Teaching with lecture capture


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Results from a project on lecture capture conducted for King's College London, School of Biomedical Sciences Oct 2012 - Oct 2013. Please see slide notes for further explanation.

This presentation covers:
-- Lecturers’ general levels of enthusiasm for lecture capture
-- Issues that may affect their enthusiasm
-- Common issues that need addressing:
-----1) System reliability & student complaints
-----2) Pressure not to opt-out
-----3) Changes to teaching practice & experience
-----4) Copyright
-----5) Permanence of recordings and access to them
-----6) Confusion and control
-----7) Recordings replacing live lectures
-- Technical features lecturers would value
-- How lecture capture could support staff development

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  • Please cite as Sloman, L. (2013). Teaching with lecture capture [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from…
  • For further info on the project and KCL’s lecture capture system, see: Sloman, L. (2013). Lecture capture research project: Project overview [PowerPoint slides]
  • Fuller biography:Bond, S., & Grussendorf, S. (unpublished). Staff Attitudes to Lecture Capture Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011) If the lecture is recorded, whatʼs the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture. PechaKucha presentation at ALT-C 2011 Chang, S. (2007). Academic perceptions of the use of Lectopia: A University of Melbourne example. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning: Proceedings Ascilite Singapore 2007 (pp. 135–144). Germany, L. (2012). Beyond lecture capture: What teaching staff want from web-based lecture technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(7), 1208–1220Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htm Greenberg, A. D., & Nilssen, A. (2009). The New Imperative for Lecture Capture Systems in Higher Education: How Competition, Affordability and Business Benefits are Driving Adoption (pp. 1–18). Duxbury, MA.Mcdonnell, E. (2011). The Anxiety of Exposure... how lecture capture brings everything out for everyone to see. ALT Lecture Capture conference.O’Donoghue, M., Hollis, J., & Hoskin, A. (2007). Lecture recording: Help or hinder in developing a stimulating learning environment. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007 (pp. 769–770). http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/odonoghue-poster.pdf Reader, K., Pamplin, M., & Campbell, A. (2012). Lecture Capture Project (pp. 1–16). http://estsass.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/lecture-capture-project-for-blog.pdfShum, P.-S., Land, L., & Dick, G. (2010). Online Lecturing: Suitable for all courses? In Proceedings of the Southern Association for Informations Systems Conference (p. 20).
  • The research design allowed time to use responses from lecturers to shape questions to students and vice versa(a) Lecturer mini-poll: 2 questions emailed to lecturers; 84 (66%) responded (b) Lecturer focus groups: 16 lecturers – divided into 9 enthusiastic/neutral & 7 unenthusiastic/neutral (c) Lecturer survey: completed by 38 (31%) lecturers (3 of whom withheld data from external sharing)
  • Mini-poll at the outset of the project: all 122 lecturers emailed 2 short questions 84 respondents; 69% response rateMost had experienced lecture capture since October 2011
  • The pressure and anxiety some lecturers feel needs to be taken seriously. Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmMcdonnell, E. (2011). The Anxiety of Exposure... how lecture capture brings everything out for everyone to see. ALT Lecture Capture conference.
  • Mini poll: No clear differences between issues raised by enthusiastic vs unenthusiastic respondents.Focus groups: divided into enthusiastic/neutral vs unenthusiastic/neutral – looked for different responses. Also divided to avoid participants feeling the need to convince others of their position, and encourage free expression of their opinions, even if ambiguous or contradictory. Participants: invited all 84 lecturers who responded to the initial mini-polllargely senior lecturers and professors, often module leaders - those most in the 'firing line' for dealing with lecture capturea high proportion of medical students’ favourite lecturers/tutors ie probably those who feel most passionate about teaching. Focus group discussions suggested a few hypotheses to explain the variation in enthusiasm, however many concerns common to both groups.
  • Wider survey: aimed to check hypotheses about different attitudes, but mainly completed by enthusiastic staff, so hard to see significant trends in data.Participants: All 122 involved in teaching invited. Most respondents had participated in the initial mini-poll too and 7 in the focus groups77% had been teaching at King’s for at least 10 years 59% were module or scenario leaders.NB An additional 3 lecturers completed the survey, but did not give permission for their data to be shared externally.
