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Keep talking
From text to touch screen

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

1
Overview
•
•
•
•

Where it all began
Technology changed the world
From text to touch screen
Keep talking

LJWatson.co.uk

...
Where it all began

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

3
1st Century Magnifying glass
• Seneca the Younger writes:
• "Letters, however small and indistinct, are
seen enlarged and ...
14th Century Eye-glasses
• Friar Alessandro della Spina makes corrective
eye-glasses

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

5
1808 Typing machine
• Pellegrino Turri invents a typing machine

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

6
1876 Telephones
• Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

7
1917 Condensing microphone
• EC Wente invents condenser microphone

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

8
1936 Artificial speech
• HW Dudley invents artificial talking machine

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

9
1952 Speech recognition
• Davis, Biddulph and Balasek invent first
speech recognition device

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatso...
Technology changed the world

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

11
1948 Transistor
• Bardeen, Shockley and Brattain invent the
transistor

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

12
1955 Transistor computer
• Felker and Harris create first fully transistor
based computer

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

...
1970 Xerox PARC
• Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is
established

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

14
1971 Email
• Ray Tomlinson sends first email over ARPANet

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

15
1974 Mouse
• Xerox Alto is first computer with mouse input

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

16
1981 Personal Computer
• IBM PC with DOS ignites the Personal
Computer (PC) market

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

17
1983 Graphical User Interface
• Apple releases first PC with Graphical User
Interface (GUI)

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson...
1984 Keyboard
• IBM ships first PC with keyboard peripheral

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

19
1985 Windows
• Windows 1.0 is released by Microsoft

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

20
1990 Web
• Tim Berners Lee proposes HyperText Transfer
Protocol (HTTP) and HyperText Markup
Language (HTML)

LJWatson.co.u...
1993 Mosaic
• Mosaic web browser is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

22
1994 Netscape Navigator
• Netscape Navigator 1.0 is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

23
1995 Internet Explorer
• Internet Explorer 1.0 is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

24
From text to touch screen

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

25
1969 BCAB
• British Computer Association of the Blind
(BCAB) is established

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

26
1978 Speak n Spell
• Speak n Spell is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

27
1986 IBM Screen Reader
• IBM Screen Reader is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

28
1989 Outspoken
• Outspoken for Macintosh is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

29
1990 IBM Screen Reader 2
• IBM Screen Reader 2 is released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

30
1995 Jaws 1
• Jaws 1.0 is released by Henter Joyce

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

31
1995 Window-Eyes
• Window-Eyes is released by GW Micro

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

32
2002 Jaws 4
• Jaws 4.0 is released, introducing quick
navigation

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

33
2005 VoiceOver
• VoiceOver is released with OSX10.4

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

34
2007 NVDA
• Non Visual Desktop Access (NVDA) is released
by NV Access

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

35
2009 Mobile
• VoiceOver for iOS and TalkBack for Android
are released

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

36
Keep talking

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

37
2013 Tactile air
• Disney develops tactile air feedback

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

38
2013 Tactile 3D
• Disney prototypes 3D tactile interface

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

39
2013 Google Glass
• Google Glass goes into public beta

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

40
2011 Argus II
• Argus II visual prosthesis approved for clinical
trial in the EU

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

41
2014 Contact lenses
• Prototype contact lenses relay images

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

42
Thank you

LJWatson.co.uk

@LeonieWatson

43
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Keep talking: from text to touch screen (Lancaster Uni 2014)

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A look at the origins of assistive technology for blind people, its context within the digital evolution, the challenges of evolving screen reader technology, and a glimpse into the future of assistive technology.

Published in: Technology
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Keep talking: from text to touch screen (Lancaster Uni 2014)

  1. 1. Keep talking From text to touch screen LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 1
  2. 2. Overview • • • • Where it all began Technology changed the world From text to touch screen Keep talking LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 2
  3. 3. Where it all began LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 3
  4. 4. 1st Century Magnifying glass • Seneca the Younger writes: • "Letters, however small and indistinct, are seen enlarged and more clearly through a globe or glass filled with water." LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 4
  5. 5. 14th Century Eye-glasses • Friar Alessandro della Spina makes corrective eye-glasses LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 5
  6. 6. 1808 Typing machine • Pellegrino Turri invents a typing machine LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 6
  7. 7. 1876 Telephones • Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 7
  8. 8. 1917 Condensing microphone • EC Wente invents condenser microphone LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 8
  9. 9. 1936 Artificial speech • HW Dudley invents artificial talking machine LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 9
  10. 10. 1952 Speech recognition • Davis, Biddulph and Balasek invent first speech recognition device LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 10
  11. 11. Technology changed the world LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 11
  12. 12. 1948 Transistor • Bardeen, Shockley and Brattain invent the transistor LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 12
  13. 13. 1955 Transistor computer • Felker and Harris create first fully transistor based computer LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 13
  14. 14. 1970 Xerox PARC • Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is established LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 14
  15. 15. 1971 Email • Ray Tomlinson sends first email over ARPANet LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 15
  16. 16. 1974 Mouse • Xerox Alto is first computer with mouse input LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 16
  17. 17. 1981 Personal Computer • IBM PC with DOS ignites the Personal Computer (PC) market LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 17
  18. 18. 1983 Graphical User Interface • Apple releases first PC with Graphical User Interface (GUI) LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 18
  19. 19. 1984 Keyboard • IBM ships first PC with keyboard peripheral LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 19
  20. 20. 1985 Windows • Windows 1.0 is released by Microsoft LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 20
  21. 21. 1990 Web • Tim Berners Lee proposes HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and HyperText Markup Language (HTML) LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 21
  22. 22. 1993 Mosaic • Mosaic web browser is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 22
  23. 23. 1994 Netscape Navigator • Netscape Navigator 1.0 is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 23
  24. 24. 1995 Internet Explorer • Internet Explorer 1.0 is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 24
  25. 25. From text to touch screen LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 25
  26. 26. 1969 BCAB • British Computer Association of the Blind (BCAB) is established LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 26
  27. 27. 1978 Speak n Spell • Speak n Spell is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 27
  28. 28. 1986 IBM Screen Reader • IBM Screen Reader is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 28
  29. 29. 1989 Outspoken • Outspoken for Macintosh is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 29
  30. 30. 1990 IBM Screen Reader 2 • IBM Screen Reader 2 is released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 30
  31. 31. 1995 Jaws 1 • Jaws 1.0 is released by Henter Joyce LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 31
  32. 32. 1995 Window-Eyes • Window-Eyes is released by GW Micro LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 32
  33. 33. 2002 Jaws 4 • Jaws 4.0 is released, introducing quick navigation LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 33
  34. 34. 2005 VoiceOver • VoiceOver is released with OSX10.4 LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 34
  35. 35. 2007 NVDA • Non Visual Desktop Access (NVDA) is released by NV Access LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 35
  36. 36. 2009 Mobile • VoiceOver for iOS and TalkBack for Android are released LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 36
  37. 37. Keep talking LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 37
  38. 38. 2013 Tactile air • Disney develops tactile air feedback LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 38
  39. 39. 2013 Tactile 3D • Disney prototypes 3D tactile interface LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 39
  40. 40. 2013 Google Glass • Google Glass goes into public beta LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 40
  41. 41. 2011 Argus II • Argus II visual prosthesis approved for clinical trial in the EU LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 41
  42. 42. 2014 Contact lenses • Prototype contact lenses relay images LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 42
  43. 43. Thank you LJWatson.co.uk @LeonieWatson 43

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