably where there is no furnace, and let it warm his shinswhile a February blizzard tosses the trees outside.
  6. 6. If one has cut, split, hauled, and piled his own good oak, and let his mindwork the while, he will remember much about where the heat comes from,
  7. 7. and with a wealth of detail denied to those whospend the week-end in town astride a radiator.
  8. 8. The particular oak now aglow onmy andirons grew on the bankof the old emigrant road where itclimbs the sandhill.
  9. 9. The stump, which I measured upon felling thetree, has a diameter of 30 inches.
  10. 10. It shows 80 growth rings, hence the seedlingfrom which it originated must have laid its firstring of wood in 1865, at the end of the Civil War.
  11. 11. But I know from the history of present seedlings that no oak grows abovethe reach of rabbits without a decade or more of getting girdled eachwinter, and re-sprouting during the following summer. Indeed, it is all tooclear that every surviving oak is the product either of rabbit negligence orof rabbit scarcity.
  12. 12. Some day some patient botanist will draw a frequency curve of oak birth-years, and show that the curve humps every ten years, each humporiginating from a low in the ten-year rabbit cycle. (A fauna and flora, bythis very process of perpetual battle within and among species, achievecollective immortality.)
  13. 13. It is likely, then, that a low in rabbits occurred in the middle sixties, whenmy oak began to lay on annual rings, but that the acorn that produced itfell during the preceding decade, when the covered wagons were stillpassing over my road into the Great Northwest.
  14. 14. It may have been the wash and wearof the emigrant traffic that bared thisroadbank, and thus enabled thisparticular acorn to spread its firstleaves to the sun.
  15. 15. Only one acorn in a thousand ever grew large enough to fight rabbits;the rest were drowned at birth in the prairie sea
  16. 16. It is a warming thought that this one wasnt, and thus lived to garnereighty years of June sun. It is this sunlight that is now beingreleased, through the intervention of my axe and saw, to warm my shackand my spirit through eighty gusts of blizzard.
  17. 17. And with each gust a wisp of smoke from mychimney bears witness, to whomsoever it mayconcern that the sun did not shine in vain.
  18. 18. My dog does not care where heat comes from, but he cares ardentlythat it come, and soon.
  19. 19. Indeed he considers my ability to make it come assomething magical, for when I rise in the cold blackpre-dawn and kneel shivering by the hearth making afire, he pushes himself blandly between me and thekindling splits I have laid on the ashes, and I musttouch a match to them by poking it between his legs.Such faith, I suppose, is the kind that movesmountains.
  20. 20. It was a bolt of lightning that put anend to wood-making by thisparticular oak. We were allawakened, one night in July, by thethunderous crash; we realized thatthe bolt must have hit nearby, but, since it had not hit us, weall went back to sleep. Man bringsall things to the test of himself, andthis is notably true of lightning.
  21. 21. Next morning, as we strolled overthe sandhill rejoicing with thecone-flowers and the prairieclovers over their fresh accessionof rain, we came upon a great slabof bark freshly torn from the trunkof the roadside oak.
  22. 22. The trunk showed a longspiral scar of barklesssapwood, a foot wide and notyet yellowed by the sun. Bythe next day the leaves hadwilted, and we knew that thelightning had bequeathed tous three cords of prospectivefuel wood.
  23. 23. We mourned theloss of the oldtree, but knew that adozen of its progenystanding straightand stalwart on thesands had alreadytaken over its job ofwood-making.
  24. 24. We let the dead veteran season for a year in the sun it could nolonger use, and then on a crisp winter’s day we laid a newly filed sawto its bastioned base. Fragrant little chips of history spewed from thesaw cut, and accumulated on the snow before each kneeling sawyer.We sensed that these two piles of sawdust were something morethan wood: that they were the integrated transect of a century; thatour saw was biting its way, stroke by stroke, decade by decade, intothe chronology of a lifetime, written in concentric annual rings ofgood oak.
  25. 25. It took only a dozen pulls of the saw to transect the few years of ourownership, during which we had learned to love and cherish this farm.
  26. 26. Abruptly we began to cut the years of our predecessor the bootlegger,
  27. 27. who hated this farm, skinned it ofresidual fertility, burned itsfarmhouse, threw it back into the lapof the County (with delinquent taxesto boot), and then disappearedamong the landless anonymities ofthe Great Depression.