  • Members of both focus groups thought the university was trying to keep up with other universities: More enthusiastic group: university at least anticipatingstudent expectations if not responding directly to existing expectations. Less enthusiastic group: university driving student expectations unnecessarily.
  • 52% respondents perceived students as having a large influence on decision to implement lecture capture29% respondents perceived senior management as driving that decisionOnly 2 people believed both groups had a large influence.There was a trend for those unenthusiastic about lecture capture to perceive senior management as having a greater influence on the decision and students as have weaker influence. One-tailed Spearman’s Rank Order correlation tests weak negative correlation between enthusiasm and perceptions of how much senior management influenced the decision, rs(32) = -0.313, p=0.036. weak positive correlation that was not significant between enthusiasm and perceptions of how much students influenced the decision, rs(31) = 0.249, p=0.081.Lecturers had been receiving the brunt of student complaints when the system failed.NB In student survey (Feb 2013), 50% still viewed lecture capture as a 'nice to have' Over 25% might consider it 'important' when choosing module/university.
  • No association between which benefits valued and enthusiasm about lecture capture, but a weak correlation between the number of benefits valued and enthusiasm (one-tailed Spearman’s Rank Order correlation: rs(29) = 0.329, p=0.035)Surprising that only 45% wanted evidence that lecture capture would improve learning outcomes, most satisfied with improving the process for students. Justifications around student satisfaction and flexible study convinced most of the survey respondents.Competition: perhaps underestimated?53 UK universities using/trialling lecture capture (UCISA 2012), which includes 60% of pre-92 institutions & other London medical schools.
  • Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmBond, S., & Grussendorf, S. (unpublished). Staff Attitudes to Lecture Capture Chang, S. (2007). Academic perceptions of the use of Lectopia: A University of Melbourne example. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning: Proceedings Ascilite Singapore 2007 (pp. 135–144).
  • NB Different benefits may appeal or be prioritised in different departments / universitiesTrial phase: given the popularity of lecture capture with students, it may be difficult to withdraw lecture capture after introducing it. However, data on student usage and any issues that concern staff would help explain why continuing/withdrawing it.Mainly, trial phase would help with decisions on what system to use and how best to run it.
  • Mini-poll at the outset of the project: all 122 lecturers emailed 2 short questions Q2. Please state any issues you would particularly like to see addressed in this study.70 responses,Most had experienced lecture capture since October 2011The majority of issues raised could be categorized as relating to one of the three following themes:1. Perceived impact of lecture capture on students (mentioned by 50 respondents)2. Impact of lecture capture on lecturers themselves (mentioned by 31 respondents)Technical aspects of the system (mentioned by 30 respondents)Forimpact on students, see Sloman, L. (2013). Students’ use of lecture capture [PowerPoint slides]Attendance was greatest concern and similar findings in all studies and informal discussions, so will be addressed separately:Sloman, L. (2013). Lecture capture and attendance [PowerPoint slides]
  • Remaining issues that affect lectures were explored in focus groups and/or survey. Also compared to student data where relevant.
  • Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011) If the lecture is recorded, whatʼs the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture. PechaKucha presentation at ALT-C 2011 McDonnell, E. (2011). The Anxiety of Exposure... how lecture capture brings everything out for everyone to see. ALT Lecture Capture conference.
  • Taken from mini-poll (Nov 2012)Both focus groups also complained about the barrage of emails they get when recordings are missing or poor quality.
  • Q:Do you feel free to opt out of having your lectures recorded if you wish? Please select one answer which most closely matches your perceptionsIt is departmental policy that staff can opt out of being recorded, but only 44% of respondents said they felt free to do so. Even among the enthusiastic respondents, 18% thought they couldn’t opt out, rising to 33% of neutral/unenthusiastic staff. Respondents were more likely to perceive pressure from students than staff.
  • Members of both focus groups felt they weren’t free to opt out.Some module organisers were also concerned about their relationship with guest lecturers, who may be put off by being recorded.
