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Elektromotoren-Effizienzvergleich

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Drehstrom-Asynchronmotoren mit Kupferläufern werden mit Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren verglichen, und bei verschiedenen Drehzahlen und Drehmomenten werden die Wirkungsgrade gemessen.

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Elektromotoren-Effizienzvergleich

  1. 1. Vergleichende Wirkungsgradmessungen an Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren und Asynchronmotoren mit Kupferkäfigen Stefan Fassbinder, Richard deFay
  2. 2. Moment, Moment! Was steht denn da schon wieder?
  3. 3. Dort liest man unter anderem: Der Nachteil des Drehstrom-Asynchronmotors sei ein »um eine Zehnerpotenz geringerer Wirkungsgrad im Teillastbetrieb gegenüber dem Synchronmotor«. ?
  4. 4. Quantensprünge gehen anders Welch Wunder aber auch: Motoren einer Klasse liegen gleichauf
  5. 5. Quantensprünge gehen anders Drehstrom-Asynchron- und Drehstrom-Synchron-Reluktanzmotoren
  6. 6. »Die Wirkungsgrade von Asynchronmotoren fallen bei Teillast« Der Wirkungsgrad eines Asynchronmotors aus der Veröffentlichung fällt bei halber Last von 96,2% auf 96,0% (75 kW) bzw. von 93,9% auf 93,3% (30 kW). Der Wirkungsgrad eines Synchron-Reluktanzmotors aus derselben Veröffentlichung fällt bei halber Last von 93,3% auf 93,1% (30 kW). Welcher Umrichter verwendet wurde, wird stets erwähnt. Nicht aber, ob dieser mitgemessen wurde. Der Autor mag sich »wegen Zeitmangels« nicht äußern. Der Redaktion ist das peinlich: »Das wird dann wohl im Sande verlaufen«.
  7. 7. Was ist eigentlich »Teillast«? Argument: »Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren benötigen keine zusätzliche Energie für die Erregung«. Jedoch: Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren sind bei hoher Drehzahl und niedrigem Drehmoment um ein Mehrfaches übererregt und benötigen in diesem Bereich eine Feldschwächung.
  8. 8. Die Kollegen in den USA wollten es genau wissen Das US-amerikanische Kupferinstitut www.copperalliance.us (Herr Richard deFay) beauftragte die Advanced Energy Inc. mit den Wirkungsgrad-Messungen an einigen Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren im Vergleich zu Asynchron-Motoren mit gegossenem Läuferkäfig aus Kupfer.
  9. 9. Was wurde gemessen? Zur Verfügung standen jeweils: 3 Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren und 1 Asynchronmotor mit gegossenem Kupferkäfig zu je 5,0 Hp (3,7 kW), 7,5 Hp (5,5 kW), 10,0 Hp (7,5 kW), 20,0 Hp (15,0 kW). Zu jedem Synchronmotor wurde ein »vom Hersteller empfohlener« Umrichter besorgt. Die Asynchronmotoren wurden mit jeweils 2 oder 3 verschiedenen »geeigneten« Umrichtern gemessen. Ermittelt wurden die jeweiligen Wirkungsgrade der Zusammenschaltungen.
