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Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names

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The Not So Distant African Linguistic Roots of the Words In Your Name
Authored by Legesse Allyn
https://www.amazon.com/Amarigna-Tigrigna-Roots-Male-Names/dp/1533325081
List Price: $14.95
8" x 10" (20.32 x 25.4 cm)
Black & White on White paper
88 pages
ISBN-13: 978-1533325082
ISBN-10: 1533325081
BISAC: History / Ancient / Egypt
"The words in your name are rooted in the east African, ancient Egyptian dual languages of Amarigna and Tigrigna. This book provides a small sampling of the not so distant African linguistic roots of the words in your male name."
http://www.amazon.com/Amarigna-Tigrigna-Roots-Male-Names/dp/1533325081

Published in: Education
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Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names

  1. 1. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names Legesse Allyn AncientGebts.org Press http://www.ancientgebts.org http://books.ancientgebts.org
  2. 2. The Ethiopian Culture of Ancient Egypt: Food, Markets, Temples, Religion and Social Culture 3 AncientGebts.org Press http://books.ancientgebts.org © Copyright 2016 Legesse Allyn ISBN-13: 978-1533325082 ISBN-10: 1533325081 First AncientGebts.org trade paperback edition May 2016 All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. For information, write to AncientGebts.org Press, books@ancientgebts.org Amarigna and Tigrigna word matching by Legesse Allyn © Copyright 2016 Legesse Allyn Scans from the Dover Publications editions of “The Rosetta Stone” and “An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary,” by E.A. Wallis Budge, reprinted by permission of Dover Publications, NY The Dover Publications editions of “The Rosetta Stone” and “An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary” by E. A. Wallis Budge are available in bookstores and online at http://store.doverpublications.com Etymologies from Online Etymology Dictioinary reprinted by permission of Douglas Harper. For more information, etymology footnotes, and other details, please visit http://www.etymonline.com Special thanks to: Ramya Karlapudi in New Delhi, India Aradom Tassew in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Memhr.org Online Tigrigna Dictionary, located at http://memhr.org/dic AmharicDictionary.com from SelamSoft, Inc., located at http://www.amharicdictionary.com Cover image:
  3. 3. The Ethiopian Culture of Ancient Egypt: Food, Markets, Temples, Religion and Social Culture 5
  4. 4. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 1 Introduction From an European perspective, "What's in a name?" questions Juliet in "Romeo and Juliet," one of the many memorable plays written by Shakespeare. Indeed most of us would say, "Everything!" Because, we attach almost everything to it, from our achievements to our legacy. Most of the cultures would reiterate, name is all we leave behind in our wake! This book provides the roots of those names which we hold so close to our heart. Never would have the character, Juliet, imagined that the African words are behind European names! Over a period of time, meanings of most of the names have been lost or are known only in the academic circles. Names have become mere words associated with persons or beings. People often look to mythological sources for inspiring names. But they too, have roots which tell us what the name originally meant. Knowing the real meaning and antiquity of their names is a source of pride to many. With the discovery of Rosetta stone, in modern times we have been able to decipher the language of Ancient Egyptians, which was presumed long dead by Egyptologists. However, as Legesse Allyn has shown, the language has lived on intact outside of Egypt, among the people who inhabited the very lands that gave birth to the Egyptian civilization, the lands which are now known as Ethiopia and Eritrea. The hieroglyphic languages of Amarigna and Tigrigna are still widely used and spoken in Ethiopia and Eritrea today. It is an accepted fact that 60% of English words have roots in Latin and Greek. However, the roots of Latin and Greek words, along with those of most other languages in the world, can be traced to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic language and the Ethiopian/Eritrean Amarigna and Tigrigna languages. Like all of Legesse Allyn's "Roots of" books, this book depends heavily upon standard etymologies of words and names as listed in Doug Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary (www.etymonline.com) Etymologies can be simply defined as history of words, but Etymonline.com describes it best, "Etymologies are not definitions; they're explanations of what our words meant 600 or 2,000 years ago. Think of it as looking at pictures of your friends' parents when they were your age... These are histories of words only, not things or ideas. The modern word for something might have replaced old, forgotten words for the same object or concept... " This book is a work in progress. It has endeavored to cover many of the popular male names in the West, but with so many Western names it is by no means complete. With so many languages and myriad ways of pronunciation, it is anybody's guess as to what it takes to accomplish a task such as this. A book of this nature requires in-depth understanding of evolution of changes in sound between languages. Care and effort have been taken to ensure that this book is not too technical in terms of detail of information. The book makes a case for a light reading and at the same time can be of use for a serious academic exercise, too. Related words have been taken from a wide variety of family languages. And two hieroglyphs representing each root word have been included, so that you can write your name in hieroglyphs with real words found in ancient Egyptian artifacts, in tombs and on monuments up to 5100 years ago. I sincerely hope that this book aids you in your pursuit of knowledge. Thank you! Ramya Karlapudi, New Delhi, India
  5. 5. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 2 POPULAR MALE NAMES
  6. 6. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 3 ORIGINATED AS: aleqa (Aለቃ) boss, supervisor, chief (n.) (Amarigna) + wend (ወንድ) man, male (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Alexander” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: alke - "protection, help, strength, power, courage" (see below) + andros - "man" Alexander masc. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Alexandros "defender of men," from alexein "to ward off, keep off, turn (something) away, defend, protect" + aner (genitive andros) "man" (see anthropo-). The first element is related to Greek alke "protection, help, strength, power, courage," alkimos "strong;" cognate with Sanskrit raksati "protects," Old English ealgian "to defend." As a kind of cocktail, it is attested from 1930. The actual hieroglyph of Alexander I
  7. 7. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 4 “Andrew” ORIGINATED AS: wend (ወንድ) man, male (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: andros - "man" (see below) Andrew masc. proper name, from Old French Andreu (Modern French André), from Latin Andreas, from Greek Andreas, from andreios "manly," from aner (genitive andros) "man" (see anthropo-). Andrew Millar (1590s) for some forgotten reason became English naval slang for "government authority," and especially "the Royal Navy." St. Andrew (feast day Nov. 30) has long been regarded as patron saint of Scotland. The Andrew's cross (c.1400) supposedly resembles the one St. Andrew was crucified on. anthropo- before a vowel, anthrop-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to man or human beings," from comb. form of Greek anthropos "man, human being" (sometimes also including women) from Attic andra (genitive andros), from Greek aner "man" (as opposed to a woman, a god, or a boy), from PIE *ner- (2) "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong" (cognates: Sanskrit nar-, Armenian ayr, Welsh ner). Anthropos sometimes is explained as a compound of aner and ops (genitive opos) "eye, face;" so literally "he who has the face of a man." The change of -d- to -th- is difficult to explain; perhaps it is from some lost dialectal variant, or the mistaken belief that there was an aspiration sign over the vowel in the second element (as though *-dhropo-), which mistake might have come about by influence of common verbs such as horao "to see."
  8. 8. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 5 ORIGINATED AS: wend (ወንድ) man, male (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Anthony” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Anthony anth - "man" (see below) masc. proper name, from Latin Antonius, name of a Roman gens (with excrescent -h- probably suggested by many Greek loan words beginning anth-, such as anthros "flower," anthropos "man"); St. Anthony (4c.), Egyptian hermit, patron saint of swineherds, to whom one of each litter was usually vowed, hence Anthony for "smallest pig of the litter (1660s; in condensed form tantony pig from 1590s). St. Anthony's Fire (1520s), popular name for erysipelas, is said to be so called from the tradition that those who sought his intercession recovered from that distemper during a fatal epidemic in 1089.
  9. 9. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 6 “Arthur” ORIGINATED AS: arawit (Aራዊት) wild animals (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Arthurus/Arturus - " bear " (see below) Arthur masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Arthurus/Arturus, from Welsh arth "bear," cognate with Greek arktos, Latin ursus (see Arctic).
  10. 10. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 7 ORIGINATED AS: akora (Aኮራ) make proud (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Asher” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Asher zingen/sengwh (see below) masc. proper name, biblical son of Jacob (also the name of a tribe descended from him), from Hebrew, literally "happy."
  11. 11. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 8 “Augustus” ORIGINATED AS: akele (Aከለ) increase (v-perf.) (Amarigna) agola (Aጎላ) emphasize, make clear, magnify (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: augur - "increase" (see below) Augustus masc. proper name, from Latin augustus "venerable" (see august). The name originally was a cognomen applied to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus as emperor, with a sense something like "his majesty." august (adj.) 1660s, from Latin augustus "venerable, majestic, magnificent, noble," probably originally "consecrated by the augurs, with favorable auguries" (see augur (n.)); or else "that which is increased" (see augment). augur (n.) 1540s, from Latin augur, a religious official in ancient Rome who foretold events by interpreting omens, perhaps originally meaning "an increase in crops enacted in ritual," in which case it probably is from Old Latin *augos (genitive *augeris) "increase," and is related to augere "increase" (see augment). The more popular theory is that it is from Latin avis "bird," because the flights, singing, and feeding of birds, along with entrails from bird sacrifices, were important objects of divination (compare auspicious). In that case, the second element would be from garrire "to talk." augment (v.) c. 1400, from Old French augmenter "increase, enhance" (14c.), from Late Latin augmentare "to increase," from Latin augmentum "an increase," from augere "to increase, make big, enlarge, enrich," from PIE root *aug- (1) "to increase" (cognates: Sanskrit ojas- "strength;" Lithuanian augu "to grow," aukstas "high, of superior rank;" Greek auxo "increase," auxein "to increase;" Gothic aukan "to grow, increase;" Old English eacien "to increase"). Related: Augmented; augmenting. As a noun from early 15c
  12. 12. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 9 ORIGINATED AS: akele (Aከለ) add, increase (v-perf.) (Amarigna) agola (Aጎላ) emphasize, make clear, magnify (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Austin” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: augere "to increase" (see below) Austin surname (also Austen) and masc. proper name, from Old French Aousten, an abbreviated form of Latin Augustine. Augustine (adj.) c. 1400 in reference to members of the religious order named for St. Augustine the Great (354-430), bishop of Hippo. The name is Latin Augustinus, from augustus "venerable, majestic, magnificent, noble" (see august (adj.)) + name-forming inus (see -ine (1)). augur (n.) 1540s, from Latin augur, a religious official in ancient Rome who foretold events by interpreting omens, perhaps originally meaning "an increase in crops enacted in ritual," in which case it probably is from Old Latin *augos (genitive *augeris) "increase," and is related to augere "increase" (see augment). The more popular theory is that it is from Latin avis "bird," because the flights, singing, and feeding of birds, along with entrails from bird sacrifices, were important objects of divination (compare auspicious). In that case, the second element would be from garrire "to talk." augment (v.) c. 1400, from Old French augmenter "increase, enhance" (14c.), from Late Latin augmentare "to increase," from Latin augmentum "an increase," from augere "to increase, make big, enlarge, enrich," from PIE root *aug- (1) "to increase" (cognates: Sanskrit ojas- "strength;" Lithuanian augu "to grow," aukstas "high, of superior rank;" Greek auxo "increase," auxein "to increase;" Gothic aukan "to grow, increase;" Old English eacien "to increase"). Related: Augmented; augmenting. As a noun from early 15c.