  • Q: Some lecturers have decided not to have their lectures recorded. There are many possible reasons for this. How many of the following reasons would you respect as a fair decision? Please tick all that you feel are reasonable. (post-exam survey in Jun)20% of those who answered the previous question didn’t pick any of these options – ie none acceptableRemaining percentages therefore given out of 253 not just the 200 who picked at least one of these options(b) most sympathy for problems around copyright/sensitive material: Lecturer would have to remove copyright material, e.g. published illustrations or graphs which they are allowed to present in a closed room but not to distribute by video Lecturer would have to remove sensitive material, e.g. patient data or unpublished research(c) least sympathy for concerns about student learning – except that they may fall behind(d) Some sympathy for lecturers’ personal concerns: Lecturer is concerned that casual jokes, 'off-the-record' comments or mistakes would be used against them Lecturer feels very self-conscious being recorded
  • Q: Some lecturers have decided not to have their lectures recorded. Why do you think that is? (term-time survey in Feb)275 respondedWhile some respondents seemed sympathetic – even to unexplained “personal choices”, others didn’t understand lecturers’ reasoning and many suggested that their reasoning was based on misconceptions about students or thought they were just being old-fashioned or even selfish.
  • Bond, S., & Grussendorf, S. (unpublished). Staff Attitudes to Lecture Capture Chang, S. (2007). Academic perceptions of the use of Lectopia: A University of Melbourne example. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning: Proceedings Ascilite Singapore 2007 (pp. 135–144).Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htm
  • Only 8 respondents (23.5%) had made major changes to their teaching since their lecturers have been recorded.  
  • Presentation style:A few mentioned less jokes, either because they felt their humour would be lost in a recording or concerns that it was too risque/un-PC. One likes to mime interactions and was concerned this isn’t captured well. Another’s presentation is now more scripted and more inhibited. Most focus group members made conscious attempts to ignore the fact they were being recorded and teach normally. Movement:restricted to podium to use mouse cursor instead of pointerImages/Multimedia: concerns about copyright. Little change to content so far.Anxiety/discomfort: some find it very uncomfortable to watch recording of self, some concern over being watched by peers/superiors, but maybe less so for newly-trained lecturers (mentioned more in focus group than survey)
  • Based on the post-exam survey (Feb 2013) and focus group with Yr 2 medics (Mar 2013)Open Q: What advice would you give lecturers on how to deliver a lecture that is also useful as a recording?Respondents tended to give simple advice to improve the presentation rather than requesting any drastic changes in style.
  • Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmMcNeill, M., Woo, K., & Gosper, M. (2007). Using web-based lecture technologies-advice from students. In HERDSA Annual Conference. Enhancing Higher Education, Theory and Scholarship. (pp. 1–11). Retrieved from http://www.mq.edu.au/ltc/altc/wblt/docs/dissemination/HERDSA_McNeill.pdf
  • Taken from a focus group (Jan 2013).Several related issues: including 3rd party material, e.g. images, without permission – fear of being sued sharing patient data, even if anonymous – fear of public access sharing own research data, which may not get published if already sharedProblem is largely about controlling access, covered in issue 5
  • http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/Portals/12/Documents/PDFs/Recording%20Lectures.pdf
  • Taken from mini-poll (Nov 2012) and focus group (Jan 2013)
  • Bond, S., & Grussendorf, S. (unpublished). Staff Attitudes to Lecture Capture
  • NB Suggest if deleting material, it’s replaced with a standard notice explaining why missing and instruction to please jump to Xmin to continue viewing – maintains original times of the lecture for students who’ve noted the time of key information.Could set competition for students to detect mistakes and reward those accurately identified and corrected.
  • http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/Portals/12/Documents/PDFs/Recording%20Lectures.pdf
  • From the focus groups (Jan 2013)
  • Many of these ‘improvements’ are already possible.Sound signal = A signal indicating if the microphone is not workingRecording signal = A signal indicating when lecture recording starts and stopsAnalytics = To know if there are particular parts of my lecture that students watched mostFlexible recording options, e.g. voice only or video includedShort clips = Ability to record shorter audio or video messages outside the lecture theatreMinor cuts service = To be able to request minor cuts from recordings of my lectures Own minor edits = Ability to make minor edits to recordings of my lectures myselfAnnotations = Ability to add written comments/annotations to specific parts of the recordings
  • Germany, L. (2012). Beyond lecture capture: What teaching staff want from web-based lecture technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(7), 1208–1220
  • A bank of short good practice examples (scheme 1) would reinforce to new lecturers that there are many different effective styles, and some of these clips might be useful as examples for prospective students too (although more professional filming might be valuable for that purpose).
