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1945 1990 Australia revision 1

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An overview of Australian history post WW2

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1945 1990 Australia revision 1

  1. 1. History RevisionHistory Revision Australian History 1945 - 1990Australian History 1945 - 1990
  2. 2. Chifley Years 1945 - 1949Chifley Years 1945 - 1949  Chifley, Ben (1885-1951), served as prime minister of Australia from 1945 toChifley, Ben (1885-1951), served as prime minister of Australia from 1945 to 1949. He became prime minister and leader of the Labor Party one month before1949. He became prime minister and leader of the Labor Party one month before the end of World War II (1939-1945), succeeding John Curtin, who died inthe end of World War II (1939-1945), succeeding John Curtin, who died in office.office.  Chifley was prime minister at a difficult time in Australia's history. The ChifleyChifley was prime minister at a difficult time in Australia's history. The Chifley government felt that many of the controls and regulations that had governed thegovernment felt that many of the controls and regulations that had governed the economy during wartime should not be relaxed too quickly. Continuation of someeconomy during wartime should not be relaxed too quickly. Continuation of some of these restrictions, particularly gasoline rationing, into the late 1940'sof these restrictions, particularly gasoline rationing, into the late 1940's irritated many people. In 1947, the government attempted to nationalize theirritated many people. In 1947, the government attempted to nationalize the private banks. This provided incentive for the anti-Labor forces, which had beenprivate banks. This provided incentive for the anti-Labor forces, which had been recently reorganized by Robert Gordon Menzies, to campaign against the policiesrecently reorganized by Robert Gordon Menzies, to campaign against the policies of the Chifley government. At the general election of 1949, the Laborof the Chifley government. At the general election of 1949, the Labor government was defeated. Joseph Benedict Chifley was born in Bathurst, Newgovernment was defeated. Joseph Benedict Chifley was born in Bathurst, New South Wales.South Wales.
  3. 3. Chifley Years 1945 - 1949Chifley Years 1945 - 1949  Problems of post war governmentProblems of post war government - employment and compensation of ex-servicemen,- employment and compensation of ex-servicemen, maintain diversification of economy and get normal business (suspended during war) back upmaintain diversification of economy and get normal business (suspended during war) back up and running - exp. Housing industry.and running - exp. Housing industry.  AimsAims - Increase population - by 2% Post-war Immigration Scheme -- Increase population - by 2% Post-war Immigration Scheme - ““WhiteWhite Aust. PolicyAust. Policy”” of 1901of 1901  Public Ownership of Banks - Bank NationalisationPublic Ownership of Banks - Bank Nationalisation  Australia dependent on Primary ProductionAustralia dependent on Primary Production  Welfare StateWelfare State  Strong Govt. control of economy to achieve social goalsStrong Govt. control of economy to achieve social goals  Postwar Reconstruction Schemes - Snowy Mt Hydro Electric Scheme -Postwar Reconstruction Schemes - Snowy Mt Hydro Electric Scheme - mostly new immigrants and ex-servicemen.mostly new immigrants and ex-servicemen.  Coal Strike & CommunismCoal Strike & Communism - post war fear of Communism. Labor labeled as Communist. Coal- post war fear of Communism. Labor labeled as Communist. Coal Strike against Labor principals but also look like communists.Strike against Labor principals but also look like communists.  Foreign Policy - Independent Foreign Policy - Supported independence for IndonesiaForeign Policy - Independent Foreign Policy - Supported independence for Indonesia  Election of 1949Election of 1949 - Labor lost to Menzies - why?- Labor lost to Menzies - why?
  4. 4. Cold War 1945 - 1980Cold War 1945 - 1980’’ss  USSR, China, Korea CommunistUSSR, China, Korea Communist - Fear of Communism taking over the world- Fear of Communism taking over the world - greatly influenced western power foreign policy. Exp - west supported- greatly influenced western power foreign policy. Exp - west supported brutal corrupt dictators for no better reason than they opposed communistbrutal corrupt dictators for no better reason than they opposed communist govt.govt.  USSR & USAUSSR & USA - Both hostile without going to war - why? - both sides had- Both hostile without going to war - why? - both sides had nuclear weapons. - Both sides use propaganda -nuclear weapons. - Both sides use propaganda - ““Capitalist spiesCapitalist spies”” killed inkilled in USSR and in Capitalist countries socialists, trade unionists, advocates ofUSSR and in Capitalist countries socialists, trade unionists, advocates of civil rights and racial equality, supporters of colonies seeking independencecivil rights and racial equality, supporters of colonies seeking independence all labeledall labeled ‘‘redsreds’’ - loose your job, hinder you from influencing people ie- loose your job, hinder you from influencing people ie teachers, stop you publishing novels, books and papers.teachers, stop you publishing novels, books and papers.  The Cold War was characterized by mutual distrust, suspicion, andThe Cold War was characterized by mutual distrust, suspicion, and misunderstandings by both the United States and the Soviet Union, andmisunderstandings by both the United States and the Soviet Union, and their allies. At times, these conditions increased the likelihood of a thirdtheir allies. At times, these conditions increased the likelihood of a third world war. The United States accused the Soviet Union of seeking toworld war. The United States accused the Soviet Union of seeking to expand Communism throughout the world. The Soviets, meanwhile, chargedexpand Communism throughout the world. The Soviets, meanwhile, charged the United States with practicing imperialism and with attempting to stopthe United States with practicing imperialism and with attempting to stop revolutionary activity in other countries.revolutionary activity in other countries.
  5. 5. Cold War Time LineCold War Time Line
  6. 6. Post War ImmigrationPost War Immigration  Immigration Minister - Arthur CalwellImmigration Minister - Arthur Calwell  White Australia Policy of 1901White Australia Policy of 1901  Most desirable - British, white english speaking - Ireland, Scotland etc.Most desirable - British, white english speaking - Ireland, Scotland etc.  Other less desirables from Europe - European countries, war torn, refugees - Latvia, Poland,Other less desirables from Europe - European countries, war torn, refugees - Latvia, Poland, Italy, Greece etc.Italy, Greece etc.  Change Australian Society - Economically, Socially and Politically - workforce, influence ofChange Australian Society - Economically, Socially and Politically - workforce, influence of new cultures on our food, hospitality industry, architecture, entertainment, financialnew cultures on our food, hospitality industry, architecture, entertainment, financial contribution to society - buying of goods and services, increased the population, were usedcontribution to society - buying of goods and services, increased the population, were used as a labour class, while low income Australians had higher paid employment, White Australiaas a labour class, while low income Australians had higher paid employment, White Australia Policy -> Multiculturalism, multicultural ethinically diverse AustraliaPolicy -> Multiculturalism, multicultural ethinically diverse Australia  Involved in reconstruction schemes - Snowy Mt Hydro SchemeInvolved in reconstruction schemes - Snowy Mt Hydro Scheme  AustraliaAustralia’’s Immigration Policies:s Immigration Policies:  Assimilation - 1901 mid 1960Assimilation - 1901 mid 1960’’s - assimilate different cultures into ours, loss of cultures - assimilate different cultures into ours, loss of culture  Integration - mid1960Integration - mid1960’’s - 1973 - not necessarily a loss of culture but individuals had tos - 1973 - not necessarily a loss of culture but individuals had to participate in an integrated Aust. Culture.participate in an integrated Aust. Culture.  Multiculturalism - 1973 - maintain and promotion of cultures, a celebration of theMulticulturalism - 1973 - maintain and promotion of cultures, a celebration of the difference.difference.