  28. 28. Yet the oak had laid down good wood for him;his sawdust was as fragrant, as sound, and aspink as our own. An oak is no respecter ofpersons.
  29. 29. The reign of the bootlegger endedsometime during the dust-bowldrouths of 1936, 1934, 1933, and1930.
  30. 30. Oak smoke from his still and peat from burning marshlands must haveclouded the sun in those years, and alphabetical conservation wasabroad in the land, but the sawdust shows no change.
  31. 31. Rest! cries thechiefsawyer, and wepause forbreath.
  32. 32. Now our saw bites into the 1920s, the Babbittian decade when everythinggrew bigger and better in heedlessness and arrogance-until 1929, whenstock markets crumpled.
  33. 33. If the oak heard them fall, its wood gives no sign. Nor did it heed theLegislatures several protestations of love for trees: a National Forest & aforest-crop law in 1927, a great refuge on the Upper Mississippibottomlands in 1924, and a new forest policy in 1921.
  34. 34. Neither did it notice the demise of the states last marten in 1925, nor thearrival of its first starling in 1923.
  35. 35. In March 1922, the ‘Big Sleet’ tore the neighboring elms limb fromlimb, but there is no sign of damage to our tree. What is a ton ofice, more or less, to a good oak?
  36. 36. Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
  37. 37. Now the saw bites into 1910-20,the decade of the drainage dream,when steam shovels sucked drythe marshes of central Wisconsinto make farms, and made ash-heaps instead.
  38. 38. Our marsh escaped, not because of any caution or forbearance amongengineers, but because the river floods it each April, and did so with avengeance-perhaps a defensive vengeance-in the years 1913-16.
  39. 39. The oak laid on wood just the same, even in 1915, when theSupreme Court abolished the state forests and GovernorPhillip pontificated that ‘state forestry is not a good businessproposition.
  40. 40. (It did not occur to the Governor that there might be more than onedefinition of what is good, and even of what is business. It did not occurto him that while the courts were writing one definition of goodness inthe law books, fires were writing quite another one on the face of theland. Perhaps, to be a governor, one must be free from doubt on suchmatters.
  41. 41. While forestry receded during this decade, game conservation advanced.In 1916 pheasants became successfully established in Waukesha County;in 1915 a federal law prohibited spring shooting; in 1913 a state gamefarm was started;
  42. 42. in 1912 a buck law’ protected female deer; in 1911 anepidemic of refuges spread over the state. ‘Refugebecame a holy word, but the oak took no heed.
  43. 43. Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
  44. 44. Now we cut 1910, when a great university president published a book onconservation, a great sawfly epidemic killed millions of tamaracks, a greatdrouth burned the pineries, and a great dredge drained Horicon Marsh.
  45. 45. We cut 1909, when smelt were first planted in theGreatLakes, and when a wet summer induced the Legislatureto cut the forest-fire appropriations.
  46. 46. We cut 1908, a dry year when the forests burned fiercely, and Wisconsinparted with its last cougar. We cut 1907, when a wandering lynx, lookingin the wrong direction for the promised land, ended his career among thefarms of Dane County.
  47. 47. We cut 1906, when the first state forester took office, and fires burned17,000 acres in these sand counties; we cut 1905 when a great flight ofgoshawks came out of the North and ate up the local grouse (they nodoubt perched in this tree to eat some of mine).
  48. 48. We cut 1902-3, a winter ofbitter cold; 1901, whichbrought the most intensedrouth of record (rainfall only17 inches); 1900, a centennialyear of hope, of prayer, andthe usual annual ring of oak.Rest! cries the chiefsawyer, and we pause forbreath
  49. 49. Now our saw bites into the 1890s,called gay by those whose eyes turncityward rather than landward. We cut1899, when the last passenger pigeoncollided with a charge of shot nearBabcock, two counties to the north;
  50. 50. we cut 1898 when a dry fall, followedby a snowless winter, froze the soilseven feet deep and killed the appletrees; 1897, another drouth year, whenanother forestry commission came intobeing; 1896, when 25,000 prairiechickens were shipped to market fromthe village of Spooner alone;
  51. 51. 1895, another year of fires; 1894, anotherdrouth year; and 1893, the year of ‘TheBluebird Storm, when a March blizzardreduced the migrating bluebirds to near-zero. (The first bluebirds always alightedin this oak, but in the middle nineties itmust have gone without.)