  • Despite the respondents already being confident in their lecturing skills (77% respondents have been teaching at Kings for over 10 years and all rated their confidence as 6 to 10 out of 10), almost all saw potential value in at least one of the following 3 schemes suggested to them.
  • Teaching with lecture capture

    1. 1. Teaching with lecture capture leonie.sloman@kcl.ac.uk @leonie_learning
    2. 2. @leonie_learning Contents 1. Background: project scope, aims, previous studies & data sources. 2. Lecturers’ general levels of enthusiasm for lecture capture 3. Issues that may affect their enthusiasm: exploring contrasting attitudes, system introduction & management, university's motivation, perceived driving factors 4. Common concerns: (1) System reliability & student complaints, (2) Pressure not to opt-out, (3) Changes to teaching practice & experience, (4) Copyright material, (5) Permanence of recordings and access to them, (6) Confusion and control, (7) Recordings replacing live lectures 5. Technical features lecturers value 6. Using lecture capture to support staff development
    3. 3. @leonie_learning Background
    4. 4. @leonie_learning Project scope • Research undertaken as part of King’s College London, Technology-Enhanced Learning funded project • Focused on recordings of lectures for Year 1 and 2 Medicine, and for Year 1 Biomedical Sciences, approx 400 students in each cohort • 122 members of staff involved in lectures (excluding those involved in the project committee)
    5. 5. @leonie_learning Project aims • To understand how Year 1 & 2 medical students and Year 1 biomedical science students are using recorded lectures to support their studying and revision. • To understand how lecture capture affects lecturers’ teaching practice and experience
    6. 6. @leonie_learning Previous studies Relatively few studies have focused on lecturers’ experience Particularly recommended: • Gosper et al. (2008): large study including survey of 155 lectures across four Australian universities (Macquarie, Murdoch, Flinders, Newcastle) • Bond & Grussendorf: interviewed 23 lecturers at London School of Economics in 2010 • Bramble & Singh (2011) / McDonnell (2011) : survey of 83 lecturers at Queen Mary University London, 20 of whom were using lecture capture.
    7. 7. @leonie_learning Data sources (2012-13) Nov Dec mini poll Lecturer self-report Jan Feb Mar focus groups Apr May survey Student logs (medicine) survey 1 Student self-report 1 week pop up survey focus groups survey 2
    8. 8. @leonie_learning What are lecturers’ general attitudes to lecture capture?
    9. 9. @leonie_learning Lecturers’ general enthusiasm Please rate your general feelings about lectures being recorded on a scale of 0 to 10* * 84 respondents (mini-poll, Nov 2012) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 very unenthusiastic 3 4 5 neutral 6 7 8 9 10 very enthusiastic
    10. 10. @leonie_learning • 39% enthusiastic (rated 7 to 10) • 45% neutral (rated 4 to 6) • 16% unenthusiastic (rated 0 to 3) i.e. sizeable minority & half of those strongly negative
    11. 11. @leonie_learning Similar findings to previous studies: lecturer opinion is typically more varied than student opinion. Gosper et al. (2008) surveyed 155 Australian lecturers: • 54% reported frequently/always having positive experiences • 26% reported rarely/sometimes having positive experiences McDonnell (2011) surveyed 83 QMUL lecturers: • 70% agreed there is value in recording lectures • 13% were opposed • Some vehemently opposed: reports of absences, interfering with recording devices, disabling microphones & union boycotts
    12. 12. @leonie_learning Which issues may affect enthusiasm?
    13. 13. @leonie_learning Contrasting attitudes: focus groups Group 1: Unenthusiastic (7 participants) Group 2: Enthusiastic (9 participants) Other initial poll respondents 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 very unenthusiastic 3 4 5 neutral 6 7 8 9 10 very enthusiastic
    14. 14. @leonie_learning Contrasting attitudes: survey Survey respondents (35 lecturers, 29% response rate) Other initial poll respondents 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 very unenthusiastic 3 4 5 neutral 6 7 8 9 10 very enthusiastic
    15. 15. @leonie_learning System introduction & management This is where the strongest differences between the two focus groups were apparent: • More enthusiastic group: perceptions of the system as having been implemented for the benefit of students and still in a trial phase. • Less enthusiastic group: perceptions of the system as having largely been implemented to follow trends, imposed as a ‘diktat’ from above which denied them control over their lectures, and without adequate financial investment to run efficiently.
