Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

How to build your own Quadrocopter

55,024 views

Published on

A presentation held at SAPO CodeBits 2010 (http://codebits.eu/intra/s/session/114), describing the operational theory and basics as well as the building blocks of a remote-controlled model quadrocopter.

A video of this talk can be found here: http://videos.sapo.pt/HZSIm9FUl3D3bfqmVcsv

  • Hey guys! Who wants to chat with me? More photos with me here 👉 http://www.bit.ly/katekoxx
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

How to build your own Quadrocopter

  1. 1. How to build your own QuadrocopterHow to build your own Quadrocopter Lenz Grimmer <lenz@grimmer.com> http://www.lenzg.net/ Twitter: @lenzgr SAPO Codebits 2010, Lisbon, Portugal
  2. 2. OutlineOutline ● Basics / Operational Theory ● Building Blocks ● References/URLs ● Demo
  3. 3. FeaturesFeatures ● A “VTOL UAV” ● Simple to build ● Simple mechanics ● No servos required ● Parts Availability / Accessibility
  4. 4. Lab/Tech RequirementsLab/Tech Requirements ● Soldering station ● Powerdrill / Dremel ● Others (Screwdrivers, Saws, Files) ● Power supply
  5. 5. Operational theoryOperational theory ● Physics ● Flight Dynamics ● Movement / Control
  6. 6. PhysicsPhysics ● 2 pairs of counter rotating props ● Compensate rotary momentum ● Different RPMs = different thrust
  7. 7. Flight DynamicsFlight Dynamics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flight_dynamics_with_text.png
  8. 8. Movement/ControlMovement/Control ● Regular remote control ● Behaves like a helicopter ● Nick / Roll / Yaw ● Up / Down ● “X”, “+” or “Y” flight configuration ● Pilot skills
  9. 9. Momentum CompensationMomentum Compensation
  10. 10. Yaw/RotationYaw/Rotation
  11. 11. Vertical MovementVertical Movement F F FF m·g 4⋅F=m⋅g 4⋅Fm⋅g 4⋅Fm⋅g Ascending Descending
  12. 12. Nick/RollNick/Roll F1 F2
  13. 13. Nick/RollNick/Roll F1 F2
  14. 14. Building blocksBuilding blocks ● Frame ● Motors ● Propellers ● Battery ● Electronics
  15. 15. FrameFrame
  16. 16. FrameFrame ● Center plate ● Arms ● Battery mount ● Motor mounts ● Protective dome ● Landing gear
  17. 17. PropellersPropellers
  18. 18. PropellersPropellers ● Diameter: 8, 10, 12 inch ● 2 blades ● Directly attached to motor ● 2 each rotating CW and CCW ● Proper balance reduces vibrations
  19. 19. MotorsMotors
  20. 20. Brushed MotorBrushed Motor + -
  21. 21. Brushless MotorBrushless Motor Phase A Phase C Phase B
  22. 22. MotorsMotors ● Brushless ● Outrunner vs. Inrunner ● Direct drive (no transmission) ● 3-phase powered ● Requires special BL controller ● Weight (g) / RPMs/V / max. current (A)
  23. 23. Brushless ControllerBrushless Controller
  24. 24. Brushless ControllerBrushless Controller ● Converts DC power to 3-phase AC signal ● Drive motor to indicated RPMs ● Controller speed is essential ● Receives RPM info from receiver/control unit ● PWM signal ● I2C ● UART (Serial)
  25. 25. BatteryBattery
  26. 26. BatteryBattery ● Lithium Polymer (LiPo) (or Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePo4) ● Lightweight ● High currents and capacity ● Handle with care! ● Voltage / Capacity / Max discharge / Weight
  27. 27. Power Distribution / WiringPower Distribution / Wiring Battery Motor BLC Sensors Motor BLC Motor BLC Motor BLC RX Central Control
  28. 28. Power DistributionPower Distribution
  29. 29. Power DistributionPower Distribution ● Supply the BLCs / Motors ● Supply the central controller / Sensors ● Support high currents ● Main switch or battery plugs ● Wires or PCB
  30. 30. Transmitter / ReceiverTransmitter / Receiver
  31. 31. Transmitter / ReceiverTransmitter / Receiver ● Frequencies: 35/40 MHz, 2.4 GHz ● Minimum: 4 channels ● Receiver output: PPM (sum signal) or individual channels from receiver (PWM)
  32. 32. SensorsSensors
  33. 33. SensorsSensors ● IMU ● Gyroscopes (Rotation) ● Accelerometers (Movement) ● Optional ● Pressure Sensor (Altitude) ● Compass/Magnetometer (Attitude) ● GPS (Location)
  34. 34. Central ControllerCentral Controller
  35. 35. Central ControllerCentral Controller ● Collects sensor data ● Receives control commands ● Calculates orientation/location ● Sends updated motor commands to BLCs ● Microcontroller (e.g. Arduino, ARM...)
  36. 36. Configuration SoftwareConfiguration Software
  37. 37. AccessoriesAccessories ● Camera mount ● Zigbee for telemetry data ● Video goggles
  38. 38. Legal aspectsLegal aspects ● Check local laws for regulations ● Consider getting an insurance
  39. 39. Practical tipsPractical tips ● Double-check propeller positions and directions ● Double-check Flight Control orientation ● Avoid vibration where possible for stable flight ● Test outside, away from people ● Don't attach the propellers on the motors until everything is tested!
  40. 40. References / URLsReferences / URLs ● Forums ● RCGroups - http://www.rcgroups.com/ ● DIYDrones - http://diydrones.com/ ● Portuguese Forum - http://forum.rcmpt.com/ ● Projects ● Mikrokopter - http://www.mikrokopter.de/ ● UAVP-NG - http://ng.uavp.ch/ ● Arm-O-Kopter - http://www.armokopter.at/ ● Arducopter - http://code.google.com/p/arducopter/ ● Aeroquad - http://aeroquad.com/ ● KK-Multicopter - http://kkmulticopter.com/ ● OpenPilot - http://openpilot.org/ ● Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1097355
  41. 41. References / URLsReferences / URLs ● Parts ● HobbyKing - http://www.hobbyking.com/ ● SparkFun - http://www.sparkfun.com/ ● DIYdrones - http://store.diydrones.com/

×