Design For Assembly

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A major cost factor in the production of and component or assembly is its assembly. This section looks at some commonly used techniques which a designer can employ to ensure that assembly is cost effective and efficient. This is then linked to the use of jigs and fixtures for this purpose.

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Design For Assembly

  1. 1. HNC year 1 Design for Manufacture Author: Leicester College Date created: Date revised: 2009 Abstract: A major cost factor in the production of and component or assembly is its assembly. This section looks at some commonly used techniques which a designer can employ to ensure that assembly is cost effective and efficient. This is then linked to the use of jigs and fixtures for this purpose. © Leicester College 2009. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. Design for Assembly
  2. 2.  Introduction  Assembly Methods  Design Guidelines for Manual Assembly  Using Jigs & Fixtures  Design Guidelines for Automated Assembly  Basic DFA Guidelines  Credits These files support the Edexcel HN unit – Design for Manufacture (NQF L4) File name Unit outcome Key words Design for assembly 1.1, 1.2,1.4 Overview, Cost, quality, reliability, assembly, guidelines FMS 2.2 Models, work cycles, volume, machine utilisation, automation, flexible, systems Geometric Tolerancing 3.1,3.2 Geometric, tolerance, system, symbols, orientation, BS, ISO, location, runout, datum Industrial Robots 2.2,2.3 Robot, industrial, robot arm, Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, jointed arm Jigs and Fixtures 2.1,2.3 Efficiency, production, jigs, fixtures, tooling, production, Kinematics 2.1,2.3 Machines, kinematics, Degrees of freedom, configuration, space, work space, robot, joints, forward, inverse DFM introduction 1.1, 1.2, 1.4 design For further information regarding unit outcomes go to Edexcel.org.uk/ HN/ Engineering / Specifications Design for Assembly
  3. 3.  "a process for improving product design for easy and low-cost assembly, focusing on functionality and on assemblability concurrently." --Vincent Chan & Filippo A. Salustri Design for Assembly
  4. 4.  Reduce cost of assembly  Improve quality and reliability  Reduce part inventory  Reduce production equipment Design for Assembly
  5. 5.  Manual assembly  Fixed automatic assembly  Flexible automatic assembly Design for Assembly
  6. 6.  eliminate the need for workers to make decisions or adjustments.  ensure accessibility and visibility.  eliminate the need for assembly tools and gauges (i.e. prefer self-locating parts). Design for Assembly
  7. 7. Hull Forming Jigs at Offshore Steel Boats Ltd. Image source: www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1230702 © Copyright David Wright and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.
  8. 8.  Minimise the number of standard different parts – use ‘standard parts.’  minimise the number of parts.  avoid or minimise part orientation during assembly (i.e. prefer symmetrical parts).  prefer easily handled parts that do not tangle or nest within one another. Design for Assembly
  9. 9.  reduce the number of different components by considering  does the part move relative to other parts?  must the part be isolated from other parts (electrical, vibration, etc.)?  must the part be separate to allow assembly (cover plates, etc.)?  use self-aligning and self-locating features  avoid screws/bolts Design for Assembly
  10. 10.  use the largest and most rigid part as the assembly base and fixture.  Assembly should be performed in a layered, bottom-up manner.  use standard components and materials. Design for Assembly
  11. 11.  avoid tangling or nesting parts.  avoid flexible and fragile parts.  avoid parts that require orientation.  use parts that can be fed automatically.  design parts with a low centre of gravity. Design for Assembly
  12. 12.  Minimise part count by incorporating multiple functions into single parts  Modularise multiple parts into single sub- assemblies  Assemble in open space, not in confined spaces; never bury important components  Make parts such that it is easy to identify how they should be oriented for insertion  Prefer self-locating parts Design for Assembly
  13. 13.  Standardise to reduce part variety  Maximise part symmetry  Eliminate tangling parts  Colour code parts that are different but shaped similarly  Prevent nesting of parts; prefer stacked assemblies  Provide alignment features Design for Assembly
  14. 14.  Design the mating features for easy insertion  Insert new parts into an assembly from above  Eliminate re-orientation of both parts and assemblies  Eliminate fasteners Design for Assembly
  15. 15.  Place fasteners away from obstructions; design in fastener access  Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening tools; eliminate channels if possible  Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease  Ensure sufficient space between fasteners and other features for a fastening tool  Prefer easily handled parts Design for Assembly
  16. 16. HNC year 1
  17. 17. This resource was created Leicester College and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme. © 2009 Leicester College This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence. All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence. The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher. The Leicester College name and logo is owned by the College and should not be produced without the express permission of the College. Design for Assembly

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