  10. 10. Die Schwierigkeiten fingen bei der Beschaffung der Messmuster schon an Kupferrotor-Motoren waren ab Lager verfügbar. Permanentmagnet-Motoren wurden erst im Auftragsfall gefertigt. P 2N Motor Nr. Preis Lieferzeit Kupferrotor-Motor 399,85 $ wenige Tage Sync. PM-Motor 3 1432,32 $ 10 Tage Sync. PM-Motor 4 1029,23 $ 14 Wochen Sync. PM-Motor 5 1587,51 $ 18 Wochen Kupferrotor-Motor 565,85 $ Sync. PM-Motor 12 – Sync. PM-Motor 14 1097,95 $ Sync. PM-Motor 15 893,15 $ Kupferrotor-Motor 866,71 $ wenige Tage Sync. PM-Motor 21 4414,95 $ 10 Tage Sync. PM-Motor 24 1415,02 $ 8 Wochen Sync. PM-Motor 23 1823,29 $ 14 Wochen Kupferrotor-Motor 1372,48 $ wenige Tage Sync. PM-Motor 31 5427,58 $ Sync. PM-Motor 34 2035,47 $ Sync. PM-Motor 35 – 5,0 hp 7,5 hp 10,0 hp 20,0 hp 1 Woche bis 14 Wochen
  11. 11. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 5-Hp-Motoren; 25% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 2 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 3 PM-Motor 3 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 4 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 5 mit Umrichter 3 Motoren mit 3,7 kW
  12. 12. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 5-Hp-Motoren; 50% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 2 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 3 PM-Motor 3 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 4 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 5 mit Umrichter 3 Motoren mit 3,7 kW
  13. 13. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 5-Hp-Motoren; 75% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 2 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 3 PM-Motor 3 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 4 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 5 mit Umrichter 3 Motoren mit 3,7 kW
  14. 14. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 5-Hp-Motoren; 100% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 2 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 3 PM-Motor 3 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 4 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 5 mit Umrichter 3 Motoren mit 3,7 kW
  15. 15. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 5-Hp-Motoren; 110% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 2 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 3 PM-Motor 3 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 4 mit Umrichter 2 PM-Motor 5 mit Umrichter 3 Motoren mit 3,7 kW
  16. 16. Motoren mit 5,5 kW 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 7,5-Hp-Motoren; 25% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 11 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 12 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 13 PM-Motor 12 mit Umrichter 11 PM-Motor 23 mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 15 mit Umrichter 13
  17. 17. Motoren mit 5,5 kW 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 7,5-Hp-Motoren; 50% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 11 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 12 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 13 PM-Motor 12 mit Umrichter 11 PM-Motor 14 mit Umrichter 12 PM-Motor 15 mit Umrichter 13
  18. 18. Motoren mit 5,5 kW 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 7,5-Hp-Motoren; 75% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 11 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 12 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 13 PM-Motor 12 mit Umrichter 11 PM-Motor 14 mit Umrichter 12 PM-Motor 15 mit Umrichter 13
  19. 19. Motoren mit 5,5 kW 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 7,5-Hp-Motoren; 100% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 11 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 12 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 13 PM-Motor 12 mit Umrichter 11 PM-Motor 14 mit Umrichter 12 PM-Motor 15 mit Umrichter 13
  20. 20. Motoren mit 5,5 kW 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 7,5-Hp-Motoren; 110% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 11 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 12 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 13 PM-Motor 12 mit Umrichter 11 PM-Motor 14 mit Umrichter 12 PM-Motor 15 mit Umrichter 13
  21. 21. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 10-Hp-Motoren; 25% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 24 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 21 mit Umrichter 24 PM-Motor 24 mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 23 mit Umrichter 22 Motoren mit 7,5 kW
  22. 22. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 10-Hp-Motoren; 50% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 24 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 21 mit Umrichter 24 PM-Motor 24 mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 23 mit Umrichter 22 Motoren mit 7,5 kW