  7. 7. Menzies Era 1949 - 1966Menzies Era 1949 - 1966 Australian Way of LifeAustralian Way of Life  Menzies Liberal Conservative Prime MinisterMenzies Liberal Conservative Prime Minister  Period of Prosperity - Economic Boom, The Lucky Country, Consumerism, Increase inPeriod of Prosperity - Economic Boom, The Lucky Country, Consumerism, Increase in standard of living, the suburbs.standard of living, the suburbs.  Automobile - became available to the average Australian - suburbs developedAutomobile - became available to the average Australian - suburbs developed  WomenWomen’’s role was in the home despite having played a large role in running the countrys role was in the home despite having played a large role in running the country during WWIIduring WWII  Influences - from Britain and America - Music, fashion & magazines. Exp. Rock & Roll, theInfluences - from Britain and America - Music, fashion & magazines. Exp. Rock & Roll, the Beatles.Beatles.  Cold War and the threat of Communism - The Red Menace - 1951 Referrendum, SEATON,Cold War and the threat of Communism - The Red Menace - 1951 Referrendum, SEATON,  Australian dream owning your own home and car - for many this was achievableAustralian dream owning your own home and car - for many this was achievable Foreign PolicyForeign Policy - All the way with the LBJ(USA)All the way with the LBJ(USA) - Very conservativeVery conservative - SEATO, ANZUSSEATO, ANZUS - Refused to condemn white minority repressive regime in South Africa. Menzies was deeplyRefused to condemn white minority repressive regime in South Africa. Menzies was deeply troubled when South Africa was not allowed to compete in Commonwealth Games due totroubled when South Africa was not allowed to compete in Commonwealth Games due to racist regime.racist regime.
  8. 8. Menzies Era 1949 - 1966Menzies Era 1949 - 1966  Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon (1894-1978), served as prime minister of Australia from 1939 to 1941 andMenzies, Sir Robert Gordon (1894-1978), served as prime minister of Australia from 1939 to 1941 and from 1949 to 1966. He served longer than any other prime minister in Australian history. Menziesfrom 1949 to 1966. He served longer than any other prime minister in Australian history. Menzies helped found the Liberal Party of Australia. He dominated Australian political life during the 1950'shelped found the Liberal Party of Australia. He dominated Australian political life during the 1950's and 1960's.and 1960's.  As prime minister, Menzies presided over great changes in the Australian way of life. During the 16As prime minister, Menzies presided over great changes in the Australian way of life. During the 16 years of his second prime ministership, the Australian economy grew steadily, particularly inyears of his second prime ministership, the Australian economy grew steadily, particularly in manufacturing. The average citizen prospered during this period.manufacturing. The average citizen prospered during this period.  The steady growth of the Australian economy benefited Menzies's second period as prime minister. HeThe steady growth of the Australian economy benefited Menzies's second period as prime minister. He increased government support of higher education. In the early 1950's, Menzies supported a failedincreased government support of higher education. In the early 1950's, Menzies supported a failed referendum to ban Australia's Communist Party. He sent Australian troops to fight with Unitedreferendum to ban Australia's Communist Party. He sent Australian troops to fight with United Nations (UN) forces in the Korean War (1950-1953). He also sent soldiers to serve in the Vietnam WarNations (UN) forces in the Korean War (1950-1953). He also sent soldiers to serve in the Vietnam War (1957-1975) on the side of South Vietnam and the United States.(1957-1975) on the side of South Vietnam and the United States.  Menzies never lost his love and admiration for the British. He had a particular affection for the royalMenzies never lost his love and admiration for the British. He had a particular affection for the royal family. As prime minister, he acted as host to Queen Elizabeth II on her visits to Australia in 1954 andfamily. As prime minister, he acted as host to Queen Elizabeth II on her visits to Australia in 1954 and 1963. In 1963, the queen made him a knight of the Order of the Thistle, the second highest order the1963. In 1963, the queen made him a knight of the Order of the Thistle, the second highest order the British monarch can bestow. In 1965, Menzies was made lord warden of the cinque ports, succeedingBritish monarch can bestow. In 1965, Menzies was made lord warden of the cinque ports, succeeding the famous British statesman Sir Winston Churchill.the famous British statesman Sir Winston Churchill.  Menzies retired from politics in 1966. He died on May 15, 1978.Menzies retired from politics in 1966. He died on May 15, 1978.
  9. 9. Korean WarKorean War  Korea split into North and South at the 38° parallel - North Communist, South Non-Korea split into North and South at the 38° parallel - North Communist, South Non- Communist. USSR & China support north, United Nations, US and allies support theCommunist. USSR & China support north, United Nations, US and allies support the south.south.  The Korean War began on June 25, 1950, when troops from Communist-ruled NorthThe Korean War began on June 25, 1950, when troops from Communist-ruled North Korea invaded South Korea. The UN called the invasion a violation of internationalKorea invaded South Korea. The UN called the invasion a violation of international peace and demanded that the Communists withdraw from South Korea. After thepeace and demanded that the Communists withdraw from South Korea. After the Communists kept fighting, the UN asked its member nations to give military aid toCommunists kept fighting, the UN asked its member nations to give military aid to South Korea. Sixteen UN countries sent troops to help the South Koreans, and 41South Korea. Sixteen UN countries sent troops to help the South Koreans, and 41 countries sent military equipment or food and other supplies. The United Statescountries sent military equipment or food and other supplies. The United States provided about 90 percent of the troops, military equipment, and supplies that wereprovided about 90 percent of the troops, military equipment, and supplies that were sent to South Korea. China fought on the side of North Korea, and the Soviet Unionsent to South Korea. China fought on the side of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave military equipment to the North Koreans.gave military equipment to the North Koreans.  The Korean War ended on July 27, 1953, when the UN and North Korea signed anThe Korean War ended on July 27, 1953, when the UN and North Korea signed an armistice agreement. A permanent peace treaty between South Korea and Northarmistice agreement. A permanent peace treaty between South Korea and North Korea has never been signed. However, United States military forces remain in SouthKorea has never been signed. However, United States military forces remain in South Korea to discourage a resumption of hostilities between the two parts of Korea.Korea to discourage a resumption of hostilities between the two parts of Korea.  The Korean War was one of the bloodiest wars in history. About a million South KoreanThe Korean War was one of the bloodiest wars in history. About a million South Korean civilians were killed and several million were made homeless. More than 560,000 UNcivilians were killed and several million were made homeless. More than 560,000 UN and South Korean troops and about 1,600,000 Communist troops were killed orand South Korean troops and about 1,600,000 Communist troops were killed or wounded or were reported missing.wounded or were reported missing.