    16. 16. @leonie_learning University’s motivation Anticipating or driving student expectations? “…the perception was, that students knew that this facility was available at other universities and because of that we were behind the curve.” “There was a big expectation pushed out for the students that all your lectures are going to be videoed, they‟ll be on the web within minutes — and it was a complete disaster.”
    17. 17. @leonie_learning Perceived driving factors To what extent do you think the decision to record lectures in your subject was influenced by each of the following?* * 34 respondents (survey, May 2013) % lecturers perceiving influence 60 50 40 30 No influence Small influence 20 Moderate influence 10 Large influence 0 Direct requests from students Senior management Other teaching colleagues
    18. 18. @leonie_learning Valued benefits of lecture capture Which of these possible effects would justify lecture capture? * * 32 respondents (survey, May 2013) % respondents 100 80 60 40 20 0 improving student satisfaction offering flexibility supporting special needs matching competitors improving student exam scores
    19. 19. @leonie_learning Comparison to other studies: Gosper et al. (2008) surveyed 155 Australian lecturers on reasons for use: • 82% to support students who can’t attend *NB longer travel distances+ • 65% to provide another study tool • About half to support students with disabilities or English second language Bond & Grussendorf (unpublished) interviewed 23 LSE lecturers: • Broad support for recordings lectures in extreme situations, e.g. snow, swine flu, major travel disruptions, lecturer unable to come. • Willing to make allowances for those students with special needs, but not accepted as justification for general availability Chang (2007) interviewed 11 lecturers at University of Melbourne • Perceived the benefits to be supporting students, especially part-time or English second language; and revision resource.
    20. 20. @leonie_learning Recommendations for introducing lecture capture  Emphasize that the main aim for lecture capture is to improve student satisfaction and allow students to study in more flexible ways (and measure whether this occurs)  Increase staff awareness that lecture capture is rapidly becoming widespread across UK universities, which will inevitably drive student expectations  Stress that it's in a trial phase and allow further opportunities for feedback and suggestions
    21. 21. @leonie_learning What common issues need addressing?
    22. 22. @leonie_learning Issues that concern lecturers What issues would you particularly like to see addressed in this study* • Impact on students: Reduced attendance? Less value than face-to-face? Educational benefits? Students’ usage? • Impact on lecturers: Increased workload? Restricted lecture delivery/content? Confusion/discomfort/irritation? • Technical aspects of the system: Reliability; Control/flexibility. * 70 respondents (mini-poll, Nov 2012)
    23. 23. @leonie_learning Issues affecting lecturers 1. System reliability (student complaints) 2. Pressure not to opt out 3. Changes to teaching practice & experience 4. Copyright material 5. Permanence of recordings & who can access them 6. Confusion and lack of control 7. Recordings potentially replacing live lectures
    24. 24. @leonie_learning Similar findings to previous study: Bramble & Singh (2011) surveyed 83 QMUL lecturers. Key concerns about recording lectures were: • 61% Students will not attend class • 33% Recordings being accessed by non-QMUL students • 23% Lack of control over lecture delivery • 22% Recordings being used for performance management McDonnell (2011) also reported significant impact of technical problems in causing whole departments at QMUL to opt out.
    25. 25. @leonie_learning 1. System reliability (student complaints) “Already the students have ceased to regard the recordings as a plus point but rather, as a potential source of criticism (too slow to appear, incomplete etc). So by providing better facilities we might end up creating more dissatisfaction.” “On my course only about 50% of the lectures (if that) have been recorded and posted… leading to me having to field many more complaints from students than I had when lectures were not recorded at all!!”