  23. 23. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 10-Hp-Motoren; 75% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 24 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 21 mit Umrichter 24 PM-Motor 24 mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 23 mit Umrichter 22 Motoren mit 7,5 kW
  24. 24. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 10-Hp-Motoren; 100% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 24 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 21 mit Umrichter 24 PM-Motor 24 mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 23 mit Umrichter 22 Motoren mit 7,5 kW
  25. 25. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 10-Hp-Motoren; 110% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 24 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 21 mit Umrichter 24 PM-Motor 24 mit Umrichter 22 PM-Motor 23 mit Umrichter 22 Motoren mit 7,5 kW
  26. 26. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 20-Hp-Motoren; 25% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 34 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 32 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 33 PM-Motor 31 mit Umrichter 34 PM-Motor 34 mit Umrichter 32 PM-Motor 35 mit Umrichter 33 Motoren mit 15 kW
  27. 27. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 20-Hp-Motoren; 50% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 34 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 32 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 33 PM-Motor 31 mit Umrichter 34 PM-Motor 34 mit Umrichter 32 PM-Motor 35 mit Umrichter 33 Motoren mit 15 kW
  28. 28. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 20-Hp-Motoren; 75% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 34 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 32 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 33 PM-Motor 31 mit Umrichter 34 PM-Motor 34 mit Umrichter 32 PM-Motor 35 mit Umrichter 33 Motoren mit 15 kW
  29. 29. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 20-Hp-Motoren; 100% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 34 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 32 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 33 PM-Motor 31 mit Umrichter 34 PM-Motor 34 mit Umrichter 32 PM-Motor 35 mit Umrichter 33 Motoren mit 15 kW
  30. 30. 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 900/min 1200/min 1500/min 1800/min η→ n → 20-Hp-Motoren; 110% Drehmoment Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 34 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 32 Kupferrotor mit Umrichter 33 PM-Motor 31 mit Umrichter 34 PM-Motor 34 mit Umrichter 32 PM-Motor 35 mit Umrichter 33 Motoren mit 15 kW
  31. 31. Amortisationszeiten (im Dauerbetrieb): Wie das Hornberger Schießen... Alle PM-Motoren einer Baugröße zu Mittelwerten zusammengefasst Motoren (Mittel) M = 110% M N M = 100% M N M = 75% M N M = 50% M N M = 25% M N PM CRM P N ΔP loss Amort. ΔP loss Amort. ΔP loss Amort. ΔP loss Amort. ΔP loss Amort. 1800/min 158 W 2,58 a 136 W 2,99 a 96 W 4,23 a 68 W 5,99 a 50 W 8,11 a 1600/min 161 W 2,53 a 137 W 2,97 a 93 W 4,37 a 72 W 5,62 a 55 W 7,44 a 1400/min 165 W 2,47 a 142 W 2,87 a 100 W 4,08 a 72 W 5,65 a 55 W 7,41 a 1200/min 166 W 2,46 a 148 W 2,76 a 101 W 4,02 a 74 W 5,47 a 58 W 7,06 a 1000/min 162 W 2,52 a 142 W 2,86 a 96 W 4,26 a 70 W 5,78 a 59 W 6,88 a 1800/min -52 W -3,57 a -72 W -2,54 a -93 W -1,97 a -99 W -1,87 a -100 W -1,84 a 1600/min -55 W -3,32 a -62 W -2,98 a -73 W -2,52 a -75 W -2,45 a -77 W -2,41 a 1400/min -16 W -11,19 a -27 W -6,92 a -38 W -4,84 a -44 W -4,17 a -46 W -4,03 a 1200/min 5 W 38,50 a -2 W -77,34 a -18 W -10,45 a -24 W -7,59 a -27 W -6,77 a 1000/min 26 W 7,14 a 10 W 18,15 a -2 W -102,90 a -8 W -23,04 a -9 W -19,77 a 1800/min 197 W 3,66 a 158 W 4,56 a 86 W 8,39 a 28 W 25,70 a -17 W -41,60 a 1600/min 221 W 3,27 a 189 W 3,82 a 104 W 6,92 a 44 W 16,25 a -2 W -303,35 a 1400/min 259 W 2,79 a 212 W 3,41 a 127 W 5,67 a 62 W 11,64 a 20 W 36,25 a 1200/min 274 W 2,63 a 233 W 3,09 a 139 W 5,18 a 83 W 8,74 a 25 W 28,40 a 1000/min 286 W 2,52 a 245 W 2,94 a 151 W 4,79 a 88 W 8,24 a 41 W 17,41 a 1800/min 254 W 3,98 a -174 W -5,82 a 210 W 4,81 a 186 W 5,43 a 170 W 5,96 a 1600/min 229 W 4,42 a -161 W -6,29 a 221 W 4,58 a 187 W 5,42 a 161 W 6,30 a 1400/min 205 W 4,94 a -150 W -6,76 a 196 W 5,16 a 177 W 5,71 a 159 W 6,35 a 1200/min 176 W 5,73 a -151 W -6,71 a 167 W 6,07 a 142 W 7,14 a 136 W 7,42 a 1000/min 163 W 6,21 a -158 W -6,42 a 162 W 6,23 a 145 W 6,98 a 130 W 7,78 a n 2270,47€ 771,37€ 10,0hp 3321,06€ 1221,51€ 20,0hp 1201,22€ 355,87€ 5,0hp 886,04€ 503,61€ 7,5hp
  32. 32. Auch der Kupferrotor ermöglicht • Effizienzklasse IE4 • kleinere Bauform und ist • ebenso robust • und fast so preisgünstig wie Asynchronmotoren mit Kurzschlussläufern schon immer waren. Das Spitzenprodukt der einen Technik mit dem Massenprodukt der anderen Technik zu vergleichen ist ein übliches Mittel, wenn man etwas verkaufen möchte. Aber kein gutes.

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