  10. 10. Korean WarKorean War  Statement issued by Acheson (Jan 1950) - Korea/Formosa outsideStatement issued by Acheson (Jan 1950) - Korea/Formosa outside defensive perimeter.defensive perimeter.  Twenty Fifth June attack by North Korea.Twenty Fifth June attack by North Korea.  Action by US/UNAction by US/UN  Landing at InchonLanding at Inchon  Entry of China into the conflictEntry of China into the conflict  MacArthur sacked - Ridgeway in chargeMacArthur sacked - Ridgeway in charge  Armistice talks begin at Kaeson - PanmunjomArmistice talks begin at Kaeson - Panmunjom  Truman out - Eisenhower elected (Nov 1952) - more aggressiveTruman out - Eisenhower elected (Nov 1952) - more aggressive foreign policyforeign policy  Ending of conflict - signing of armistice agreement (27th JulyEnding of conflict - signing of armistice agreement (27th July 1953)1953)
  11. 11. Red Scare/Communism Fear of communism in the 1950’s in Australia was nothing new. Since the Russian Revolution in 1917 and WWI Russia had been accused of betrayal and treachery. Across the other side of the world few people understood what Communism was and believed Politicians when they explained it in simple terms of forced labour, the destruction of the family and the persecution of Christians. This fear generated by anti-communist propaganda was used by conservatives in society to maintain their position of political power. Evidence of Fear of Communism; - Cold War - 1945 - 1980 - Chifley’s Bank Nationalization Acts and attempts to nationalize airlines helped the Liberal Party to remove them from office. Coal Strike; - 1951 Referendum - April Menzies tried to intro. Bill to ban the Communist Party of Australia. Bill passed in Parliament but the High Court ruled it invalid. Menzies then turned to the people - referendum failed. - Korean War - 1950 - 1953 - Aust. Supported UN, USA & South Korean troops to ‘stop the spread of Communism’. - ANZUS - 1951 - Aust., NZ and USA - stop the spread of communism - SEATO - 1954 - USA, Britain, France, Aust., NZ, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, - all anti-communist states to promote self govt. and independence of all countries. - Eisenhower ‘Domino Theory’ - One nation in SE Asia falls to communism the rest will like Dominos. - Petrov Affair - April 1954 - Vietnam War - Aust. sent advisors in 1962 and troops from 1965 - 1972
  12. 12. What is Communism? • Communism is a political and economic system that became one of the most powerful forces in the world. It shaped much of history from the early 1900's to the 1990's. Some people have considered Communism the greatest threat to world peace. Others have looked on it as the world's greatest hope. • According to Communists, their long-range goal is a society that provides equality and economic security for all. Communists traditionally have called for government ownership rather than private ownership of land, factories, and other economic resources, called the means of production. They also have called for government planning of economic activity, and for strict rule by the Communist Party.
  13. 13. Petrov Affair April 1954Petrov Affair April 1954 - Vladamir and Evdoka Petrov arrive in 1954 to Australia to take up positions in the- Vladamir and Evdoka Petrov arrive in 1954 to Australia to take up positions in the Russian Embassy. From the 1930Russian Embassy. From the 1930’’s both the Petrovs both the Petrov’’s had been members of Russian intelligence.s had been members of Russian intelligence. - 1951 Petrov engages a Polish doctor to begin work as a Russian agent. But the doctor already- 1951 Petrov engages a Polish doctor to begin work as a Russian agent. But the doctor already works for ASIO. Later Petrov becomes oware of the doctors association with ASIO.works for ASIO. Later Petrov becomes oware of the doctors association with ASIO. - A federal election was due to be held on 29 of May 1954. A half-senate election held in- A federal election was due to be held on 29 of May 1954. A half-senate election held in 1953 gave the Labor Party 50.61% of the vote for that election as opposed to the combined1953 gave the Labor Party 50.61% of the vote for that election as opposed to the combined vote of the combined Liberal Country Parties at 44.43%.vote of the combined Liberal Country Parties at 44.43%. - 1954 Petrov quits the Russian Embassy and makes to the Aust. Govt. through the ASIO- 1954 Petrov quits the Russian Embassy and makes to the Aust. Govt. through the ASIO a request for political asylum.a request for political asylum. - Evodoka Petrov is taken by force to a plane leaving Sydney Airport via Darwin back to Russia.- Evodoka Petrov is taken by force to a plane leaving Sydney Airport via Darwin back to Russia. - Evodoka and her husband are granted political asylum in a last-minute drama at the Darwin- Evodoka and her husband are granted political asylum in a last-minute drama at the Darwin Airport.Airport. - 1 month later elections are held. Results:- 1 month later elections are held. Results: Liberal Party 47.06 % of total votes - 64 seatsLiberal Party 47.06 % of total votes - 64 seats Labor Party 50.03 % of total votes - 57 seatsLabor Party 50.03 % of total votes - 57 seats It has been said that the Lib Govt. used the Petrov Affair and their handling and savingIt has been said that the Lib Govt. used the Petrov Affair and their handling and saving of the Russian couple to win support for the election.of the Russian couple to win support for the election.
  14. 14. Vietnam War 1962 - 1975Vietnam War 1962 - 1975Background:Background: - Menzies Govt., Red Scare, Cold War, Communist Threat, ANZUS, Korean War, SEATOMenzies Govt., Red Scare, Cold War, Communist Threat, ANZUS, Korean War, SEATO VietnamVietnam - French Colonial Rule(1858 - WWII), Japanese Occupation (WWII), French Colonial Rule- French Colonial Rule(1858 - WWII), Japanese Occupation (WWII), French Colonial Rule but Vietnam wanted independence Conflict 1945 - 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phubut Vietnam wanted independence Conflict 1945 - 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu Vietnam gained independence.Vietnam gained independence. - Civil war between North & South and a war of ideologies - Communism & CapitalismCivil war between North & South and a war of ideologies - Communism & Capitalism - North Vietnam Communist - supported by China and USSRNorth Vietnam Communist - supported by China and USSR - South Vietnam Capitalist - supported by USA and Aust.South Vietnam Capitalist - supported by USA and Aust. - USA/Aust sent advisors in 1962 and troops in 1965USA/Aust sent advisors in 1962 and troops in 1965 - National Service/Conscription introduced in 1964 - All Aust. Men over 20 had toNational Service/Conscription introduced in 1964 - All Aust. Men over 20 had to register, ballot drawn, your birthday came up you went to War or jail. - 2 years. Moreregister, ballot drawn, your birthday came up you went to War or jail. - 2 years. More than 49,000 consciptors served in the Viet. War.than 49,000 consciptors served in the Viet. War. - 1972 Whitlam brought Australian soldiers home1972 Whitlam brought Australian soldiers home - 1975 war ended. All American and Australian personal withdrawn. The Viet Cong had1975 war ended. All American and Australian personal withdrawn. The Viet Cong had reached Saigon.reached Saigon. This war effected Australia Politically, Socially and Economically.This war effected Australia Politically, Socially and Economically. Politically - Change of Govt., National Services, anti-war protests, demo. Ties with USAPolitically - Change of Govt., National Services, anti-war protests, demo. Ties with USA Socially - men conscripted, returning soldier's given no recognition, lasting effects onSocially - men conscripted, returning soldier's given no recognition, lasting effects on soldier's physically and emotionally, protests, organization forms Save Our Sonssoldier's physically and emotionally, protests, organization forms Save Our Sons Economically - cost of the war on the Aust. republicEconomically - cost of the war on the Aust. republic