    26. 26. @leonie_learning Recommendations for system reliability  Employ one person with overall responsibility for lecture capture who can coordinate all the different people involved in running the system, and be an initial contact to handle problems. Benefits expected: • Diverting student complaints from lecturers will reduce a major source of lecturer opposition to the system • Giving one person responsibility should result in problems being detected and anticipated faster, helping improve reliability
    27. 27. @leonie_learning 2. Perceived freedom to opt out Yes, it is my free decision Yes, but I would have to justify my decision to other staff/students Maybe, if the module/course leader agreed to my request No, I feel strongly pressured to agree No, it is departmental policy that all lectures must be recorded 0 *Based on 32 survey responses 10 20 % respondents 30 40 50
    28. 28. @leonie_learning Opting out “And then this year, there was sort of a diktat from above, decided, everything‟s going to be videoed, whether you like it or not. And that was it.” “If it‟s being rolled out and the default is that everybody opts in, then one would kind of stand alone by opting out. …I feel that I wouldn’t be able to say no, because students would say, „Why aren‟t you being captured?‟ so I‟m not sure if it really is a free choice, I think there‟s lots of unseen—”
    29. 29. @leonie_learning Perceived pressure from students • Survey respondents were more likely to feel pressure not to opt-out from students than from staff • However, 80% of students surveyed accepted at least one reason for lectures not being recorded • Students are more sympathetic to some reasons that others
    30. 30. @leonie_learning Students’ sympathy to typical opt-out reasons Copyright material Sensitive material Attendance: students may fall behind Jokes & mistakes held against lecturers Lecturers self-conscious Attendance: harder to understand recordings Students' study skills weaker Attendance: less interaction opportunities Attendance: can't tell if students confused… Students too reliant on recordings None selected 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% *200 respondents, but percentages given for 253 who reached previous question
    31. 31. @leonie_learning Students’ perceptions of why lecturers opt out • 64% believe it is to encourage attendance • 28% think lecturers are protecting content, either because of copyright or intellectual property – some confusion about these terms • 21% to avoid a permanent record, especially of their mistakes or inappropriate/ non-PC material/jokes • • • • • • 12% to promote students’ study skills 12% because they’re self-conscious: shy, private or lack confidence 10% think they’ve misunderstood students 6% because recordings are a poorer educational experience for students 5% think they’re being selfish 5% were unsure why
    32. 32. @leonie_learning Similarities to other studies: Bond & Grussendorf (unpublished) interviewed 23 LSE lecturers: • Also felt student pressure despite an opt-in policy Chang (2007) interviewed 11 lecturers at University of Melbourne: • Most felt pressure from students; opting out affected teaching quality ratings. Differences to other studies: Gosper et al. (2008) surveyed 155 Australian lecturers: • Only 12% selected student pressure as a reason they recorded lectures • 17% said it was required by their department
    33. 33. @leonie_learning Recommendations for opt-out  Emphasize that staff are free to opt out of being recorded and provide them with pros and cons to consider  Issue a general statement to students from the course or module leader that not all lectures are videoed for varying reasons, including examples – don’t leave it to individual lecturers to defend their decision.  Include information on which lectures will be recorded clearly marked in students' timetables  Convey to lecturers that the majority of students will respect this decision, depending on the reasons given.
    34. 34. @leonie_learning 3. Changes to teaching practice Does being recorded affect these aspects of your teaching? * * 34 respondents (survey, May 2013) % minor change 50 40 30 20 10 0 % major change
    35. 35. @leonie_learning Typical changes • More restrained presentation style • Less movement around the room • Anxiety about or removal of copyright material. • Anxiety or discomfort about being recorded
    36. 36. @leonie_learning Students’ requests • Use the mouse cursor instead of a laser pointer • Make it clear what slide you’re talking about (for audio only) • Speak clearly with the microphone located close enough • Keep to the allocated time (or final material not recorded) • Repeat any students’ questions “I wouldn‟t want the feedback to be that lecturers must stay very statically next to the microphone, „cause some of the best lecturers are the ones who wander round.”
    37. 37. @leonie_learning Comparison to previous studies: Gosper et al. (2008) surveyed 139 Australian lecturers on teaching: • 39% made no substantial changes to lecturing style [ie 61% have] • 45% more self-aware of spontaneous comments & 23% scripting their lectures more • 29% reduced movement around the lecture theatre • 27% reduced multimedia because of copyright concerns • 23% listened to recordings and adjusted own performance McNeil , Woo & Gosper (2007) surveyed 815 Australian students about what advice they’d give lecturers: • Similarly concerns about clear cues for where to attend to in slides, clear sound quality & pronunciation, and keeping to time.