  52. 52. We cut 1892, another year of fires; 1891, a low in the grouse cycle;and 1890, the year of the Babcock Milk Tester, which enabledGovernor Heil to boast, half a century later, that Wisconsin isAmericas Dairyland. The motor licenses which now parade thatboast were then not foreseen, even by Professor Babcock.
  53. 53. It was likewise in 1890 that the largestpine rafts in history slipped down theWisconsin River in full view of my oak,to build an empire of red barns for thecows of the prairie states.
  54. 54. Thus it is that good pine now stands between the cow and theblizzard, just as good oak stands between the blizzard and me.
  55. 55. Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
  56. 56. Now our saw bites into the 1880s; into 1889, a drouth year in which ArborDay was first proclaimed; into 1887, when Wisconsin appointed its firstgame wardens; into 1886, when the College of Agriculture held its firstshort course for farmers;
  57. 57. into 1885,preceded by a winter of unprecedented length andseverity; into 1883, when Dean W. H. Henry reported that thespring flowers at Madison bloomed 13 days later thanaverage; into 1882, the year Lake Mendota opened a monthlate following the historic Big Snow and bitter cold of 1881-2
  58. 58. It was likewise in 1881 that the Wisconsin Agricultural Society debated thequestion, How do you. account for the second growth of black oak timberthat has sprung up all over the country in the last thirty years? My oakwas one of these.
  59. 59. One debater claimedspontaneous generation,another claimed regurgitation ofacorns by southbound pigeons.Rest! cries the chief sawyer, andwe pause for breath.
  60. 60. Now our saw bites the 1870s, the decade of Wisconsins carousal inwheat. Monday morning came in 1879, when chinchbugs, grubs, rust, and soil exhaustion finally convinced Wisconsinfarmers that they could not compete with the virgin prairies further westin the game of wheating land to death.
  61. 61. I suspect that this farm played its share in the game, and that the sandblow just north of my oak had its origin in over-wheating.
  62. 62. This same year of 1879 saw the first plantingof carp in Wisconsin, and also the first arrivalof quack-grass as a stowaway from Europe.
  63. 63. On 27 October 1879, sixmigrating prairie chickensperched on the rooftree ofthe German MethodistChurch in Madison, and tooka look at the growing city.
  64. 64. On 8 November the marketsat Madison were reported tobe glutted with ducks at 10cents each.
  65. 65. In 1878 a deer hunter from Sauk Rapidsremarked prophetically, ‘The hunterspromise to outnumber the deer.
  66. 66. On 10 September 1877, twobrothers, shooting MuskegoLake, bagged 210 blue-winged teal inone day.
  67. 67. In 1876 came the wettest year of record; the rainfall piled up 50 inches.Prairie chickens declined, perhaps owing to hard rains:
  68. 68. In 1875 four hunters killed 153 prairiechickens at York Prairie, one county tothe eastward.
  69. 69. In the same year the U.S. Fish Commission planted Atlantic salmon inDevils Lake, 10 miles south of my oak.
  70. 70. In 1874 the firstfactory-made barbedwire was stapled tooak trees; I hope nosuch artifacts areburied in the oak nowunder saw!
  71. 71. In 1873 one Chicago firm received andmarketed 25,000 prairie chickens. TheChicago trade collectively bought 600,000at $3.25 per dozen.
  72. 72. In 1872 the last wild Wisconsinturkey was killed, two countiesto the southwest.
  73. 73. It is appropriate that the decade ending the pioneer carousal in wheatshould likewise have ended the pioneer carousal in pigeon blood. In 1871,within a 50-mile triangle spreading northwestward from my oak, 136million pigeons are estimated to have nested, and some may have nestedin it, for it was then a thrifty sapling 20 feet tall.
  74. 74. Pigeon hunters by scores plied their trade with net and gun, club and saltlick, and trainloads of prospective pigeon pie moved southward andeastward toward the cities. It was the last big nesting in Wisconsin, andnearly the last in any state.
  75. 75. This same year 1871 broughtother evidence of the march ofempire: the Peshtigo Fire, whichcleared a couple of counties oftrees and soil, and the ChicagoFire, said to have started from theprotesting kick of a cow.
  76. 76. In 1870 the meadow mice had alreadystaged their march of empire; they ate upthe young orchards of the youngstate, and then died. They did not eat myoak, whose bark was already too toughand thick for mice.