  15. 15. Vietnam War 1962 - 1975Vietnam War 1962 - 1975 - longest war Aust. Involved in and the only war in which Aust. Fought on the losing side.longest war Aust. Involved in and the only war in which Aust. Fought on the losing side. - Unofficial war - Aust. Never declared war on Vietnam.Unofficial war - Aust. Never declared war on Vietnam. - Divided the Australian peopleDivided the Australian people Dangers:Dangers: - mortar fire, grenades, auto weapon fire, land mines, booby traps, snares and bear traps.mortar fire, grenades, auto weapon fire, land mines, booby traps, snares and bear traps. Chemical warfare used on people and vegetationChemical warfare used on people and vegetation Conditions in Vietnam:Conditions in Vietnam: - Humid, wet and dry season, high rainfall levels, very rural with villages surrounded by fields.Humid, wet and dry season, high rainfall levels, very rural with villages surrounded by fields. - Main transportation bicycle or motorcycle. Poor country. Thick tropical vegetation.Main transportation bicycle or motorcycle. Poor country. Thick tropical vegetation. - Viet Cong knew the terrain of jungle, flora, fauna, sounds, smells etc.Viet Cong knew the terrain of jungle, flora, fauna, sounds, smells etc. - Viet Cong used to warfare - French, Japanese and know USA & Aust.Viet Cong used to warfare - French, Japanese and know USA & Aust. - They could smell and hear their enemy comingThey could smell and hear their enemy coming - South Vietnamese Govt. was corrupt, disorganized and unpopularSouth Vietnamese Govt. was corrupt, disorganized and unpopular - South Vietnamese Army was weak and members did not want to fight.South Vietnamese Army was weak and members did not want to fight. - Viet Cong had the support of the masses, the peasants.Viet Cong had the support of the masses, the peasants. Australian Soldiers:Australian Soldiers: - Maintained good relations with Vietnamese. Were not as corrupt and careless as USA troops.Maintained good relations with Vietnamese. Were not as corrupt and careless as USA troops. - Battle of Long Tan 1966 - proved Australians merit as soldiers.Battle of Long Tan 1966 - proved Australians merit as soldiers. - On their return no recognition of service. No repatriations due to chemical use in Vietnam.On their return no recognition of service. No repatriations due to chemical use in Vietnam. War on TVWar on TV - The world watch the atrocities committed in this war. - lead to rallies and anti-war sentiment- The world watch the atrocities committed in this war. - lead to rallies and anti-war sentiment
  16. 16. Whitlam: the positives…Whitlam: the positives…  Whitlam, Gough, served as prime minister of Australia from 1972 to 1975. In NovemberWhitlam, Gough, served as prime minister of Australia from 1972 to 1975. In November 1975, Sir John Kerr, the governor general of Australia, removed Whitlam from office.1975, Sir John Kerr, the governor general of Australia, removed Whitlam from office. Kerr took this action after a dispute between Whitlam--head of Australia's Labor Party--Kerr took this action after a dispute between Whitlam--head of Australia's Labor Party-- and the leaders of the country's Liberal and National Country (now National) partiesand the leaders of the country's Liberal and National Country (now National) parties threatened to stop the operations of the government. Liberal and National Country partythreatened to stop the operations of the government. Liberal and National Country party leaders charged members of Whitlam's government with improper conduct in financialleaders charged members of Whitlam's government with improper conduct in financial matters. They demanded that Whitlam call for new elections. When Whitlam refused,matters. They demanded that Whitlam call for new elections. When Whitlam refused, they blocked the approval of funds needed to run the government. Kerr then dismissedthey blocked the approval of funds needed to run the government. Kerr then dismissed Whitlam and named a new prime minister. Whitlam's Labor Party lost elections held inWhitlam and named a new prime minister. Whitlam's Labor Party lost elections held in December 1975 and in 1977. Whitlam retired from politics in 1978.December 1975 and in 1977. Whitlam retired from politics in 1978.  As prime minister, Whitlam ended Australia's participation in the Vietnam War. He alsoAs prime minister, Whitlam ended Australia's participation in the Vietnam War. He also ended policies that placed racial restrictions on immigration to Australia, and worked toended policies that placed racial restrictions on immigration to Australia, and worked to restore land rights to the Aborigines - the original inhabitants of Australia.restore land rights to the Aborigines - the original inhabitants of Australia.
  17. 17. Whitlam: the positives…Whitlam: the positives… - Women gained right for equal pay and other anti-discrimination acts passed. - Brought troops home from Vietnam War. - Freed men jailed for not complying to National Service. - Increased spending on education. - Abolished university fees. - Determination to reduce foreign ownership of Aust. Mineral resources. - Mining on Aboriginal land was stopped. - Govt. accepted the need to recognize the rights of Aboriginal people to their land. - Aboriginal Affairs was set up. - Embraced multiculturalism. - Immigration focused on family reunions.
  18. 18. Whitlam: the positives…Whitlam: the positives… - Abolished the white Aust. Policy. - Racial Discrimination Act of 1975 banned all forms of discrimination based on race, colour or ethnic origin. - Aust. Heritage Commission established. - Family Law Act – concept of ‘no fault’ divorce. - Spending on social welfare increased. - Significant increase in pensions for less-advantaged Aust. - Increased funding for the Arts and cultural initiatives. - Advance Aust Fair = anthem - Forge new relationships with Asia. - Aust. Recognized communist China. Supported their memberships in the UN & first Chinese Ambassador. - Diplomatic & economic relations est. with North Korea & North Vietnam. - Condemned France for nuclear testing in South Pacific. - Banned South African sporting teams from Aust. Because of the country’s racist policies. - Granted independence to New Guinea
  19. 19. Whitlam: the problems…Whitlam: the problems… - Gair Affair • Rising unemployment - memorize some statistics • Rising inflation • Recession • Problems with the Senate - Libs had majority • Refused to call an early election. • Could not obtain supply from senate.
  20. 20. Whitlam 1972-1975Whitlam 1972-1975  Although the Whitlam Govt. survived less than three years it was perhapsAlthough the Whitlam Govt. survived less than three years it was perhaps the greatest reforming govt. in Aust. History.the greatest reforming govt. in Aust. History.  Whitlam, Gough, served as prime minister of Australia from 1972 to 1975.Whitlam, Gough, served as prime minister of Australia from 1972 to 1975. In November 1975, Sir John Kerr, the governor general of Australia,In November 1975, Sir John Kerr, the governor general of Australia, removed Whitlam from office. Kerr took this action after a disputeremoved Whitlam from office. Kerr took this action after a dispute between Whitlam - head of Australia's Labor Party - and the leaders of thebetween Whitlam - head of Australia's Labor Party - and the leaders of the country's Liberal Party threatened to stop the operations of thecountry's Liberal Party threatened to stop the operations of the government. Liberal and National Country party leaders charged members ofgovernment. Liberal and National Country party leaders charged members of Whitlam's government with improper conduct in financial matters. TheyWhitlam's government with improper conduct in financial matters. They demanded that Whitlam call for new elections. When Whitlam refused, theydemanded that Whitlam call for new elections. When Whitlam refused, they blocked the approval of funds needed to run the government. Kerr thenblocked the approval of funds needed to run the government. Kerr then dismissed Whitlam and named a new prime minister. Whitlam's Labor Partydismissed Whitlam and named a new prime minister. Whitlam's Labor Party lost elections held in December 1975 and in 1977. Whitlam retired fromlost elections held in December 1975 and in 1977. Whitlam retired from politics in 1978.politics in 1978.