  13. 13. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 10 “Benjamin” ORIGINATED AS: beyany (በያኝ) decision maker (n.) (Amarigna) + yeman (የማን) right (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: "son of" (see below) + yamin "right hand" (see below) Benjamin masc. proper name, in Old Testament, Jacob's youngest son (Gen. xxxv:18), from Hebrew Binyamin, literally "son of the south," though interpreted in Genesis as "son of the right hand," from ben "son of" + yamin "right hand," also "south" (in an East-oriented culture). Compare Arabic cognate yaman "right hand, right side, south;" yamana "he was happy," literally "he turned to the right." The right was regarded as auspicious (see left and dexterity). Also see Yemen, southpaw, and compare deasil "rightwise, turned toward the right," from Gaelic deiseil "toward the south; toward the right," from deas "right, right-hand; south." Also compare Sanskrit dakshina "right; south." Slang meaning "money" (by 1999) is from portrait of Benjamin Franklin on U.S. $100 bill.
  14. 14. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 11 ORIGINATED AS: kelbi (ከልቢ) dog (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Caleb” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: kelebh - "dog" (see below) Caleb masc. proper name, in the Bible, one of the 12 men sent by Moses to reconnoiter Canaan, from Hebrew Kalebh, literally "dog-like," from kelebh "dog."
  15. 15. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 12 “Carter” ORIGINATED AS: qaraeza (ቃሬዛ) stretcher, bier (n.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: krezzo - "basket" (see below) carter (n.) "cart-driver," late 12c., from Anglo-French careter, and in part an agent noun from cart (v.). cart (v.) "to carry in a cart," late 14c., from cart (n.). Related: Carted; carting. cart (n.) c.1200, from Old Norse kartr or a similar Scandinavian source, akin to and replacing Old English cræt "cart, wagon, chariot," perhaps originally "body of a cart made of wickerwork, hamper" and related to Middle Dutch cratte "woven mat, hamper," Dutch krat "basket," Old English cradol (see cradle (n.)). To put the cart before the horse in a figurative sense is from 1510s in those words; the image in other words dates to mid-14c. cradle (n.) "baby's bed," c.1200, cradel, from Old English cradol "little bed, cot," from Proto-Germanic *kradulas "basket" (cognates: Old High German kratto, krezzo "basket," German Krätze "basket carried on the back"). From late 14c. as "device for holding or hoisting." Cat's cradle is so called from 1768. Cradle- snatching "amorous pursuit of younger person" is from 1906.
  16. 16. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 13 ORIGINATED AS: asawere (Aሳወረ) blind (v-perf.) (Amarigna) swur (ስዉር) obscure, invisible, hidden, clandestine (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Cecil” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: caecus - "blind" (see below) Cecil masc. proper name, from Latin Caecilius (fem. Caecilia), name of a Roman gens, from caecus "blind."
  17. 17. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 14 “Charlie” ORIGINATED AS: hara (ሓራ) free (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: karl - "freeman" (see below) Charlie masc. proper name, familiar form of Charles (also see -y (3)); Charles masc. proper name, from French Charles, from Medieval Latin Carolus, from Middle High German Karl, literally "man, husband" (see carl). carl (n.) c.1300, "bondsman; common man, man of low birth," from Old Norse karl "man, male, freeman," from Proto-Germanic *karlon-, the same root that produced Old English ceorl "man of low degree" (see churl). churl (n.) Old English ceorl "peasant, freeman, man without rank," from Proto-Germanic *kerlaz, *karlaz (cognates: Old Frisian zerl "man, fellow," Middle Low German kerle, Dutch kerel "freeman of low degree," German Kerl "man, husband," Old Norse karl "old man, man").
  18. 18. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 15 ORIGINATED AS: quraTS' (ቁራጽ) piece, bit, part (noun) (Tigrigna) “Christian” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: kharis - "favor, grace" (see Eucharist below) “Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me" Christian (n., adj.) 16c., forms replacing earlier Christen, from Old English cristen (noun and adjective), from a West Germanic borrowing of Church Latin christianus, from Ecclesiastical Greek christianos, from Christos (see Christ). Christ (n.) title given to Jesus of Nazareth, Old English crist (by 830, perhaps 675), from Latin Christus, from Greek khristos "the anointed" (translation of Hebrew mashiah; see messiah), noun use of verbal adjective of khriein "to rub, anoint" (see chrism). The Latin term drove out Old English Hæland "healer, savior," as the preferred descriptive term for Jesus. Eucharist (n.) "sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the Communion," mid-14c., from Old French eucariste, from Late Latin eucharistia, from Greek eukharistia "thanksgiving, gratitude," later "the Lord's Supper," from eukharistos "grateful," from eu "well" (see eu-) + stem of kharizesthai "show favor," from kharis "favor, grace," from PIE root *gher- (5) "to like, want" (see hortatory). Eukharisteo is the usual verb for "to thank, to be thankful" in the Septuagint and Greek New Testament. Related: Eucharistic. Eucharist The Greek noun ε χαριστία (eucharistia), meaning "thanksgiving", is not used in the New Testament as a name for the rite; however, the related verb is found in New Testament accounts of the Last Supper, including the earliest such account: "For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me". (1 Corinthians 11:23-24) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucharist
  19. 19. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 16 “Claude” ORIGINATED AS: aqoreT'e (Aቆረጠ) stop (v-perf.) (Amarigna) aqwareT'e (Aቋረጠ) cut off, take a shortcut, butt in (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: keld - "cut off" (see below) Claude masc. proper name, from French form of Claudius. Claudius masc. proper name, from the name of two Roman gentes, perhaps related to claudus "lame," which is of unknown origin. Related: Claudian. Strong's Greek Lexicon Search Results #5560. cholos kho-los' apparently a primary word; "halt", i.e. limping:--cripple, halt, lame. http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=greeklexicon&isindex=lame halt (adj.) "lame," in Old English lemphalt "limping," from Proto-Germanic *haltaz (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian halt, Old Norse haltr, Old High German halz, Gothic halts "lame"), from PIE *keld-, from root *kel- "to strike, cut," with derivatives meaning "something broken or cut off" (cognates: Russian koldyka "lame," Greek kolobos "broken, curtailed"). The noun meaning "one who limps; the lame collectively" is from c. 1200.
  20. 20. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 17 ORIGINATED AS: word Also related to: “Claudius” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: keld - "cut off" (see below) Claudius masc. proper name, from the name of two Roman gentes, perhaps related to claudus "lame," which is of unknown origin. Related: Claudian. Strong's Greek Lexicon Search Results #5560. cholos kho-los' apparently a primary word; "halt", i.e. limping:--cripple, halt, lame. http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=greeklexicon&isindex=lame halt (adj.) "lame," in Old English lemphalt "limping," from Proto-Germanic *haltaz (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian halt, Old Norse haltr, Old High German halz, Gothic halts "lame"), from PIE *keld-, from root *kel- "to strike, cut," with derivatives meaning "something broken or cut off" (cognates: Russian koldyka "lame," Greek kolobos "broken, curtailed"). The noun meaning "one who limps; the lame collectively" is from c. 1200.
  21. 21. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 18 “Clyde” ORIGINATED AS: CH'lT' alä (ጭልጥ Aለ) disappear (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: kleue - "to wash, clean" (see below) Clyde masc. proper name, from the family name, from the region of the Clyde River in Scotland (see Clydesdale). Most popular in U.S. for boys c. 1890-1910, falling off rapidly thereafter, hence probably its use in 1940s teenager slang for "a square, one not versed in popular music or culture." Clydesdale "breed of heavy draught horses," 1786, so called because they were bred in the valley of the Clyde in Scotland. The river name is perhaps literally "cleansing," from a Celtic root akin to Latin cloaca (see cloaca). cloaca (n.) Look up cloaca at Dictionary.com 1650s, euphemism for "underground sewer," from Latin cloaca "public sewer, drain," from cluere "to cleanse," from PIE root *kleue- "to wash, clean" (cognates: Greek klyzein "to dash over, wash off, rinse out," klysma "liquid used in a washing;" Lithuanian šluoju "to sweep;" Old English hlutor, Gothic hlutrs, Old High German hlutar, German lauter "pure, clear"). Use in biology, in reference to eliminatory systems of lower animals, is from 1834. Related: Cloacal (1650s); cloacinal (1857).
  22. 22. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 19 ORIGINATED AS: qanye (ቃኘ) investigate (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Connor” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: cunnere - "examiner, inspector" (see below) Connor masc. proper name, little used in U.S. before 1980; in the top 100 names given to boys from 1992; apparently an alteration and appropriation of the surname Conner (13c.), representing Old English cunnere "examiner, inspector" (as in ale-conner (see con (n.2)).Connor Look up Connor at Dictionary.com asc. proper name, little used in U.S. before 1980; in the top 100 names given to boys from 1992; apparently an alteration and appropriation of the surname Conner (13c.), representing Old English cunnere "examiner, inspector" (as in ale-conner (see con (n.2)). con (n.2) Look up con at Dictionary.com "study," early 15c., from Old English cunnan "to know, know how" (see can (v.1)). can (v.1) Old English 1st & 3rd person singular present indicative of cunnan "know, have power to, be able," (also "to have carnal knowledge"), from Proto-Germanic *kunnan "to be mentally able, to have learned" (cognates: Old Norse kenna "to know, make known," Old Frisian kanna "to recognize, admit," German kennen "to know," Gothic kannjan "to make known"), from PIE root *gno- (see know). con (n.1) "negation" (mainly in pro and con), 1570s, short for Latin contra "against" (see contra).