    38. 38. @leonie_learning Recommendations for presenting  Avoid using pointers: either describe diagrams more fully or use the mouse cursor on the lectern  Repeat students' questions  Continue presenting in normal style, including humour, gestures and demonstrations or whatever else usually engages the audience  Continue walking around the room if preferred style, but ensure that the lapel microphone is fixed high enough on the torso and won't rustle against clothing.  If concerned that comments may be too 'politically incorrect' to be recorded on video, consider whether they may also be offensive to anyone in the lecture theatre
    39. 39. @leonie_learning 4. Copyright material “For me, there is one massive, massive issue which is copyright and for me that would dramatically change the content of my lectures, and what I do. And I did some quite interesting, fun things that I know the students really like that I would have to completely delete, edit out or simply withdraw from the whole thing. So for me, that it‟s the big number one issue.” “We‟re trying to teach the students how to interpret research papers and look at data, but nobody is going to show any of their own data if it is going to be recorded and put up on a public place.”
    40. 40. @leonie_learning Recommendations for copyright  Wherever possible, specific copyright/sensitive material or pre-published data should be deleted from the recording rather than withholding the whole lecture.  Clarification and guidance (from the university’s legal department) should be provided when lecturers sign to give their permission for recordings.  Some material can be presented for educational purposes, but not distributed (in printed/electronic handouts or included in video).  If third-party material is included on presentation slides, then its copyright status should already have been considered. It may not be more difficult to get permission to include material in videos (if access is restricted) than in distributed handouts. See JISC (2010) Recording Lectures: Legal Considerations
    41. 41. @leonie_learning 5. Permanence and access Concerns are around: • Mistakes, jokes or off-the-record comments being used against them • Extracts being ‘remixed’ for ridicule • Colleagues or superiors watching, or use for performance monitoring “I think there‟s a different thing when something has been and gone, and where something is up there: potentially downloadable, potentially manipulated, potentially taken out of context.”
    42. 42. @leonie_learning “I have no objections to present students looking back over them for revision, but would hate to think my peers or seniors are scrutinizing my lectures behind closed door..” “I think there‟s also a suspicion from some staff that once their beautifully honed lecture has been videoed and captured, then it makes their position here somewhat jeopardized. …„cause lectures, especially at the lower level, have got quite a long shelf life. So there‟s a certain amount of suspicion and paranoia.”
    43. 43. @leonie_learning Similar findings to previous study: Bond & Grussendorf (unpublished) interviewed 23 LSE lecturers: • Also found ‘permanence’ of recordings inhibited some from using jokes, informal language and sensitive /controversial examples. • Worried that mistakes included in a ‘quotable’ record. • Some worried about material leaking onto YouTube, but others happy to support open education or promote LSE externally
    44. 44. @leonie_learning Recommendations on permanence While recordings are a permanent record, they are actually editable while live presentations are not:  Any necessary deletions should be made (or requested) immediately after the lecture  Annotations can be added at any time to correct mistakes, provide additional explanation or link to other material Recordings can equally be positive ‘evidence’ that lecturer did cover something if a student questions it. Keep sense of humour – unless really offensive!
    45. 45. @leonie_learning Recommendations on access Students should have to sign an agreement explaining key information and their obligations: • Permission only to use recordings to support their studies; prohibited from altering them or distributing any part to students not on the course. • All audio or video of a lecture remains the lecturers' copyright even if made on student’s devices; lectures may also contain third-party material, pre-published data, patient data or other sensitive material. • Students' questions and participation in demonstrations will be included in recordings, therefore agreement protects student privacy too. • Recordings are an additional resource. Not all lectures can be recorded and students still expected to attend and develop good note-taking skills.
    46. 46. @leonie_learning 6. Confusion and control Confusion: What exactly is recorded? When do recordings start and stop? Who has access to the recordings? How long they are kept? Frustration: Why can’t I control timing of recordings? Why don’t I ‘own’ my own lectures?
    47. 47. @leonie_learning Recommendations  Provide a link to online information about lecture capture in all related correspondence so that FAQs can be addressed in one place.  Lecturers may own the copyright in their 'performance' even though lecturing is part of their normal terms of employment. See JISC (2010) Recording Lectures: Legal Considerations  Ask staff to sign an agreement giving permission for their lectures to be recorded, that clarifies both their and the university’s obligations.