  21. 21. The Constitutional CrisisThe Constitutional Crisis  In 1972, the Labor Party came to power with a majority in theIn 1972, the Labor Party came to power with a majority in the House of Representatives but not in the Senate. Gough Whitlam,House of Representatives but not in the Senate. Gough Whitlam, the party leader, became prime minister. By 1975, inflation andthe party leader, became prime minister. By 1975, inflation and unemployment were increasing, and the Labor government hadunemployment were increasing, and the Labor government had become unpopular. In October 1975, the Liberal and Nationalbecome unpopular. In October 1975, the Liberal and National parties used their Senate majority to threaten to stop the supplyparties used their Senate majority to threaten to stop the supply of money for day-to-day government operations. They hoped toof money for day-to-day government operations. They hoped to force Whitlam to resign, paving the way for new elections.force Whitlam to resign, paving the way for new elections.  Whitlam refused to resign, and the opposition parties refused toWhitlam refused to resign, and the opposition parties refused to assure the flow of government money. In November, the governorassure the flow of government money. In November, the governor general, Sir John Kerr, resolved the crisis by removing Whitlamgeneral, Sir John Kerr, resolved the crisis by removing Whitlam from office. Kerr named Malcolm Fraser, head of the Liberal Party,from office. Kerr named Malcolm Fraser, head of the Liberal Party, to serve as prime minister until new elections could be held. Theto serve as prime minister until new elections could be held. The Liberal and National coalition won elections in December 1975 andLiberal and National coalition won elections in December 1975 and in 1977 and 1980. Fraser remained prime minister.in 1977 and 1980. Fraser remained prime minister.
  22. 22. The Constitutional Crisis: IssuesThe Constitutional Crisis: Issues  In the Senate - 29 Liberal Senators, 29 Labor Senators and 2 Independents.In the Senate - 29 Liberal Senators, 29 Labor Senators and 2 Independents.  Convention Broken that when a vacancy occurs in the senate due to death or retirement - aConvention Broken that when a vacancy occurs in the senate due to death or retirement - a senator from the same political party is appointed. QLD and NSW senators died andsenator from the same political party is appointed. QLD and NSW senators died and retired consecutively and were replaced by the Premiers of those states with anti-Labor,retired consecutively and were replaced by the Premiers of those states with anti-Labor, pro-Liberal senators.pro-Liberal senators.  In the Senate - 29 Liberal Senators, 27 Labor Senators and 4 Independents - 2 of whichIn the Senate - 29 Liberal Senators, 27 Labor Senators and 4 Independents - 2 of which are anti-Labor.are anti-Labor.  Governor General asks for advice from Sir Garlield Barwick - Chief Justice of the HighGovernor General asks for advice from Sir Garlield Barwick - Chief Justice of the High Court, who was a former Menzies Govt. Minister - for advice and not the Prime Minister.Court, who was a former Menzies Govt. Minister - for advice and not the Prime Minister.  Gov. General is our head of state, not meant to interfer in political running of country. IfGov. General is our head of state, not meant to interfer in political running of country. If he does under hishe does under his ‘‘reserve powersreserve powers’’ he is meant to only on advice from the Prime Minister.he is meant to only on advice from the Prime Minister.  Prime Minister can have the Gov. General dismissed by advising the Queen to do so.Prime Minister can have the Gov. General dismissed by advising the Queen to do so. Controversy as to why Kerr did not advice, discuss or warn Whitlam is that Kerr feared forControversy as to why Kerr did not advice, discuss or warn Whitlam is that Kerr feared for his job.his job.  Whitlam did not push the supply bill back through the Senate - because he did not want anWhitlam did not push the supply bill back through the Senate - because he did not want an early election because Laborearly election because Labor’’s popularity was low. If the bill was rejected/block by thes popularity was low. If the bill was rejected/block by the senate twice - Parliament would have been dissolved and an early election called.senate twice - Parliament would have been dissolved and an early election called.  The supply bill Whitlam had tried for a month to have passed was passed straight away byThe supply bill Whitlam had tried for a month to have passed was passed straight away by the Senate as soon as Whitlam was dismissed and Fraser was Prime Minister.the Senate as soon as Whitlam was dismissed and Fraser was Prime Minister.
  23. 23. Fraser: PM 1975 - 1983Fraser: PM 1975 - 1983  John Malcolm Fraser, who had been appointed care-taker Prime Minister upon Gough Whitlam’sJohn Malcolm Fraser, who had been appointed care-taker Prime Minister upon Gough Whitlam’s dismissal, came to power at the head of a Liberal-Country Party Coalition Government on 22 ofdismissal, came to power at the head of a Liberal-Country Party Coalition Government on 22 of December 1975 with the biggest parliamentary majority ever achieved in Australia.December 1975 with the biggest parliamentary majority ever achieved in Australia.  At first Fraser led a fairly unified party. However some Liberal party members doubted hisAt first Fraser led a fairly unified party. However some Liberal party members doubted his leadership after he used the Senate to block supply, forcing an elected government to aleadership after he used the Senate to block supply, forcing an elected government to a premature election (the Constitutional Crisis of 1975).premature election (the Constitutional Crisis of 1975).  Economic Problems and Policies:Economic Problems and Policies: Problems facing the Fraser Government where those that hadProblems facing the Fraser Government where those that had damaged the Whitlam Government: high unemployment, high inflation and slow economic growth.damaged the Whitlam Government: high unemployment, high inflation and slow economic growth.  The Fraser Government wanted to stimulate business confidence and investment. As a result bigThe Fraser Government wanted to stimulate business confidence and investment. As a result big business, farmers and graziers were supported with tax cuts. Mining Companies were encouragedbusiness, farmers and graziers were supported with tax cuts. Mining Companies were encouraged to expand via concession payments.to expand via concession payments.  Cuts to government spending. Except in defence and the cases mentioned above, the governmentCuts to government spending. Except in defence and the cases mentioned above, the government slashed fund in almost every area - education, childcare and arts. Cuts to Medibank, were soslashed fund in almost every area - education, childcare and arts. Cuts to Medibank, were so deep that many believed the scheme had been destroyed.deep that many believed the scheme had been destroyed.  Despite such policies, unemployment increased but inflation did decrease - know figuresDespite such policies, unemployment increased but inflation did decrease - know figures  Fraser Government was beginning to lose popularity.Fraser Government was beginning to lose popularity.  The Costigan Report - tax evasion traced up to Liberal Senators.The Costigan Report - tax evasion traced up to Liberal Senators.  The 1983 Election Defeat -The 1983 Election Defeat - Fraser called an early election in March 1983. Fraser believed heFraser called an early election in March 1983. Fraser believed he could beat Bill Hayden’s Labor leader, who had already lost an election campaign. But shortlycould beat Bill Hayden’s Labor leader, who had already lost an election campaign. But shortly before the election, Labor replaced Bill Hayden with Bob Hawke as leader. Hawke, who hadbefore the election, Labor replaced Bill Hayden with Bob Hawke as leader. Hawke, who had entered Federal Parliament only in 1980, was very popular among voters and as a result securedentered Federal Parliament only in 1980, was very popular among voters and as a result secured victory for the Labor Party.victory for the Labor Party.