  23. 23. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 20 “Cooper” ORIGINATED AS: qefo (ቀፎ) shell, casing (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: keup - "a hollow" (see below) cooper (n.) "craftsman who makes wooden vessels," attested from late 12c. as a surname, either from Old English (unattested) or from a Low German source akin to Middle Dutch cuper, East Frisian kuper, from Low German kupe (German Kufe) "cask," cognate with Medieval Latin cupa (see coop (n.)). coop (n.) "small cage for poultry," mid-14c., from Old English cype, cypa "basket, cask," akin to Middle Dutch kupe, Swedish kupa, and all probably from Latin cupa "tub, cask," from PIE *keup- "hollow mound" (see cup (n.)). cup (n.) Old English cuppe, from Late Latin cuppa "cup" (source of Italian coppa, Spanish copa, Old French coupe "cup"), from Latin cupa "tub, cask, tun, barrel," from PIE *keup- "a hollow" (cognates: Sanskrit kupah "hollow, pit, cave," Greek kype "a kind of ship," Old Church Slavonic kupu, Lithuanian kaupas). The Late Latin word was borrowed throughout Germanic: Old Frisian kopp "cup, head," Middle Low German kopp "cup," Middle Dutch coppe, Dutch kopje "cup, head." German cognate Kopf now means exclusively "head" (compare French tête, from Latin testa "potsherd"). Meaning "part of a bra that holds a breast" is from 1938. [One's] cup of tea "what interests one" (1932), earlier used of persons (1908), the sense being "what is invigorating."
  24. 24. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 21 ORIGINATED AS: danya (ዳኛ) magistrate, judge (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Daniel” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Dan - "judge" (see below) Daniel proper name, Hebrew, literally "God is my judge;" related to Dan, literally "he who judges," the tribe descended from Jacob's son of that name in Old Testament. Consistently in the top 15 names for boys born in the U.S. from 1972 through 2008.
  25. 25. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 22 “Dante” ORIGINATED AS: dur (ዱር) wood, jungle, forest (n.) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: deru - "oak tree" (see below) Dante masc. proper name, most modern uses outside Italy ultimately are in reference to Dante Alighieri (c. 1265-1321), the great poet; the name is a shortening of Latin Durante, from durare "harden, endure" (see endure). endure (v.) late 14c., "to undergo or suffer" (especially without breaking); also "to continue in existence," from Old French endurer (12c.) "make hard, harden; bear, tolerate; keep up, maintain," from Latin indurare "make hard," in Late Latin "harden (the heart) against," from in- (see in- (2)) + durare "to harden," from durus "hard," from PIE *dru-ro-, from root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast" (see true). true (adj.) Old English triewe (West Saxon), treowe (Mercian) "faithful, trustworthy, honest, steady in adhering to promises, friends, etc.," from Proto-Germanic *treuwaz- "having or characterized by good faith" (cognates: Old Frisian triuwi, Dutch getrouw, Old High German gatriuwu, German treu, Old Norse tryggr, Danish tryg, Gothic triggws "faithful, trusty"), from PIE *drew-o-, a suffixed form of the root *deru-/*dreu- "be firm, solid, steadfast" (cognates: Lithuanian drutas "firm," Welsh drud, Old Irish dron "strong," Welsh derw "true," Old Irish derb "sure"), with specialized sense "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood (see tree (n.)). tree (n.) Old English treo, treow "tree" (also "timber, wood, beam, log, stake"), from Proto-Germanic *treuwaz- (cognates: Old Frisian tre, Old Saxon trio, Old Norse tre, Gothic triu "tree"), from PIE *drew-o-, from *deru- "oak" (cognates: Sanskrit dru "tree, wood," daru "wood, log;"
  26. 26. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 23 ORIGINATED AS: tewaraj (ተዋራጅ) meek (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Darwin” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: deurjaz - " dear " (see below) Darwin surname attested from 12c., from Old English deorwine, literally "dear friend," probably used as a given name and also the source of the masc. proper name Derwin. dear (adj.) Old English deore "precious, valuable, costly, loved, beloved," from Proto-Germanic *deurjaz (cognates: Old Saxon diuri, Old Norse dyrr, Old Frisian diore, Middle Dutch dure, Dutch duur, Old High German tiuri, German teuer), ultimate origin unknown. Used interjectorily since 1690s. As a polite introductory word to letters, it is attested from mid-15c. As a noun, from late 14c., perhaps short for dear one, etc.
  27. 27. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 24 “David” ORIGINATED AS: tewedede (ተወደደ) be loved, be liked, be important (v-perf.) (Amarigna)kwra see also: yetewedede (የተወደደ) beloved (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Dawidh - "beloved" (see below) David masc. proper name, in Old Testament second king of Israel and Judah and author of psalms, from Hebrew Dawidh, literally "darling, beloved friend." The name was common in England and Scotland by 12c., but much earlier in Wales. A nickname form was Dawe, hence surnames Dawson, Dawkins. A top 10 list name for boys born in the U.S. from 1934 to 1992. Strong's Hebrew Lexicon #1732 David daw-veed' rarely (fully); Daviyd {daw-veed'}; from the same as 1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse:--David. #1730 dowd dode or (shortened) dod {dode}; from an unused root meaning properly, to boil, i.e. (figuratively) to love; by implication, a love- token, lover, friend; specifically an uncle:--(well-)beloved, father's brother, love, uncle. http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=hebrewlexicon&isindex=1730 for dowd “boil” aslo see: T’eT’eQ’e (ጠጠቐ ) boil (verb) (Tigrigna)
  28. 28. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 25 ORIGINATED AS: danya (ዳኛ) magistrate, judge (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Dennis” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Dan - "judge" (see below) Dennis masc. proper name, from French Denis, ultimately from Latin Dionysius, name of an important 6c. Church father, from Greek Dionysos, god of wine and revelry. “But Osiris went on to become god and judge of the dead. Dionysus did not.” "Ptolemy of Egypt" by Walter M. Ellis, page 28 Daniel proper name, Hebrew, literally "God is my judge;" related to Dan, literally "he who judges," the tribe descended from Jacob's son of that name in Old Testament. Consistently in the top 15 names for boys born in the U.S. from 1972 through 2008.
  29. 29. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 26 “Dominic” ORIGINATED AS: den (ደን) forest (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: tun - "garden, field, yard; farm" (see below) Dominic masc. proper name, from Latin dominicus "pertaining to a lord" (see demesne). demesne (n.) c.1300, demeyne (modern spelling by late 15c.), from Anglo-French demesne, demeine, Old French demaine "land held for a lord's own use," from Latin dominicus "belonging to a master," from dominus "lord." Re-spelled by Anglo-French legal scribes under influence of Old French mesnie "household" (and the concept of a demesne as "land attached to a mansion") and their fondness for inserting -s- before -n-. Essentially the same word as domain. domain (n.) early 15c., in Scottish, from Middle French domaine "domain, estate," from Old French demaine "lord's estate," from Latin dominium "property, dominion," from dominus "lord, master, owner," from domus "house" (see domestic). Form influenced in Old French by Medieval Latin domanium "domain, estate." Internet domain name attested by 1985. domestic (adj.) early 15c., from Middle French domestique (14c.) and directly from Latin domesticus "belonging to the household," from domus "house," from PIE *dom-o- "house," from root *dem- "house, household" (cognates: Sanskrit damah "house;" Avestan demana- "house;" Greek domos "house," despotes "master, lord;" Latin dominus "master of a household;" Old Church Slavonic domu, Russian dom "house;" Lithuanian dimstis "enclosed court, property;" Old Norse topt "homestead"). town (n.) Old English tun "enclosure, garden, field, yard; farm, manor; homestead, dwelling house, mansion;" later "group of houses village farm " from Proto-Germanic *tunaz *tunan "fortified place" (cognates:
  30. 30. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 27 ORIGINATED AS: Erhe (Eርሐ) (verb) (make) Also related to: “Earnest” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: er - "to move, set in motion." (see below) Ernest masc. proper name, from French Ernest, which is of German origin (compare Old High German Ernust, German Ernst), literally "earnestness" (see earnest). Among the top 50 names for boys born in U.S. from 1880 through 1933. earnest (adj.1) from Old English eornoste (adj.) "zealous, serious," or from Old English noun eornost "seriousness, serious intent" (surviving only in the phrase in earnest), from Proto-Germanic *er-n-os-ti- (cognates: Old Saxon ernust, Old Frisian ernst, Old High German arnust "seriousness, firmness, struggle," German Ernst "seriousness;" Gothic arniba "safely, securely;" Old Norse ern "able, vigorous," jarna "fight, combat"), perhaps from PIE root *er- (1) "to move, set in motion." The proper name Ernest (literally "resolute") is from the same root. Related: Earnestness. earnest (adj.2) "portion of something given or done in advance as a pledge," early 15c., with excrescent -t- (perhaps from influence of the other earnest), from Middle English ernes (c. 1200), "a pledge or promise;" often "a foretaste of what is to follow;" also (early 13c.) "sum of money as a pledge to secure a purchase or bind a bargain (earnest-money); from Old French erres and directly from Latin arra, probably from Phoenician or another Semitic language (compare Hebrew 'eravon "a pledge"). Sometimes in Middle English as erness, suggesting it was perceived as er "early" + -ness.
  31. 31. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 28 “Eli” ORIGINATED AS: lay (ላይ) over, above (prep.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: "high" (see below) Eli masc. proper name, in Old Testament, the name of a high priest of Israel, teacher of Samuel, from Hebrew, literally "high."
  32. 32. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 29 ORIGINATED AS: Erhe (Eርሐ) (verb) (make) Also related to: “Eugene” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: er - "to move, set in motion." (see below) Ernest masc. proper name, from French Ernest, which is of German origin (compare Old High German Ernust, German Ernst), literally "earnestness" (see earnest). Among the top 50 names for boys born in U.S. from 1880 through 1933. earnest (adj.1) from Old English eornoste (adj.) "zealous, serious," or from Old English noun eornost "seriousness, serious intent" (surviving only in the phrase in earnest), from Proto-Germanic *er-n-os-ti- (cognates: Old Saxon ernust, Old Frisian ernst, Old High German arnust "seriousness, firmness, struggle," German Ernst "seriousness;" Gothic arniba "safely, securely;" Old Norse ern "able, vigorous," jarna "fight, combat"), perhaps from PIE root *er- (1) "to move, set in motion." The proper name Ernest (literally "resolute") is from the same root. Related: Earnestness. earnest (adj.2) "portion of something given or done in advance as a pledge," early 15c., with excrescent -t- (perhaps from influence of the other earnest), from Middle English ernes (c. 1200), "a pledge or promise;" often "a foretaste of what is to follow;" also (early 13c.) "sum of money as a pledge to secure a purchase or bind a bargain (earnest-money); from Old French erres and directly from Latin arra, probably from Phoenician or another Semitic language (compare Hebrew 'eravon "a pledge"). Sometimes in Middle English as erness, suggesting it was perceived as er "early" + -ness.