  77. 77. It was likewise in 1870 that amarket gunner boasted inthe American Sportsman ofkilling 6000 ducks in oneseason near Chicago.
  78. 78. Rest! cries thechief sawyer, andwe pause forbreath.
  79. 79. Our saw now cuts the 1860s, when thousands died to settle the question:Is the man-man community lightly to be dismembered? They settledit, but they did not see, nor do we yet see, that the same question appliesto the man-land community.
  80. 80. This decade was not without its gropings toward the larger issue. In 1867Increase A. Lapham induced the State Horticultural Society to offer prizesfor forest plantations.
  81. 81. In 1866 the last native Wisconsin elk was killed.
  82. 82. The saw now severs1865, the pith-year ofour oak. In that yearJohn Muir offered tobuy from hisbrother, who thenowned the home farmthirty miles east of myoak, a sanctuary forthe wildflowers thathad gladdened hisyouth.
  83. 83. His brother declined to part with the land, but he could not suppress theidea: 1865 still stands in Wisconsin history as the birth year of mercy forthings natural, wild, and free.
  84. 84. We have cut the core. Our saw now reverses its orientation in history; wecut backward across the years, and outward toward the far side of thestump. At last there is a tremor in the great trunk; the saw-kerf suddenlywidens; the saw is quickly pulled as the sawyers spring backward tosafety; all hands cry Timber!; my oak leans, groans, and crashes withearth-shaking thunder, to lie prostrate across the emigrant road that gaveit birth.
  85. 85. Now comes the job of making wood. The maul rings on steel wedges asthe sections of trunk are up-ended one by one, only to fall apart infragrant slabs to be corded by the roadside.
  86. 86. There is an allegory for historians in the diverse functions of saw,wedge, and axe.
  87. 87. The saw works only across theyears, which it must deal with oneby one, in sequence. From eachyear the raker teeth pull littlechips of fact, which accumulatein little piles, called sawdust bywoodsmen and archives byhistorians; both judge thecharacter of what lies within bythe character of the samples thusmade visible without.
  88. 88. It is not until the transect is completed that the tree falls, and thestump yields a collective view of a century. By its fall the tree atteststhe unity of the hodge-podge called history.
  89. 89. The wedge, on theother hand, works onlyin radial splits; such asplit yields a collectiveview of all the years atonce, or no view at all,depending on the skillwith which the plane ofthe split is chosen.
  90. 90. (If in doubt, let the section season for a year untila crack develops. Many a hastily driven wedgelies rusting in the woods, embedded inunsplittable cross-grain. )
  91. 91. The axe functions only at anangle diagonal to the years, andthis only for the peripheral ringsof the recent past.
  92. 92. Its special function is to lop limbs, for which both saw and wedge areuseless. The three tools are requisite to good oak, and to good history.
  93. 93. These things I ponder as the kettle sings, and thegood oak burns to red coals on white ashes. Thoseashes, come spring,
  94. 94. I will return to the orchard at the foot of the sand-hill. They will come backto me again, perhaps as red apples, or perhaps as a spirit of enterprise insome fat October squirrel, who, for reasons unknown to himself, is benton planting acorns.
  95. 95. Photo Credits•Historic photographs: Aldo Leopold Foundation archives•A Sand County Almanac photographs by Michael Sewell•David Wisnefske, Sugar River Valley Pheasants Forever, Wisconsin Environmental Education Board, WisconsinEnvironmental Education Foundation, Argyle Land Ethic Academy (ALEA)•UW Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium, R. Freckmann, V.Kline, E. Judziewicz, K. Kohout, D. Lee, K Sytma, R.Kowal, P. Drobot, D. Woodland, A. Meeks, R. Bierman•Curt Meine, (Aldo Leopold Biographer)•Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Education for Kids (EEK)•Hays Cummins, Miami of Ohio University•Leopold Education Project, Ed Pembleton•Bird Pictures by Bill Schmoker•Pheasants Forever, Roger Hill•Ruffed Grouse Society•US Fish and Wildlife Service and US Forest Service•Eric Engbretson•James Kurz•Owen Gromme Collection•John White & Douglas Cooper•National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)•Ohio State University Extension, Buckeye Yard and Garden Online•New Jersey University, John Muir Society, Artchive.com, and Labor Law Talk

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