  24. 24. Hawke as PM 1983 - 1991Hawke as PM 1983 - 1991 - Really dramatic economic changes came following the election of the Hawke Labor- Really dramatic economic changes came following the election of the Hawke Labor Government in 1983, with the introduction of ‘Government in 1983, with the introduction of ‘economic rationalismeconomic rationalism’’. There were,. There were, however, no comparable changes in Australiahowever, no comparable changes in Australia’’s foreign relations under the Hawkes foreign relations under the Hawke Government, which maintained the staunchly pro-US policies of the Fraser era, alongGovernment, which maintained the staunchly pro-US policies of the Fraser era, along with Fraserwith Fraser’’s push for closer relations with Asia.s push for closer relations with Asia.  The most significant changes from the mid-1970’s to 1990 affected the character ofThe most significant changes from the mid-1970’s to 1990 affected the character of Australian society - significant developments in racial and sexual equality, concern forAustralian society - significant developments in racial and sexual equality, concern for Australia’s natural environment (Franklin River in TAS) and in the ethnic diversity ofAustralia’s natural environment (Franklin River in TAS) and in the ethnic diversity of Australian society.Australian society.  Ironically, this same period saw inequality of wealth and incomes become moreIronically, this same period saw inequality of wealth and incomes become more extreme through the impact of ‘economic rationalist’ policies.extreme through the impact of ‘economic rationalist’ policies. Who was Bob Hawke?Who was Bob Hawke?  Robert James Lee Hawke - Australia’s longest serving Labor Prime Minister, hisRobert James Lee Hawke - Australia’s longest serving Labor Prime Minister, his campaign slogan was ‘campaign slogan was ‘Bringing Australia togetherBringing Australia together’’.. This was based on the idea ofThis was based on the idea of consensus (agreement): that all groups in the community could come together andconsensus (agreement): that all groups in the community could come together and agree on compromises in order to help economic growth.agree on compromises in order to help economic growth.  Hawke called a National Economic Summit, bringing together key governmentHawke called a National Economic Summit, bringing together key government ministers, most State premiers, various other political figures, business people,ministers, most State premiers, various other political figures, business people, employer organization delegates and union leaders. It was the first non-parliamentaryemployer organization delegates and union leaders. It was the first non-parliamentary meeting in the House of Representatives. The atmosphere was friendly, with unionistsmeeting in the House of Representatives. The atmosphere was friendly, with unionists agreeing on wage restraint as employers agreed to ask their companies shareholdersagreeing on wage restraint as employers agreed to ask their companies shareholders to accept lower dividends. This agreement was called the Accord.to accept lower dividends. This agreement was called the Accord.
  25. 25. Labor Under Hawke  Compared to the Whitlam years Labor offered few real social reforms. The FranklinCompared to the Whitlam years Labor offered few real social reforms. The Franklin River Wilderness was saved and Medibank was revived and given the name of MedicareRiver Wilderness was saved and Medibank was revived and given the name of Medicare but apart from these initiatives Labor did little in the areas of social welfare and thebut apart from these initiatives Labor did little in the areas of social welfare and the environment. If anything, there were funding cutbacks. Government spending on healthenvironment. If anything, there were funding cutbacks. Government spending on health and education was scaled down even more ruthlessly than it had been under Fraser.and education was scaled down even more ruthlessly than it had been under Fraser. Lump sum superannuation was taxed. People over seventy faced a pension means test.Lump sum superannuation was taxed. People over seventy faced a pension means test. The capital gains tax affected middle-income earners, while the increasing number ofThe capital gains tax affected middle-income earners, while the increasing number of multimillionaires continued to grow richer.multimillionaires continued to grow richer.  Why did Labor change so much from the Whitlam led party?Why did Labor change so much from the Whitlam led party?  Historians believe that the Hawke Government was haunted by the possibility ofHistorians believe that the Hawke Government was haunted by the possibility of another Whitlam type dismissal. So it avoided far reaching social reforms rather thananother Whitlam type dismissal. So it avoided far reaching social reforms rather than risk a repeat of 1975. Some argued that the Hawke Government had to adapt to a new,risk a repeat of 1975. Some argued that the Hawke Government had to adapt to a new, global economy. Others believe that this was only an excuse given by a governmentglobal economy. Others believe that this was only an excuse given by a government pandering to greedy corporate high-flyers.pandering to greedy corporate high-flyers.  Weakness of the OppositionWeakness of the Opposition  The Hawke Government’s electoral success had less to do with its policies than withThe Hawke Government’s electoral success had less to do with its policies than with the weakness of the Liberal-National Party opposition. When Labor moved into thethe weakness of the Liberal-National Party opposition. When Labor moved into the ‘middle ground’, adopting many conservative policies, the Opposition found it hard to‘middle ground’, adopting many conservative policies, the Opposition found it hard to find appropriate policies to fight elections. The opposition was not united, withfind appropriate policies to fight elections. The opposition was not united, with frequent squabbles and leadership changes.frequent squabbles and leadership changes.
  26. 26. er Hawkeer Hawke  Economic RationalismEconomic Rationalism  Very different from any other Labor Govt.Very different from any other Labor Govt.  Aust. dollar floated - world markets, rather than the Reserve Bank, would determineAust. dollar floated - world markets, rather than the Reserve Bank, would determine the value of national currency.the value of national currency.  Banking was deregulated - allowed banks to se own interest rates and lend moneyBanking was deregulated - allowed banks to se own interest rates and lend money without govt supervision.without govt supervision.  Some government enterprises, including the Commonwealth Bank, were ‘privatised’,Some government enterprises, including the Commonwealth Bank, were ‘privatised’,  Greed is Good! -Greed is Good! - Hawke and Keating publicly associated themselves and theirHawke and Keating publicly associated themselves and their government with big businessmen - very rich very rapidly through company takeovers.government with big businessmen - very rich very rapidly through company takeovers.  HoweverHowever, by the late 1980’s, faith in the new rich and in the ability of banks and other, by the late 1980’s, faith in the new rich and in the ability of banks and other institutions to act responsibly in a deregulated economy begun to collapse.institutions to act responsibly in a deregulated economy begun to collapse.  1987 - New York stock market crashed &Bond, Skase and the state banks of SA and1987 - New York stock market crashed &Bond, Skase and the state banks of SA and VIIC were in deep financial trouble.VIIC were in deep financial trouble.  Aust. economy went into recession - early 1990’s unemployment was above 10 %Aust. economy went into recession - early 1990’s unemployment was above 10 %  Many of the decade’s corporate ‘heroes’ - exposed as corporate criminals whoMany of the decade’s corporate ‘heroes’ - exposed as corporate criminals who amassed great personal wealth at the expense of - investors and shareholders.amassed great personal wealth at the expense of - investors and shareholders.  The new multimillionaires had borrowed vast sums to finance their takeovers this hadThe new multimillionaires had borrowed vast sums to finance their takeovers this had much to do with another growing economic problem: Australia’s overseas debt hadmuch to do with another growing economic problem: Australia’s overseas debt had risen alarmingly, reaching $150 billion by 1990.risen alarmingly, reaching $150 billion by 1990.  Labor Government solution - increase bank interest rates to curb inflation. Those mostLabor Government solution - increase bank interest rates to curb inflation. Those most hurt by this measure were homeowners, small business people and farmers.hurt by this measure were homeowners, small business people and farmers.