  33. 33. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 30 “Evan” ORIGINATED AS: genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Joannes -" gracious" (see below) Evan masc. proper name, Welsh form of John, perhaps influenced in form by Welsh ieuanc "young man" (cognate of Latin juvenis), from Celtic *yowanko-, from PIE *yeu- "vital force, youthful vigor" (see young (adj.)). John masc. proper name, Middle English Jon, Jan (mid-12c.), from Old French Jan, Jean, Jehan (Modern French Jean), from Medieval Latin Johannes, an alteration of Late Latin Joannes, from Greek Ioannes, from Hebrew Yohanan (longer form y'hohanan), said to mean literally "Jehovah has favored" or "Jah is gracious," from hanan "he was gracious." Greek conformed the Hebrew ending to its own customs. The -h- in English was inserted in imitation of the Medieval Latin form. Old English had the Biblical name as Iohannes. As the name of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, it was one of the most frequent Christian given names, and in England by early 14c. it rivaled William in popularity and was used generically (in Middle English especially of priests) and as an appellative (as in John Barleycorn, John Bull, John Q. Public). Somehow it also became the characteristic name of a Chinaman (1818). The Latin name also is the source of French Jean, Spanish Juan, Italian Giovanni, Portuguese João, also Dutch Jan, Hans, German Johann, Russian Ivan. Welsh form was Ieuan, Efan (see Evan), but Ioan was adopted for the Welsh Authorized Version of the Bible, hence frequency of Jones as a Welsh surname.
  34. 34. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 31 ORIGINATED AS: sera (ሠራ) make, work, do (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Ezra” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ezer - "help" (see below) mezrath (feminine) (see below) Ezra masc. proper name, in Old Testament name of a celebrated 5c. B.C.E. scribe, from Late Latin, from Hebrew Ezra, contraction of Azaryah(u), literally "God has helped," from ezer "help" + Yah, a shortened form of Yahweh "God." Strong's Hebrew Lexicon Search Results #5833 `ezrah ez-raw' or mezrath (Psa. 60:11 (13); 108:12 (13)) {ez-rawth'}; feminine of 5828; aid:-- help(-ed, -er). http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=hebrewlexicon&isindex=5833 for mezrath see also mesrat (መሥራት) work, perform, make (v-inf.)
  35. 35. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 32 “Frank” ORIGINATED AS: fluy (ፍሉይ) separate, apart (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: freo - "not in bondage" (see below) Frank (n.) one of the Germanic tribal people (Salian Franks) situated on the lower Rhine from 3c. that conquered Romano-Celtic northern Gaul c.500 C.E.; from their territory and partly from their language grew modern France and French. Old English franc, franca "freeman, noble; Frank, Frenchman," from Medieval Latin francus, a Late Latin borrowing of Frankish *Frank, the people's self-designation (cognate with Old High German Franko, the Latin word also is the source of Spanish and Italian names Franco). The origin of the ethnic name is uncertain; it traditionally is said to be from the old Germanic word *frankon "javelin, lance" (compare Old English franca "lance, javelin"), their preferred weapon, but the reverse may be the case. Compare also Saxon, traditionally from root of Old English seax "knife." The adjectival sense of "free, at liberty" (see frank (adj.)) probably developed from the tribal name, not the other way round. It was noted by 1680s that, in the Levant, this was the name given to anyone of Western nationality (compare Feringhee and lingua franca). frank (adj.) c. 1300, "free, liberal, generous;" 1540s, "outspoken," from Old French franc "free (not servile); without hindrance, exempt from; sincere, genuine, open, gracious, generous; worthy, noble, illustrious" (12c.), from Medieval Latin francus "free, at liberty, exempt from service," as a noun, "a freeman, a Frank" (see Frank). Feringhee (n.) name used in India for "European; Englishman; Portuguese," 1630s, from Persian Farangi, from Arabic Faranji (10c.), from Old French Franc "Frank" (see Frank) + Arabic ethnic suffix -i. The fr- sound is impossible in Arabic.
  36. 36. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 33 ORIGINATED AS: kbur (ክቡር) honorable (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Gabriel” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gabhar - "was strong" (see below) Gabriel masc. proper name, also name of an Old Testament angel, from Hebrew Gabhri el, literally "man of God," from gebher "man" + El "God." First element is from base of verb gabhar "was strong" (compare Arabic jabr "strong, young man;" jabbar "tyrant"). Strong's Hebrew Lexicon Search Results #1368 gibbowr ghib-bore' or (shortened) gibbor {ghib-bore'}; intensive from the same as 1397; powerful; by implication, warrior, tyrant:-- champion, chief, X excel, giant, man, mighty (man, one), strong (man), valiant man. #1397 geber gheh'-ber from 1396; properly, a valiant man or warrior; generally, a person simply:--every one, man, X mighty. ‫ָבַר‬ ‫גּ‬ to become stronger, to gain power ; to overpower, to conquer, to vanquish, to defeat ‫ֵל‬ ‫קִבּ‬ to receive, to get ; to win, to be awarded ; to develop, to have ; to welcome, to accept ; to make, to take (a decision) "In the Book of Daniel, he is responsible for interpreting Daniel's visions. Gabriel's main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in later literature." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel See: gebaw (ገባው) he understood, he comprehended (v-perf.) (Amarigna)
  37. 37. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 34 “Gary” ORIGINATED AS: gurado (ጉራዶ) sword (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: geri - "spear" (see below) Gary masc. proper name, also a surname, from Norman form of Old Norse geiri, Old Danish geri "spear" (see gar). gar (n.) pike-like fish, 1765, American English, shortening of garfish (mid-15c.), from fish (n.) + Middle English gare, gore "a spear," from Old English gar "spear," from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz "spear" (cognates: Old Norse geirr "spear; point of an anvil," Old Saxon, Old High German ger, German Ger "spear"), from PIE *ghaiso- "a stick, spear" (see goad (n.)). The fish so called for its long sharp snout. Compare Edgar, garlic.
  38. 38. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 35 ORIGINATED AS: gurado (ጉራዶ) sword (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Gerald” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: girald - "spear" (see below) Gerald masc. proper name, introduced into England by the Normans, from Old French Giralt, from Old High German Gerwald, "spear-wielder," from Proto-Germanic *girald, from *ger "spear" (see gar) + base of waltan "to rule" (cognate with Old English wealdan; see wield). The name often was confused with Gerard. gar (n.) pike-like fish, 1765, American English, shortening of garfish (mid-15c.), from fish (n.) + Middle English gare, gore "a spear," from Old English gar "spear," from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz "spear" (cognates: Old Norse geirr "spear; point of an anvil," Old Saxon, Old High German ger, German Ger "spear"), from PIE *ghaiso- "a stick, spear" (see goad (n.)). The fish so called for its long sharp snout. Compare Edgar, garlic. wield (v.) Old English weldan (Mercian), wieldan, wealdan (West Saxon) "have power over, compel, tame, subdue" (class VII strong verb; past tense weold, past participle gewealden), merged with weak verb wyldan, both from Proto-Germanic *waldan "to rule" (cognates: Old Saxon and Gothic waldan, Old Frisian walda "to govern, rule," Old Norse valda "to rule, wield, to cause," Old High German waltan, German walten "to rule, govern"). The Germanic words and cognates in Balto-Slavic (Old Church Slavonic vlado "to rule," vlasti "power," Russian vladeti "to reign, rule, possess, make use of," Lithuanian veldu "to rule, possess") probably are from PIE *woldh-, extended form of root *wal- "to be strong, to rule" (see valiant). Related: Wielded; wielding.
  39. 39. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 36 “Gilbert” ORIGINATED AS: chere (ቸረ) to donate (v-perf.) (Amarigna) + bruh (ብሩህ) bright (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: giall - "pledge" (see below) + beorht - "bright" (see below) Gilbert masc. proper name, from Old French Guillebert (from Old High German Williberht, literally "a bright will") or Old French Gilebert, from Gisilbert, literally "a bright pledge," from Old High German gisil "pledge," a Celtic loan-word (compare Old Irish giall "pledge") + beorht "bright" (see Albert). It was the common name for a male cat (especially in short form Gib) from c. 1400 (see Tom). As a unit of magneto-motive force, it honors English physicist William Gilbert (1544-1603). For the Gilbert Islands, see Kiribati. Kiribati island nation in the Pacific, formerly Gilbert Islands and named for Capt. Thomas Gilbert, who arrived there 1788 after helping transport the first shipload of convicts to Australia. At independence in 1979 it took the current name, which represents the local pronunciation of Gilbert. Christmas Island, named for the date it was discovered by Europeans, is in the chain and now goes by Kiritimati, likewise a local pronunciation of the English name.
  40. 40. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 37 ORIGINATED AS: agazen (Aጋዘን) antelope (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Giles” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: aegis - "goat" (see below) Giles masc. proper name, from Old French Gilles, from Latin Egidius, Aegidius (name of a famous 7c. Provençal hermit who was a popular saint in the Middle Ages), from Greek aigidion "kid" (see aegis). Often used in English as a typical name of a simple-minded farmer. aegis (n.) "protection," 1793, from Latin aegis, from Greek Aigis, the name of the shield of Zeus, said by Herodotus to be related to aix (genitive aigos) "goat," from PIE *aig- "goat" (cognates: Sanskrit ajah, Lithuanian ozys "he-goat"), as the shield was of goatskin. Athene's aigis was a short goat-skin cloak, covered with scales, set with a gorgon's head, and fringed with snakes. The exact use and purpose of it is not now clear.
  41. 41. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 38 “Gillian” ORIGINATED AS: taye (ታየ) be seen, be watched, appear (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: dyeu - "to gleam, to shine" (see below) Gillian fem. proper name, from French Juliane, from Late Latin Juliana (a saint's name), fem. of Iulianus, literally "of Julius," the Roman gens name (see Julius). Julius masc. proper name, from Latin Iulius (Spanish Julio, Italian Giulio), name of a Roman gens, perhaps a contraction of *Iovilios "pertaining to or descended from Jove," from PIE *iou-li-, from root *dyeu- (see Zeus). Zeus supreme god of the ancient Greeks and master of the others, 1706, from Greek, from PIE *dewos- "god" (cognates: Latin deus "god," Old Persian daiva- "demon, evil god," Old Church Slavonic deivai, Sanskrit deva-), from root *dyeu- "to gleam, to shine;" also the root of words for "sky" and "day" (see diurnal). The god-sense is originally "shining," but "whether as originally sun-god or as lightener" is not now clear. diurnal (adj.) late 14c., from Late Latin diurnalis "daily," from Latin dies "day" + -urnus, an adjectival suffix denoting time (compare hibernus "wintery"). Dies "day" is from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine" (cognates: Sanskrit diva "by day," Welsh diw, Breton deiz "day;" Armenian tiw; Lithuanian diena; Old Church Slavonic dini, Polish dzień, Russian den), literally "to shine" (compare Greek delos "clear;" Latin deus, Sanskrit deva "god," literally "shining one;" Avestan dava- "spirit, demon;" Lithuanian devas, Old Norse tivar "gods;" Old English Tig, genitive Tiwes, see Tuesday).