    48. 48. @leonie_learning Staff-University agreement Recommended it would clarify: • What exactly is recorded i.e. audio, screen & video [non-video option?] • Which students have (password-protected) access to the recordings and the terms of access, i.e. summary of the student-university agreement • • • • • How long recording will be stored & accessible, e.g. 2 academic years What would happen if they left university’s employment within that time Recordings will not be used for performance monitoring Their permission would be sought for any additional usage They should ask colleagues' permission before viewing each others' lectures, just as they would ask before sitting in on a live lecture • Guidance on using copyright material
    49. 49. @leonie_learning 7. Replacing live lectures Several members of both focus groups perceived a direct polarization between what’s required for a back up / revision aid vs students’ primary source of information. If videos were to be the primary source of information for students, they want them to be redesigned and filmed professionally.
    50. 50. @leonie_learning “One either gives a live lecture and students attend and I ask questions and interact to some extent… or you have the pristine prepared lecture… lecture capture is sort of a halfway house, which doesn‟t tick either box.” “Well, you can’t do both, though. You either just use it as a minor revision aid, after you‟ve done the lecture, which is handy for the students to go to occasionally, Or you decide right we‟re gonna teach by video and therefore you design the courses and you design our teaching approach around it. …It would be incredibly different. We‟d become Open University.”
    51. 51. @leonie_learning A younger member of the more enthusiastic focus group saw things differently: “There’s going to be a balance. There‟ll be the live lectures. There‟ll be the lecture capture of the live lectures. There‟ll be the formally online lectures, for which you spend half a day doing your one hour slot and you get paid to do that as a one off. And there‟ll also be the webinars and the podcasts — all of this.”
    52. 52. @leonie_learning Recommendations  Pledge that there would be staff consultation before considering different purposes in the future.  Share study findings that students mainly use recordings as a supplement to consolidate material they found difficult or where they want to expand their notes, and as an occasional back up when they miss lectures. Most would oppose recordings being used as a replacement for live lectures.  Students also have access to purpose-made narrated slides, which some students find more focused, easier to navigate and better quality. However, purpose-made material is not necessary for general revision and consolidation — most students are content to use recorded lectures, which don't require extra time from lecturers.
    53. 53. @leonie_learning What technical features would lecturers value?
    54. 54. @leonie_learning System improvements very useful a bit useful Sound signal Recording signal Analytics Flexible recording… Short clips Minor cuts service Own minor edits Annotations 0 20 * Based on 35 respondents (survey, May 2013) 40 60 % respondents 80 100
    55. 55. @leonie_learning Comparison to previous study: Germany (2012) surveyed 96 lecturers at the University of Swinbourne (Australia) to obtain value ratings for 30 technical features: • 80% would also find an ‘on-air’ light very important • 77% felt it’s very important to be able to pause and resume recording (not suggested in KCL survey) • 52% felt it’s very important to be able to edit recordings • Divided on whether automatic pre-scheduled recordings or ad hoc lecture-controlled recording is preferable • 44% felt usage statistics are very important
    56. 56. @leonie_learning Recommended technical features/services Many already available but need promoting  Signals (e.g. lights) to show when recording is active and whether the microphone is working.      Higher quality lapel microphones so lecturers can walk around. Extend recording periods from X.05 – X.55 to X.01 – X.59 Flexible recording: option not to record/share video Echo360 analytics - promote to lecturers at the end of terms. Step-by-step guides on adding annotations in Echoplayer and editing out sensitive/copyright material before upload  Bookmarks allow lecturers to refer students to a specific point of the lecture  A search function in recordings would support their use as revision aids
    57. 57. @leonie_learning Could lecture capture support staff development?
    58. 58. @leonie_learning Potential staff development schemes 1. Good practice examples: watching extracts from recordings of lectures that students have rated highly (with the lecturer's permission) 2. Private reflection: watching recordings of their own lectures, using structured guidance to help them identify their strengths and weaknesses 3. Peer feedback: allowing a colleague (of their choice) to watch one of their lecture recordings and provide feedback & suggestions
    59. 59. @leonie_learning Perceived usefulness of schemes Now When first lecturing 80 70 % respondents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Good practice examples Private reflection * Based on 33 respondents (survey, May 2013) Peer feedback
    60. 60. @leonie_learning • 82% felt at least one of these activities would still be of benefit to themselves • 93% would be willing to help colleagues with one of the schemes