  27. 27. Major Events of 1980Major Events of 1980’’ss  The Franklin River -The Franklin River - In the early 1980’s the Tasmanian government announced that aIn the early 1980’s the Tasmanian government announced that a dam was going to be constructed in the Franklin River to produce electricity.dam was going to be constructed in the Franklin River to produce electricity. Conservationists and the TAS Govt. struggle for months. Then in March 1983,Conservationists and the TAS Govt. struggle for months. Then in March 1983, Australians voted for a new federal government. Bob Hawke, the new Prime Minister,Australians voted for a new federal government. Bob Hawke, the new Prime Minister, used the power of his government to overrule the Tasmanian government. He stoppedused the power of his government to overrule the Tasmanian government. He stopped the building of the Franklin dam.the building of the Franklin dam.  The America’s Cup - Australia II won in 1987The America’s Cup - Australia II won in 1987  Ash Wednesday -Ash Wednesday - On Wednesday 16On Wednesday 16thth of February 1983 - The terrible fires of Ashof February 1983 - The terrible fires of Ash Wednesday raged through the Adelaide Hills and all around Victoria - seventy-fiveWednesday raged through the Adelaide Hills and all around Victoria - seventy-five people were dead, hundreds of homes destroyed and thousands of animals burnt.people were dead, hundreds of homes destroyed and thousands of animals burnt.  Australia’s Bicentenary -Australia’s Bicentenary - Australia Day, 26Australia Day, 26thth of January 1988 was the 200of January 1988 was the 200thth anniversary of white settlers coming to live in Australia. White Australians celebratedanniversary of white settlers coming to live in Australia. White Australians celebrated (2 million in Sydney Harbor) and black Australians mourned (20 000 peaceful protest(2 million in Sydney Harbor) and black Australians mourned (20 000 peaceful protest march).march).
  28. 28. Overview of Foreign PolicyOverview of Foreign Policy Policies of governing Party and therefore Aust.:Policies of governing Party and therefore Aust.: - Under Chifley 1945 - 1949 - Independent supporting Colonial countries right forUnder Chifley 1945 - 1949 - Independent supporting Colonial countries right for independence. Immigration wasindependence. Immigration was ‘‘White Aust. PolicyWhite Aust. Policy’’.. - Under Menzies (other liberal politicians up to Whitlam) 1949 - 1966 -Under Menzies (other liberal politicians up to Whitlam) 1949 - 1966 - ‘‘All the way withAll the way with LBJLBJ’’, very pro-USA exp. Korean and Vietnam War, SEATO, ANZUS etc. Very, very pro-USA exp. Korean and Vietnam War, SEATO, ANZUS etc. Very conservative. Red Scare/Communist Fearconservative. Red Scare/Communist Fear - Holt/Gorton/McMahon - 1966 - 1972 - foreign policy on the same lines as MenziesHolt/Gorton/McMahon - 1966 - 1972 - foreign policy on the same lines as Menzies started to bring Aust. Troops home from Vietnam. Winding down Aust. Involvement instarted to bring Aust. Troops home from Vietnam. Winding down Aust. Involvement in Vietnam..Vietnam.. - Under Whitlam 1972 - 1975 - Independent - brought home troops from Vietnam, freedUnder Whitlam 1972 - 1975 - Independent - brought home troops from Vietnam, freed jailed citizens, condemnd White Minority South African Racist Regime, recognizedjailed citizens, condemnd White Minority South African Racist Regime, recognized communist China.communist China. Condemned France for nuclear testing in South Pacific. - Under Fraser 1975 - 1983 - Pro USA, Cold War/Communist Fears renewed example:Under Fraser 1975 - 1983 - Pro USA, Cold War/Communist Fears renewed example: support for Aust. Atheletes withdrawn because Olympics held in Russia. Recognizedsupport for Aust. Atheletes withdrawn because Olympics held in Russia. Recognized Communist China encouraged good trade relations with Asian countries.Communist China encouraged good trade relations with Asian countries. - Under Hawke 1983 - 1991 - very similar to Frasers foreign policy.Under Hawke 1983 - 1991 - very similar to Frasers foreign policy.
  29. 29. Overview of Foreign PolicyOverview of Foreign Policy - Korean War - 1950 - 1953 - Aust. Supported UN, USA & South Korean troops toKorean War - 1950 - 1953 - Aust. Supported UN, USA & South Korean troops to ‘‘stopstop the spread of Communismthe spread of Communism’’.. - ANZUS (1951) - Aust., NZ and USA - stop the spread of communismANZUS (1951) - Aust., NZ and USA - stop the spread of communism - SEATO (1954) - USA, Britain, France, Aust., NZ, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, - allSEATO (1954) - USA, Britain, France, Aust., NZ, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, - all anti-communist states to promote self govt. and independence of all countries.anti-communist states to promote self govt. and independence of all countries. - Malayan Emergency - 1948 - Aust. sent troops to support Brit. 1957 Malaya grantedMalayan Emergency - 1948 - Aust. sent troops to support Brit. 1957 Malaya granted independence - Aust troops left.independence - Aust troops left. -- 1963 - Aust. Sent troops to support Malaysia against Indo.1963 - Aust. Sent troops to support Malaysia against Indo. invasion.invasion. - EisenhowerEisenhower ‘‘Domino TheoryDomino Theory’’ - One nation in SE Asia falls to communism the rest will- One nation in SE Asia falls to communism the rest will like Dominos.like Dominos. - Petrov Affair - April 1954Petrov Affair - April 1954 - Vietnam War - Aust. sent advisors in1962 and troops from 1965 - 1972Vietnam War - Aust. sent advisors in1962 and troops from 1965 - 1972 - Britain begins trading with European Countries and minimizes trade with Aust.Britain begins trading with European Countries and minimizes trade with Aust. - Aust. Develops new trading partnerships with China, Japan and other SE Asian nations.Aust. Develops new trading partnerships with China, Japan and other SE Asian nations. - East Timor - invaded by Indonesia. Aust. Does not send troops and takes almost aEast Timor - invaded by Indonesia. Aust. Does not send troops and takes almost a week to make a statement. East Timor supported and fought with Aust. Againstweek to make a statement. East Timor supported and fought with Aust. Against takeover in WWII.takeover in WWII.