  42. 42. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 39 ORIGINATED AS: gara (ጋራ) together with (adv.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Gregory” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ger - "to gather together, assemble" (see below) Gregory masc. proper name, popular in England and Scotland by mid-12c. (Pope Gregory I sent the men who converted the English to Christianity), nativization of Late Latin Gregorius, literally "wakeful" (equivalent to Latin Vigilantius), from Greek gregorios, a derivative of gregoros "to be watchful," from PIE root *ger- "to be awake" (cognates: Sanskrit jagarti "he is awake," Avestan agarayeiti "wakes up, rouses"). At times confused with Latin gregarius (see gregarious). gregarious (adj.) 1660s, "disposed to live in flocks" (of animals), from Latin gregarius "pertaining to a flock; of the herd, of the common sort, common," from grex (genitive gregis) "flock, herd," from PIE *gre-g-, reduplicated form of root *ger- (1) "to gather together, assemble" (cognates: Sanskrit gramah "heap, troop;" Greek ageirein "to assemble," agora "assembly;" Latin gremium "bosom, lap;" Old Church Slavonic grusti "handful," gramota "heap;" Lithuanian gurgulys "chaos, confusion," gurguole "crowd, mass"). Of persons, "sociable" first recorded 1789. Related: Gregariously; gregariousness.
  43. 43. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 40 “Gulliver” ORIGINATED AS: qolele (ቆለለ) pile up, stack up (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: goulafre - "glutton" (see below) Gulliver male proper name, from Old French goulafre "glutton," a very common name, found as a surname in Domesday Book (William Gulafra).
  44. 44. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 41 ORIGINATED AS: astebabere (Aስተባበረ) bring together (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Gustavus” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: stebh - "place firmly on, fasten (see below) Gustavus masc. proper name, Latinized form of Swedish Gustaf; first element of unknown origin, second element literally "staff." Related: Gustavian. staff (n.) Old English stæf (plural stafas), "walking stick, strong pole used for carrying, rod used as a weapon, pastoral staff," probably originally *stæb, from Proto-Germanic *stabaz (cognates: Old Saxon staf, Old Norse stafr, Danish stav, Old Frisian stef, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch staf, Old High German stab, German Stab, Gothic *stafs "element;" Middle Dutch stapel "pillar, foundation"), from PIE root *stebh- "post, stem, to support, place firmly on, fasten" (cognates: Old Lithuanian stabas "idol," Lithuanian stebas "staff, pillar;" Old Church Slavonic stoboru "pillar;" Sanskrit stabhnati "supports;" Greek stephein "to tie around, encircle, wreathe," staphyle "grapevine, bunch of grapes;" Old English stapol "post, pillar"). stab (v.) late 14c., "thrust with a pointed weapon," first in Scottish English, apparently a dialectal variant of Scottish stob "to pierce, stab," from stob (n.), perhaps a variant of stub (n.) "stake, nail," but Barnhart finds this "doubtful." Figurative use, of emotions, etc., is from 1590s. Related: Stabbed; stabbing.
  45. 45. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 42 “Hannibal” ORIGINATED AS: bal (ባል)/b’Al (ብዓል) husband, owner (Amarigna/Tigrigna) + genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ba'al - "owner/he married" (see below) Hannibal masc. proper name, name of the Carthaginian general (c. 247-183 B.C.E.) who hounded Rome in the 2nd Punic War, from Punic (Semitic) Hannibha'al, literally "my favor is with Baal;" first element related to Hebrew hanan "he was gracious, showed favor" (see Hannah); for second element see Baal. Baal Biblical, from Hebrew Ba'al, literally "owner, master, lord," a title applied to any deity (including Jehovah), but later a name of a particular Semitic solar deity worshipped licentiously by the Phoenecians and Carthaginians; from ba'al "he took possession of," also "he married;" related to or derived from Akkadian Belu (source of Hebrew Bel), name of Marduk. Identical with the first element in Beelzebub and the second in Hannibal. Used figuratively in English for any "false god."
  46. 46. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 43 ORIGINATED AS: halawi (ሓላዊ) sentry, watchman, escort, guard (noun) (Tigrigna) + werere (ወረረ) raid, occupy, invade, overwhelm (verb) (Amarigna/ Tigrigna) “Harold” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: heri - "host, army" (see below) + weold - “have power over, compel, tame, subdue” Harold masc. proper name, Old Norse Haraldr, Old Danish, Old Swedish Harald, from Proto-Germanic *harja- waldaz "army commander." For first element, see harry; second element is related to Proto-Germanic *waldan, source of Old English wealdan (see wield). The name shares an etymology with herald (n.). harry (v.) Old English hergian "make war, lay waste, ravage, plunder," the word used in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for what the Vikings did to England, from Proto-Germanic *harjon (cognates: Old Frisian urheria "lay waste, ravage, plunder," Old Norse herja "to make a raid, to plunder," Old Saxon and Old High German herion, German verheeren "to destroy, lay waste, devastate"). This is literally "to overrun with an army," from Proto-Germanic *harjaz "an armed force" (cognates: Old English here, Old Norse herr "crowd, great number; army, troop," Old Saxon and Old Frisian heri, Dutch heir, Old High German har, German Heer, Gothic harjis "a host, army"). The Germanic words come from PIE root *koro- "war" also "war-band, host, army" (cognates: Lithuanian karas "war, quarrel," karias "host, army;" Old Church Slavonic kara "strife;" Middle Irish cuire "troop;" Old Persian kara "host, people, army;" Greek koiranos "ruler, leader, commander"). wield (v.) Old English weldan (Mercian), wieldan, wealdan (West Saxon) "have power over, compel, tame, subdue" (class VII strong verb; past tense weold, past participle gewealden), merged with weak verb wyldan, both from Proto-Germanic *waldan "to rule" (cognates: Old Saxon and Gothic waldan, Old Frisian walda "to govern, rule," Old Norse valda "to rule, wield, to cause," Old High German waltan, German walten "to rule, govern").
  47. 47. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 44 “Henry” ORIGINATED AS: qweme (ቈመ) halt (verb) (Tigrigna) + lage (ላገ) make straight (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: koimo - "to settle, dwell, be home" + reg - "move in a straight line" Henry masc. proper name, from French Henri, from Late Latin Henricus, from German Heinrich, from Old High German Heimerich, literally "the ruler of the house," from heim "home" (see home (n.)) + rihhi "ruler" (see Reich). One of the most popular Norman names after the Conquest. Related: Henrician. home (n.) Old English ham "dwelling place, house, abode, fixed residence; estate; village; region, country," from Proto-Germanic *haimaz "home" (cognates: Old Frisian hem "home, village," Old Norse heimr "residence, world," heima "home," Danish hjem, Middle Dutch heem, German heim "home," Gothic haims "village"), from PIE *(t)koimo-, suffixed form of root *tkei- "to settle, dwell, be home" (cognates: Sanskrit kseti "abides, dwells," Armenian shen "inhabited," Greek kome, Lithuanian kaimas "village;" Old Church Slavonic semija "domestic servants"). As an adjective from 1550s. The old Germanic sense of "village" is preserved in place names and in hamlet. Reich (n.) German, "kingdom, realm, state," from Old High German rihhi, related to Old English rice, from Proto- Germanic *rikja "rule" (cognates: Old Norse riki, Danish rige, Old Frisian and Middle Dutch rike, Dutch rijk, Gothic reiki), from PIE *reg- (1) "move in a straight line," hence, "direct in a straight line, rule, guide" (see regal). Don Ringe, "From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic" [Oxford 2006] identifies it as a Celtic loan-word in Germanic rather than a direct evolution from PIE, based on the vowel. Used in English from 1871-1945 to refer to "the German state, Germany." Most notoriously in Third Reich (see third); there never was a First or Second in English usage. Also for tkoimo see teqemeT'e (ተቀመጠ) sit down, be set (v-perf.) (Amarigna)
  48. 48. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 45 ORIGINATED AS: halawi (ሓላዊ) sentry, escort, guard (noun) (Tigrigna) + bruh (ብሩህ) bright (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Herbert” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hari - "army" (see below) + berhta - "bright" (see below) Herbert masc. proper name, introduced in England by the Normans, from Old French Herbert, Latinized from Frankish *Hari-berct, *Her(e)-bert, literally "army-bright;" see harry (v.) + bright (adj.). harry (v.) Old English hergian "make war, lay waste, ravage, plunder," the word used in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for what the Vikings did to England, from Proto-Germanic *harjon (cognates: Old Frisian urheria "lay waste, ravage, plunder," Old Norse herja "to make a raid, to plunder," Old Saxon and Old High German herion, German verheeren "to destroy, lay waste, devastate"). This is literally "to overrun with an army," from Proto-Germanic *harjaz "an armed force" (cognates: Old English here, Old Norse herr "crowd, great number; army, troop," Old Saxon and Old Frisian heri, Dutch heir, Old High German har, German Heer, Gothic harjis "a host, army"). The Germanic words come from PIE root *koro- "war" also "war-band, host, army" (cognates: Lithuanian karas "war, quarrel," karias "host, army;" Old Church Slavonic kara "strife;" Middle Irish cuire "troop;" Old Persian kara "host, people, army;" Greek koiranos "ruler, leader, commander"). Weakened sense of "worry, goad, harass" is from c. 1400. Related: Harried; harrying. bright (adj.) Old English bryht, by metathesis from beorht "bright; splendid; clear-sounding; beautiful; divine," from Proto-Germanic *berhta- "bright" (cognates: Old Saxon berht, Old Norse bjartr, Old High German beraht, Gothic bairhts "bright"), from PIE root *bhereg- "to gleam, white" (cognates: Sanskrit bhrajate "shines, glitters," Lithuanian breksta "to dawn," Welsh berth "bright, beautiful"). Meaning "quick-witted" is from 1741.
  49. 49. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 46 “Howard” ORIGINATED AS: gara (ጋራ) mountain (n.) (Amarigna) + halawi (ሓላዊ) sentry, watchman, escort, guard (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: har - "hill" (see below) + weard - " defender, guardian" (see below) Howard proper name, from Old French Huard, from a Germanic source similar to Old High German *Hugihard "heart-brave," or *Hoh-weard, literally "high defender; chief guardian." Also probably in some cases a confusion with cognate Old Norse Haward, and as a surname also with unrelated Hayward. In some rare cases from Old English eowu hierde "ewe herd." high (adj.) Old English heh (Anglian), heah (West Saxon) "of great height, tall, conspicuously elevated; lofty, exalted, high-class," from Proto-Germanic *haukhaz (cognates: Old Saxon hoh, Old Norse har, Danish høi, Swedish hög, Old Frisian hach, Dutch hoog, Old High German hoh, German hoch, Gothic hauhs "high;" also German Hügel "hill," Old Norse haugr "mound"). The group is of uncertain origin; perhaps related to Lithuanian kaukara "hill." Spelling with -gh represents a final guttural sound in the original word, lost since 14c.
  50. 50. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 47 ORIGINATED AS: saqe (ሣቀ) laugh (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Isaac” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: “laugh” (see below) Isaac masc. proper name, name of a biblical patriarch, from Late Latin, from Greek Isaak, from Hebrew Yitzhaq, literally "he laughs," imperf. of tzahaq "he laughed."
  51. 51. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 48 “Isaiah” ORIGINATED AS: aweCH'i (Aወጪ) deliverance (made free) (n.) (Amarigna) awTS’ee (ኣውጸአ) extract, pull (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: yeshua - "salvation, deliverance" (see below) Isaiah masc. proper name, name of a biblical prophet, from Hebrew Yesha'yah, abbreviated form of Yesha'yahu, literally "salvation of the Lord," from yesha, yeshua "salvation, deliverance." Strong's Hebrew Lexicon Search Results: #3470 Ysha`yah yesh-ah-yaw' or Yshayahuw {yesh-ah-yaw'-hoo}; from 3467 and 3050; Jah has saved; Jeshajah, the name of seven Israelites:--Isaiah, Jesaiah, Jeshaiah. #3467 yasha` yaw-shah' a primitive root; properly, to be open, wide or free, i.e. (by implication) to be safe; causatively, to free or succor:--X at all, avenging, defend, deliver(-er), help, preserve, rescue, be safe, bring (having) salvation, save(-iour), get victory. #3050 Yahh yaw contraction for 3068, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name:--Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Compare names in "-iah," "- jah." http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=hebrewlexicon&isindex=isaiah see also - wazae (‫)وزع‬ distribute, hand out, dispense, diffuse, portion, allot, deliver, seed (v.) (Arabic)
  52. 52. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 49 ORIGINATED AS: A'qebe (Aቀበ) prohibit, he interdicted (v-perf.) (Amarigna) See also: kebdi egri (ከብዲ Eግሪ) sole of the foot, sole (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Jacob” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: aqebh - "heel" (see below) Jacob masc. proper name, name of Old Testament patriarch, son of Isaac and Rebecca and father of the founders of the twelve tribes, from Late Latin Iacobus, from Greek Iakobos, from Hebrew Ya'aqobh, literally "one that takes by the heel" (Gen. xxviii:12), a derivative of 'aqebh "heel." The most popular name for boys born in the U.S. from 1999 through 2008. Jacob's ladder, in various transferred uses from 1733, is from Gen. xxviii:12. see also: qubid (‫ﺾ‬ ‫)ﻗﺒ‬ catch, seizure, taking, constriction (n.); grasp, get hold of, constrict (v.) (Arabic)
  53. 53. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 50 “James” ORIGINATED AS: A'qebe (Aቀበ) prohibit, he interdicted (v-perf.) (Amarigna) See also: kebdi egri (ከብዲ Eግሪ) sole of the foot, sole (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Late Latin Jacomus, altered from Jacobus (see below) James masc. proper name, New Testament name of two of Christ's disciples, late 12c. Middle English vernacular form of Late Latin Jacomus (source of Old French James, Spanish Jaime, Italian Giacomo), altered from Latin Jacobus (see Jacob). Jacob masc. proper name, name of Old Testament patriarch, son of Isaac and Rebecca and father of the founders of the twelve tribes, from Late Latin Iacobus, from Greek Iakobos, from Hebrew Ya'aqobh, literally "one that takes by the heel" (Gen. xxviii:12), a derivative of 'aqebh "heel." The most popular name for boys born in the U.S. from 1999 through 2008. Jacob's ladder, in various transferred uses from 1733, is from Gen. xxviii:12. Strong's Hebrew Lexicon Search Results #3290 Ya`aqob yah-ak-obe' from 6117; heel-catcher (i.e. supplanter); Jaakob, the Israelitish patriarch:-- Jacob. http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=hebrewlexicon&isindex=3290 see also: qubid (‫ﺾ‬ ‫)ﻗﺒ‬ catch, seizure, taking, constriction (n.); grasp, get hold of, constrict (v.) (Arabic)
  54. 54. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 51 ORIGINATED AS: aT’Aye (ኣጥዓየ) heal (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Jason” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Greek Eason, from Hebrew Yehoshua (see below) Jason masc. proper name, from Greek Eason, from Hebrew Yehoshua, a common name among Hellenistic Jews (see Joshua). In Greek mythology, son of Aeson, leader of the Argonauts, from Latin Jason, from Greek Iason, perhaps related to iasthai "to heal" (see -iatric). The names were somewhat merged in Christian Greek. Joshua masc. proper name, biblical successor of Moses, from Hebrew Yehoshua, literally "the Lord is salvation." Joshua tree (1867) is perhaps so called because its shape compared to pictures of Joshua brandishing a spear (Josh. viii:18). In the top 10 list of names for boys in the U.S. since 1979. Isaiah masc. proper name, name of a biblical prophet, from Hebrew Yesha'yah, abbreviated form of Yesha'yahu, literally "salvation of the Lord," from yesha, yeshua "salvation, deliverance." Strong's Hebrew Lexicon Search Results: #3470 Ysha`yah yesh-ah-yaw' or Yshayahuw {yesh-ah-yaw'-hoo}; from 3467 and 3050; Jah has saved; Jeshajah, the name of seven Israelites:--Isaiah, Jesaiah, Jeshaiah. #3467 yasha` yaw-shah' a primitive root; properly, to be open, wide or free, i.e. (by implication) to be safe; causatively, to free or succor:--X at all, avenging, defend, deliver(-er), help, preserve, rescue, be safe, bring (having) salvation, save(-iour), get victory. #3050 Yahh yaw contraction for 3068, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name:--Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Compare names in "-iah," "- jah." http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=hebrewlexicon&isindex=isaiah see also - wazae (‫)وزع‬ distribute, hand out, dispense, diffuse, portion, allot, deliver, seed (v.) (Arabic)
  55. 55. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 52 “Jeremiah” ORIGINATED AS: grmawi (ግርማዊ) glorious, majestic (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Jeremias - "exalt" (see below) Jeremiah masc. proper name, Old Testament prophet (see jeremiad) who flourished c.626-586 B.C.E., from Late Latin Jeremias, from Hebrew Yirmeyah, probably literally "may Jehovah exalt," but Klein suggests it also might be short for Yirmeyahu "the Lord casts, the Lord founds," and compares the first element in Jerusalem. The vernacular form in English was Jeremy. jeremiad (n.) 1780, from French jérémiade (1762), in reference to "Lamentations of Jeremiah" in Old Testament.
  56. 56. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 53 ORIGINATED AS: hulu (ሁሉ) total, entire, all (adj.) (Amarigna) + man neh (ማን ነህ) who are you? (phr.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Jerome” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hāl - "entire, complete" (see below) + imene - "name, reputation" (see below) Jerome masc. proper name, from French Jérome, from Late Latin Hieronymus, from Greek Hieronymos, literally "holy name," from hieros "holy" (see ire) + onyma, dialectal form of onoma "name" (see name (n.)). holy (adj.) The English word "holy" dates back to at least the 11th century with the Old English word hālig, an adjective derived from hāl meaning "whole" and used to mean "uninjured, sound, healthy, entire, complete". The Scottish hale ("health, happiness and wholeness") is the most complete modern form of this Old English root. The word "holy" in its modern form appears in Wycliffe's Bible of 1382. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred#Etymology name (n.) Old English nama, noma "name, reputation," from Proto-Germanic *namon (cognates: Old Saxon namo, Old Frisian nama, Old High German namo, German Name, Middle Dutch name, Dutch naam, Old Norse nafn, Gothic namo "name"), from PIE *nomn- (cognates: Sanskrit nama; Avestan nama; Greek onoma, onyma; Latin nomen; Old Church Slavonic ime, genitive imene; Russian imya; Old Irish ainm; Old Welsh anu "name").
  57. 57. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 54 “Jesse” ORIGINATED AS: awse (ኣውስአ) issue, supply, provide, furnish (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Jesse - "to give (someone)" (see below) Jesse masc. proper name, biblical father of David and ancestor of Jesus, from Latin, from Greek Iessai, from Hebrew Yishay, of unknown origin. A rod out of the stem of Jesse (Isa. xi:1) is regarded by Christians as one of the great prophesies of the Old Testament foretelling the coming of Christ; hence Tree of Jesse "decorative image of the genealogy of Jesus, with Jesse as the root;" to give (someone) Jesse "punish severely" (1839) is American English, probably a play on the "rod" in the Biblical verse. Related: Jessean. Samuel offered a sacrifice with Jesse and then went to his house, where he sanctified him and his family. The prophet asked Jesse to present his sons. When Samuel saw Eliab, Jesse's eldest son, he was impressed by his stature and convinced that he must be God's anointed king, however God said to Samuel "Do not consider his appearance or his height, for I have rejected him. The Lord does not look at the things man looks at. Man look at the outward appearance, but the Lord looks at the heart." (1 Samuel 16:7 NIV) When Jesse presented his second son, Abinadab, God told Samuel "The Lord has not chosen this one either." (1 Samuel 16:8 NIV) This happened again with his third son, Shammah, then his fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh sons. Finally, Samuel enquired of Jesse if he had any other sons. Jesse told him that David the youngest was tending the flock. The prophet then asked for him, waited and when he came, God asked the prophet to anoint him as king over Israel. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse
  58. 58. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 55 ORIGINATED AS: genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “John” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hanan - "he was gracious" (see below) John masc. proper name, Middle English Jon, Jan (mid-12c.), from Old French Jan, Jean, Jehan (Modern French Jean), from Medieval Latin Johannes, an alteration of Late Latin Joannes, from Greek Ioannes, from Hebrew Yohanan (longer form y'hohanan), said to mean literally "Jehovah has favored" or "Jah is gracious," from hanan "he was gracious." Greek conformed the Hebrew ending to its own customs. The -h- in English was inserted in imitation of the Medieval Latin form. Old English had the Biblical name as Iohannes. As the name of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, it was one of the most frequent Christian given names, and in England by early 14c. it rivaled William in popularity and was used generically (in Middle English especially of priests) and as an appellative (as in John Barleycorn, John Bull, John Q. Public). Somehow it also became the characteristic name of a Chinaman (1818). The Latin name also is the source of French Jean, Spanish Juan, Italian Giovanni, Portuguese João, also Dutch Jan, Hans, German Johann, Russian Ivan. Welsh form was Ieuan, Efan (see Evan), but Ioan was adopted for the Welsh Authorized Version of the Bible, hence frequency of Jones as a Welsh surname. Evan masc. proper name, Welsh form of John, perhaps influenced in form by Welsh ieuanc "young man" (cognate of Latin juvenis), from Celtic *yowanko-, from PIE *yeu- "vital force, youthful vigor" (see young (adj.)).