  30. 30. East TimorEast Timor  East Timor is a region on the island of Timor in Southeast Asia. From 1975 to 1999,East Timor is a region on the island of Timor in Southeast Asia. From 1975 to 1999, Indonesia claimed the region, but its authority there was never recognized by theIndonesia claimed the region, but its authority there was never recognized by the United Nations (UN). In 1999, East Timor began transforming itself into anUnited Nations (UN). In 1999, East Timor began transforming itself into an independent country.independent country.  Portugal controlled East Timor, then known as Portuguese Timor, from the 1500's untilPortugal controlled East Timor, then known as Portuguese Timor, from the 1500's until 1975, when colonial authorities withdrew. A civil war then erupted. One of the parties1975, when colonial authorities withdrew. A civil war then erupted. One of the parties in the conflict, the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin),in the conflict, the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin), declared East Timor's independence in November 1975. In December of that year,declared East Timor's independence in November 1975. In December of that year, Indonesian forces invaded. In July 1976, Indonesia annexed East Timor as its 27thIndonesian forces invaded. In July 1976, Indonesia annexed East Timor as its 27th province.province.  Indonesia spent large sums of money in East Timor, but many of the people continuedIndonesia spent large sums of money in East Timor, but many of the people continued to resist Indonesian occupation. During the 1990's, the United States and otherto resist Indonesian occupation. During the 1990's, the United States and other nations joined nongovernmental organizations in accusing Indonesia of serious humannations joined nongovernmental organizations in accusing Indonesia of serious human rights violations in East Timor. In 1996, two East Timorese, Carlos Ximenes Belo, therights violations in East Timor. In 1996, two East Timorese, Carlos Ximenes Belo, the Roman Catholic bishop of Dili, East Timor's capital city, and Jose Ramos-Horta, theRoman Catholic bishop of Dili, East Timor's capital city, and Jose Ramos-Horta, the international spokesman for the independence movement, were awarded the Nobelinternational spokesman for the independence movement, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to secure a just settlement of the conflict.Peace Prize for their efforts to secure a just settlement of the conflict.
  31. 31. East TimorEast Timor In a UN-sponsored referendum held inIn a UN-sponsored referendum held in August 1999, the people of East Timor votedAugust 1999, the people of East Timor voted overwhelmingly for independence fromoverwhelmingly for independence from Indonesia. Following the vote, armed pro-Indonesia. Following the vote, armed pro- Indonesian militias, backed by someIndonesian militias, backed by some elements of the Indonesian military, beganelements of the Indonesian military, began attacking and killing East Timorese citizens.attacking and killing East Timorese citizens. Thousands of people were driven from theirThousands of people were driven from their homes, and much of the East Timor capitalhomes, and much of the East Timor capital of Dili was burned. In mid-September, a UN-of Dili was burned. In mid-September, a UN- sanctioned multinational force (Australiasanctioned multinational force (Australia supplied a big portion of the troops) begansupplied a big portion of the troops) began arriving in East Timor to try to restorearriving in East Timor to try to restore peace to the region. In October, Indonesia'speace to the region. In October, Indonesia's highest governmental body voted to accepthighest governmental body voted to accept the results of the referendum and to endthe results of the referendum and to end Indonesia's claim to East Timor. The UNIndonesia's claim to East Timor. The UN then set up an interim administration in Eastthen set up an interim administration in East Timor to help prepare the region for fullTimor to help prepare the region for full independence. In 2001, the people of Eastindependence. In 2001, the people of East Timor elected an assembly to create aTimor elected an assembly to create a constitution. Presidential elections wereconstitution. Presidential elections were scheduled for early 2002.scheduled for early 2002.
  32. 32. Peace Keeping & the UNPeace Keeping & the UN  United Nations (UN) is an organization of nations that works for world peace andUnited Nations (UN) is an organization of nations that works for world peace and security and the betterment of humanity. Almost all of the world's independentsecurity and the betterment of humanity. Almost all of the world's independent countries belong to the UN. Each member nation sends representatives to UNcountries belong to the UN. Each member nation sends representatives to UN Headquarters in New York City, where they discuss and try to solve problems.Headquarters in New York City, where they discuss and try to solve problems.  The United Nations has two main goals: peace and human dignity. If fighting betweenThe United Nations has two main goals: peace and human dignity. If fighting between two or more countries breaks out anywhere, the UN may be asked to try to stop it.two or more countries breaks out anywhere, the UN may be asked to try to stop it. After the fighting stops, the UN may help work out ways to keep it from startingAfter the fighting stops, the UN may help work out ways to keep it from starting again. But the UN tries above all to deal with problems and disputes before they leadagain. But the UN tries above all to deal with problems and disputes before they lead to fighting. It seeks the causes of war and tries to find ways to eliminate them.to fighting. It seeks the causes of war and tries to find ways to eliminate them.  The United Nations has met with both success and failure in its work. It has been ableThe United Nations has met with both success and failure in its work. It has been able to keep some disputes from developing into major wars. The organization has alsoto keep some disputes from developing into major wars. The organization has also helped people in numerous parts of the world gain their freedom and better their wayhelped people in numerous parts of the world gain their freedom and better their way of life. For many years, however, disagreements among UN member nations preventedof life. For many years, however, disagreements among UN member nations prevented the organization from operating effectively. Since the mid-1980's, greaterthe organization from operating effectively. Since the mid-1980's, greater cooperation among members has enabled the UN to attempt missions in more and morecooperation among members has enabled the UN to attempt missions in more and more countries.countries.  The United Nations was established on Oct. 24, 1945, shortly after World War II. AsThe United Nations was established on Oct. 24, 1945, shortly after World War II. As the war drew to an end, the nations that opposed Germany, Italy, and Japan decidedthe war drew to an end, the nations that opposed Germany, Italy, and Japan decided that such a war must never happen again. Representatives of these nations met in Santhat such a war must never happen again. Representatives of these nations met in San Francisco in April 1945 and worked out a plan for an organization to help keep worldFrancisco in April 1945 and worked out a plan for an organization to help keep world peace. This plan was described in a document called the Charter of the Unitedpeace. This plan was described in a document called the Charter of the United Nations. In June 1945, 50 nations signed it. They were the first UN members. SinceNations. In June 1945, 50 nations signed it. They were the first UN members. Since then, over 100 other nations have joined.then, over 100 other nations have joined.
  33. 33. Peace Keeping & the UNPeace Keeping & the UN Peacekeeping. Human rights violations may become widespread in times of civil unrestPeacekeeping. Human rights violations may become widespread in times of civil unrest and in armed conflicts between regions. When regional governments cannot maintainand in armed conflicts between regions. When regional governments cannot maintain order, the UN may approve military presence in an area. Normally, the UN sendsorder, the UN may approve military presence in an area. Normally, the UN sends peacekeeping troops with the consent of the opposing parties. In 1999, the people ofpeacekeeping troops with the consent of the opposing parties. In 1999, the people of the disputed territory East Timor voted for independence in a UN-sponsored election.the disputed territory East Timor voted for independence in a UN-sponsored election. Anti-independence militias then began a campaign of violence against the EastAnti-independence militias then began a campaign of violence against the East Timorese. With the approval of Indonesia's government, the UN sent troops toTimorese. With the approval of Indonesia's government, the UN sent troops to restore order. BELOW IS UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK.restore order. BELOW IS UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK.

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