  59. 59. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 56 “Joseph” ORIGINATED AS: asefa (Aሰፋ) widen (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Ioseph - "adds, increases" (see below) Joseph masc. proper name, biblical son of Jacob and Rachel, and in the New Testament the name of the husband of Mary, mother of Jesus; from Late Latin Joseph, Josephus, from Greek Ioseph, from Hebrew Yoseph (also Yehoseph; see Ps. lxxxi:6) "adds, increases," causative of yasaph "he added." Its use in names of clothing and plants often is in reference to his "coat of many colors" (Gen. xxxvii:3).
  60. 60. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 57 ORIGINATED AS: tCH'erhe (ትጨርሐ) scream, cry (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Laurence” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: dakru - "tearful, sorrowful, weeping" (see below) Laurence masc. proper name, from Old French Lorenz (French Laurent), from Latin Laurentius, literally "of Laurentum," a maritime town in Latium, literally "town of bay trees," from laurus (see laurel). The Italian form is Lorenzo. A popular given name in the Middle Ages, as a surname it is attested in England from mid-12c. Larkin is a pet-form. For some reason, the name since at least 18c. has been the personification of indolence (compare German der faule Lenz "Lazy Lawrence"). But in Scotland, the pet form Lowrie has been used for "a fox" (c. 1500), also for "a crafty person" (1560s). laurel (n.) c. 1300, lorrer, from Old French laurier (12c.), from Latin laurus "laurel tree," probably related to Greek daphne "laurel" (for change of d- to l- see lachrymose), probably from a pre-IE Mediterranean language. The change of second -r- to -l- after mid-14c. is by dissimilation. An emblem of victory or of distinction, hence the phrase to rest (originally repose) on one's laurels, first attested 1831. lachrymose (adj.) 1660s, "tear-like," from Latin lacrimosus "tearful, sorrowful, weeping," also "causing tears, lamentable," from lacrima "tear," a dialect-altered borrowing of Greek dakryma "tear," from dakryein "to shed tears," from dakry "tear," from PIE *dakru- (see tear (n.1)). Meaning "given to tears, tearful" is first attested 1727; meaning "of a mournful character" is from 1822. The -d- to -l- alteration in Latin is the so-called "Sabine -L-"; compare Latin olere "smell," from root of odor, and Ulixes, the Latin form of Greek Odysseus. The Medieval Latin practice of writing -ch- for -c- before Latin -r- also altered anchor, pulchritude, sepulchre. The -y- is pedantic, from belief in a Greek origin. Middle English had lacrymable "tearful" (mid-15c.).
  61. 61. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 58 “Levi” ORIGINATED AS: leye (ለየ) choose, favor, pick, elect (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: lawah - "he joined" (see below) Levi masc. proper name, biblical son of Jacob by Leah, from Hebrew lewi, literally "joining, pledging, attached," from stem of lawah "he joined." Leah (Hebrew: ֵ‫ל‬ ‫האָ‬ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leah
  62. 62. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 59 ORIGINATED AS: wruy (ውሩይ) renowned, famous (adjective) (Tigringa) + wg'e (ውግE) warfare, battle, fight, campaign, combat (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Louis” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hluda - "famous" (see below) + wigaz - "battle" (see below) Louis masc. proper name, from French Louis, from Old French Loois, probably via Medieval Latin Ludovicus, a Latinization of Old High German Hluodowig, literally "famous in war" (cognate with Clovis; for etymology, see Ludwig). Louis Quatorze (1855) refers to styles reminiscent of the time of King Louis XIV of France (1643-1715). Clovis type of prehistoric stone spearpoints, 1943, from Clovis, New Mexico, U.S., near which place they were found. The town is said to have been named for the Frankish king Clovis (Latinized from Frankish Chlodovech, from Germanic masc. proper name *hluda-wigaz "famous in battle," cognate with Ludwig and Louis).
  63. 63. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 60 “Luke” ORIGINATED AS: lekheye (ለኸየ) whitewash (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: leukos - "white" (see below) Luke masc. proper name, from Latin Lucas (Greek Loukas), contraction of Lucanus literally "of Lucania," district in Lower Italy, home of the Lucani, a branch of the Sabelline race. Luke Lucius means "the bright one" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luke_(name) Strong's Greek Lexicon Search Results #3022. leukos lyoo-kos' from luke ("light"); white:--white. http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=greeklexicon&isindex=leukos
  64. 64. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 61 ORIGINATED AS: meT’ewe (መጠወ) give (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: Nathan “Matthew” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: mattath - "gift" (see below) Matthew masc. proper name, introduced in England by the Normans, from Old French Mathieu, from Late Latin Matthaeus, from Greek Matthaios, contraction of Mattathias, from Hebrew Mattathyah "gift of Jehovah," from mattath "gift." Variant Matthias is from the Greek version.
  65. 65. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 62 “Morris” ORIGINATED AS: maras (ማራስ) soak, dampen (v-inf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: morass - "wet, swampy tract" (see below) Morris surname and masc. proper name, in some cases representing Maurice (common form Morice, or a nickname, Moorish, for onme who is swarthy. As a style of furniture, wallpaper, etc., 1880, in reference to poet and craftsman William Morris (1834-1896). Maurice masc. proper name, from French Maurice, from Late Latin Mauritius, from Latin Maurus "inhabitant of Mauretania, Moor" (see Moor). moor (n.) "waste ground," Old English mor "morass, swamp," from Proto-Germanic *mora- (cognates: Old Saxon, Middle Dutch, Dutch meer "swamp," Old High German muor "swamp," also "sea," German Moor "moor," Old Norse mörr "moorland," marr "sea"), perhaps related to mere (n.), or from root *mer- "to die," hence "dead land." Moor (n.) "North African, Berber," late 14c., from Old French More, from Medieval Latin Morus, from Latin Maurus "inhabitant of Mauritania" (northwest Africa, a region now corresponding to northern Algeria and Morocco), from Greek Mauros, perhaps a native name, or else cognate with mauros "black" (but this adjective only appears in late Greek and may as well be from the people's name as the reverse). Being a dark people in relation to Europeans, their name in the Middle Ages was a synonym for "Negro;" later (16c.-17c.) used indiscriminately of Muslims (Persians, Arabs, etc.) but especially those in India.
  66. 66. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 63 Also related to: mere (n.) Old English mere "sea, ocean; lake, pool, pond, cistern," from Proto-Germanic *mari (cognates: Old Norse marr, Old Saxon meri "sea," Middle Dutch maer, Dutch meer "lake, sea, pool," Old High German mari, German Meer "sea," Gothic marei "sea," mari-saiws "lake"), from PIE *mori- "sea" (cognates: Latin mare, Old Church Slavonic morje, Russian more, Lithuanian mares, Old Irish muir, Welsh mor "sea," Gaulish Are-morici "people living near the sea"). morass (n.) "wet, swampy tract," 1650s, from Dutch moeras "marsh, fen," from Middle Dutch marasch, from Old French marais "marsh," from Frankish, possibly from West Germanic *marisk, from Proto-Germanic *mariskaz "like a lake," from *mari "sea" (see mere (n.)). The word was influenced in Dutch by moer "moor" (see moor (n.)). Figurative use is attested from 1867. Replaced earlier mareis (early 14c.; see marish). marish (n.) "a marsh," early 14c., mares, from Old French marois "marshland, bog" (12c., Modern French marais), from Frankish *marisk or some other Germanic source akin to marsh. marsh (n.) Old English mersc, merisc "marsh, swamp," from Proto-Germanic *marisko (cognates: Old Frisian and Old Saxon marsk "marsh," Middle Dutch mersch, Dutch mars, German Marsch, Danish marsk), probably from Proto-Germanic *mari- "sea" (see mere (n.)).
  67. 67. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 64 “Neil” ORIGINATED AS: meri (መሪ) leader, chief (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Niall - "champion" (see below) Neil surname and masc. proper name, from Gaelic/Old Irish Niall "champion." Picked up by the Vikings in Ireland (as Njall), brought by them to Iceland and Norway, thence to France, from which place it was introduced in England at the Conquest. Incorrectly Latinized as Nigellus on mistaken association with niger "black," hence Nigel. Nigel masc. proper name; see Neil. Niger A river in West Africa Niger river (means great river) https://quizlet.com/73991331/sub-saharan-africa-flash-cards/ Compare with: mmeri - "champion" (Igbo) nla - "great, large" (Yoruba) The Niger is called Jeliba or Joliba "great river" in Manding; Orimiri or Orimili "great water" in Igbo; Egerew n-Igerewen "river of rivers" in Tuareg; Isa Ber "big river" in Songhay; Kwara in Hausa; and Oya in Yoruba… The earliest use of the name "Niger" for the river is by Leo Africanus in his Della descrittione dell’Africa et delle cose notabili che iui sono published in Italian in 1550... Medieval European maps applied the name Niger to the middle reaches of the river, in modern Mali... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niger_River#Etymology
  68. 68. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 65 ORIGINATED AS: neAQ’i (ነዓቒ) superior, proud, vain (adj.) (Tigrigna) + liQ’ (ሊቅ) sage, scholar, learned, intellecual, expert (n.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Nicholas” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: nike "victory" (see below) + laikos "of the people"; scholars, especially schoolboys (see below) Nicholas masc. proper name, from French Nicolas, from Latin Nicholaus, Nicolaus, from Greek Nikholaos, literally "victory-people," from nike "victory" (see Nike) + laos "people" (see lay (adj.)). The saint (obit. 326 C.E.) was a bishop of Myra in Lycia, patron of scholars, especially schoolboys. A popular given name in England in Middle Ages, as was the fem. form Nicolaa, corresponding to French Nicole. Colloquial Old Nick "the devil" is attested from 1640s, evidently from the proper name, but for no certain reason. lay (adj.) "uneducated; non-clerical," early 14c., from Old French lai "secular, not of the clergy" (Modern French laïaut;que), from Late Latin laicus, from Greek laikos "of the people," from laos "people," of unknown origin. In Middle English, contrasted with learned, a sense revived 1810 for "non-expert."
  69. 69. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 66 “Oscar” ORIGINATED AS: gurado (ጉራዶ) sword (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gar - "spear" (see below) Oscar masc. proper name, Old English Osgar "god's spear," from gar "spear" (see gar) + os "god" (only in personal names); see Aesir. The statuette awarded for excellence in film acting, directing, etc., given annually since, 1928, first so called 1936. The name is said to have sprung from a 1931 remark by Margaret Herrick, secretary at Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, on seeing the statuette: "He reminds me of my Uncle Oscar." Thus the award would be named for Oscar Pierce, U.S. wheat farmer and fruit grower. gar (n.) pike-like fish, 1765, American English, shortening of garfish (mid-15c.), from fish (n.) + Middle English gare, gore "a spear," from Old English gar "spear," from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz "spear" (cognates: Old Norse geirr "spear; point of an anvil," Old Saxon, Old High German ger, German Ger "spear"), from PIE *ghaiso- "a stick, spear" (see goad (n.)). The fish so called for its long sharp snout. Compare Edgar, garlic.
  70. 70. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 67 ORIGINATED AS: feT'ere (ፈጠረ) create (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Patrick” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: fæder - "he who begets a child” (see below) Patrick masc. proper name, from Old Irish Patraicc (Irish Padraig), from Latin Patricius, literally "a patrician" (see patrician). As a given name, chiefly in northern England and Scotland, in Ireland only a popular name after 1600, due probably to the Scots settlers in Ulster. [Reaney] patrician (n.) early 15c., "member of the ancient Roman noble order," from Middle French patricien, from Latin patricius "of the rank of the nobles, of the senators; of fatherly dignity," from patres conscripti "Roman senators," literally "fathers," plural of pater "father" (see father (n.)). Contrasted, in ancient Rome, with plebeius. Applied to noble citizens and higher orders of free folk in medieval Italian and German cities (sense attested in English from 1610s); hence "nobleman, aristocrat" in a modern sense (1630s). As an adjective, attested from 1610s, from the noun. father (n.) Old English fæder "he who begets a child, nearest male ancestor;" also "any lineal male ancestor; the Supreme Being," and by late Old English, "one who exercises parental care over another," from Proto- Germanic *fader (cognates: Old Saxon fadar, Old Frisian feder, Dutch vader, Old Norse faðir, Old High German fatar, German vater; in Gothic usually expressed by atta), from PIE *pəter- "father" (cognates: Sanskrit pitar-, Greek pater, Latin pater, Old Persian pita, Old Irish athir "father"), presumably from baby-speak sound "pa." The ending formerly was regarded as an agent-noun affix.
  71. 71. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 68 “Paul” ORIGINATED AS: felaleye (ፈላለየ) separate (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: fylja - "not many, a small number; seldom, even a little" (see below) Paul masc. proper name, Biblical name of the apostle to the Gentiles, from Latin Paulum (nominative Paulus), Roman surname of the Aemilian gens, literally "small," from PIE *pau-ro-lo-, from base *pau- (1) "few, little" (see few). Other forms include Old French Pol, Italian Paolo, Spanish Pablo, Russian Pavel. few (adj.) Old English feawe (plural; contracted to fea) "not many, a small number; seldom, even a little," from Proto-Germanic *faw- (cognates: Old Saxon fa, Old Frisian fe, Old High German fao, Old Norse far, Danish faa). This is from PIE root *pau- (1) "few, little" (cognates: Latin paucus "few, little," paullus "little," parvus "little, small," pauper "poor;" Greek pauros "few, little," pais (genitive paidos) "child;" Latin puer "child, boy," pullus "young animal;" Oscan puklu "child;" Sanskrit potah "a young animal," putrah "son;" Old English fola "young horse;" Old Norse fylja "young female horse;" Old Church Slavonic puta "bird;" Lithuanian putytis "young animal, young bird"). Always plural in Old English, according to OED "on the analogy of the adverbial fela," meaning "many." Phrase few and far between attested from 1660s. Unusual ironic use in quite a few "many" (1854), earlier a good few (1803).
  72. 72. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 69 ORIGINATED AS: reji (ረጂ) aide, helper (n.) (Amarigna) + heyl (ኀይል)/hayli (ሓይሊ) strength, power, force (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Reynold” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ragin - "counsel, might" (see below) + hard - "strength" (see below) Reynold masc. proper name, from Old French Reinald (Modern French Renaut, Latinized as Reginaldus), a popular name among the Normans, from Old High German Reginald, the first element related to reckon, the second to Old English wealdan "to rule" (see wield). Related: Reynolds. reckon (v.) c. 1200, recenen, from Old English gerecenian "to explain, relate, recount," from Proto-Germanic *(ga)rekenojan (cognates: Old Frisian rekenia, Middle Dutch and Dutch rekenen, Old High German rehhanon, German rechnen, Gothic rahnjan "to count, reckon"), from Proto-Germanic *rakina- "ready, straightforward," from PIE *reg- "to move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "direct in a straight line, rule" (see regal). Intransitive sense "make a computation" is from c. 1300. In I reckon, the sense is "hold an impression or opinion," and the expression, used parenthetically, dates from c. 1600 and formerly was in literary use (Richardson, etc.), but came to be associated with U.S. Southern dialect and was regarded as provincial or vulgar. Related: Reckoned; reckoning. hard (adj.) Old English heard "solid and firm, not soft," also, "difficult to endure, carried on with great exertion," also, of persons, "severe, rigorous, harsh, cruel," from Proto-Germanic *hardu- (cognates: Old Saxon hard, Old Frisian herd, Dutch hard, Old Norse harðr "hard," Old High German harto "extremely, very," German hart, Gothic hardus "hard"), from PIE *kortu- (cognates: Greek kratos "strength," kratys "strong"), suffixed form of root *kar-/*ker- "hard."
  73. 73. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 70 “Richard” ORIGINATED AS: aleqa (Aለቃ) boss, supervisor, chief (n.) (Amarigna) + heyl (ኀይል)/hayli (ሓይሊ) strength, power, force (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: rik- "ruler" (see below) + hard - "strength" (see below) Richard masc. proper name, Middle English Rycharde, from Old French Richard, from Old High German Ricohard "strong in rule," from Proto-Germanic *rik- "ruler" (see rich) + *harthu "hard," from PIE *kar- o- (see hard (adj.)). "One of the most popular names introduced by the Normans. Usually Latinized as Ricardus, the common form was Ricard, whence the pet form Rick, etc." ["Dictionary of English Surnames"] rich (adj.) Old English rice "strong, powerful; great, mighty; of high rank," in later Old English "wealthy," from Proto-Germanic *rikijaz (cognates: Old Norse rikr, Swedish rik, Danish rig, Old Frisian rike "wealthy, mighty," Dutch rijk, Old High German rihhi "ruler, powerful, rich," German reich "rich," Gothic reiks "ruler, powerful, rich"), borrowed from a Celtic source akin to Gaulish *rix, Old Irish ri (genitive rig) "king," from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "direct, rule" (see rex). The form of the word was influenced in Middle English by Old French riche "wealthy, magnificent, sumptuous," which is, with Spanish rico, Italian ricco, from Frankish *riki "powerful," or some other cognate Germanic source. Old English also had a noun, rice "rule, reign, power, might; authority; empire." The evolution of the word reflects a connection between wealth and power in the ancient world. Of food and colors, from early 14c.; of sounds, from 1590s. Sense of "entertaining, amusing" is recorded from 1760. The noun meaning "the wealthy" was in Old English.
  74. 74. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 71 ORIGINATED AS: wruy (ውሩይ) famous (adjective) (Tigrigna) + bruh (ብሩህ) bright (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Robert” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hrod - "fame, glory" (see below) + beorht - "bright" (see below) Robert masc. proper name, from Old North French form of Old High German Hrodberht "bright-fame, bright with glory," from hrod- "fame, glory," from Proto-Germanic *hrothi-, + -berht "bright" (see Albert). The name of William the Conqueror's rebellious oldest son. "It was introduced by Normans during the reign of Edward the Confessor and became very popular" ["Dictionary of English Surnames"]. Albert masc. proper name, from German (the French form is Aubert), from Old High German Adalbert, cognate of Old English Æþelbeorht "Noble-bright" (which was sometimes metathesized as Æþelbriht, hence the surname Albright). Second element is from Proto-Germanic berhta- "bright," from PIE *bhereg- "to shine; bright, white" (see bright). It also figures in the names Egbert, Gilbert, Herbert, Hubert, Lambert. As a kind of watch chain, from 1861 (see Prince Albert). bright (adj.) Old English bryht, by metathesis from beorht "bright; splendid; clear-sounding; beautiful; divine," from Proto-Germanic *berhta- "bright" (cognates: Old Saxon berht, Old Norse bjartr, Old High German beraht, Gothic bairhts "bright"), from PIE root *bhereg- "to gleam, white" (cognates: Sanskrit bhrajate "shines, glitters," Lithuanian breksta "to dawn," Welsh berth "bright, beautiful"). Meaning "quick-witted" is from 1741.
  75. 75. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 72 “Roderick” ORIGINATED AS: wruy (ውሩይ) famous (adjective) (Tigrigna) + reji (ረጂ) aide, helper (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hruod - "fame, glory" (see below) + rikja - "counsel, might" (see below) Roderick also Roderic, masc. proper name, from Old High German Hroderich, literally "ruling in fame," from hruod- "fame, glory" + Proto-Germanic *rikja "rule" (see rich). Italian and Spanish Rodrigo, Russian Rurik are from German.
  76. 76. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 73 ORIGINATED AS: wruy (ውሩይ) famous (adjective) (Tigrigna) + gurado (ጉራዶ) sword (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Roger” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hruod - "fame, glory" (see below) + geri - "spear" (see below) Roger masc. proper name, from Old French Rogier, from Old High German Hrotger, literally "famous with the spear," from hruod- "fame, glory" + ger "spear" (see gar (n.)). As a generic name for "a person," attested from 1630s. gar (n.) pike-like fish, 1765, American English, shortening of garfish (mid-15c.), from fish (n.) + Middle English gare, gore "a spear," from Old English gar "spear," from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz "spear" (cognates: Old Norse geirr "spear; point of an anvil," Old Saxon, Old High German ger, German Ger "spear"), from PIE *ghaiso- "a stick, spear" (see goad (n.)). The fish so called for its long sharp snout. Compare Edgar, garlic.
  77. 77. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Male Names 74 “Roland” ORIGINATED AS: wruy (ውሩይ) famous (adjective) (Tigrigna) + lelna (ልእልና) sovereignty (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hruod - "fame, glory" (see below) + llan - "territory marked by political boundaries, nation, country" (see below) Roland masc. proper name, from French, from Old High German Hrodland, literally "(having a) famous land." As legendary nephew of Charlemagne, celebrated in "Chanson de Roland," c. 1300. His comrade was Oliver, hence a Roland for an Oliver (1610s) in expressions meaning "to give as good as one gets, tit for tat."

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