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PowerPoint presentation for the Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association and Taiwan Education Research Association Conference in Kaohsiung, Taiwan on 10 - 12 November, 2016.

Published in: Education
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  1. 1. Exploring the modelling of “inclusion” in a preservice teacher education programme in Aotearoa New Zealand Leechin Heng PhD Candidate, School of Educational Studies and Leadership, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association – Taiwan Education Research Association, November 10 – 12, 2016 National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Supervisors: Professor Missy Morton, Distinguished Professor Niki Davis & Associate Professor Rosemary Du Plessis What is ‘diversity’ and who defines ‘diversity’?
  2. 2. Introduction • Born in Malaysia • Doctoral candidate – University of Canterbury, New Zealand • Thesis focus – How do teacher educators construct and enact inclusion in a new, one year Master’s level pre-service teacher education programme.
  3. 3. • Qualitative research: - 13 months classroom observations - 1 focus group interview with teacher educators - 6 individual interviews with teacher educators Research process
  4. 4. New Zealand Ministry of Education request for proposals: - Intervention – develop a Master’s level programme in response to the increasingly diverse population in New Zealand - Goal – raise the academic achievement of ‘diverse’ learners in schools Background
  5. 5. Fieldnote, teacher educator: “The Ministry identified it’s the teachers who are the responsible holders to do this [inclusion], and this whole idea is why the Ministry is funding this project.” Addressing diversity – who is responsible?
  6. 6. Ahmed, S. (2012). On being included: racism and diversity in institutional life  Organisational ideals  Tokenistic  Feel-good rhetoric • A critique of ‘inclusion’
  7. 7. Interview, teacher educator: “If you look back at the long history of schooling, there is something schools are really effective at doing: A tinkering with things. Tinkering around the edges which is the easy stuff to do but actually what happens if you just tinker around the edges is that it doesn't really engage with the complexities of difference and the way that it [normalcy and social inequality] is reproduced in schooling.” Tinkering with things?
  8. 8. Interview, teacher educator: “I prefer to use the term ‘difference’ rather than ‘diversity,’ because often in inclusive education, diversity and inclusion means including and assimilating the ‘diverse other’ into the ‘norm.’” ‘Difference’ not ‘diversity’
  9. 9. Interview, teacher educator: “Inclusion means that you're included into something right? In my mind, you're included into the norm. So what that does is just reproduces the norm. Because inclusion involves moving [the diverse other] beyond inclusion to mean assimilation, right?” Inclusion as assimilation?
  10. 10. - A ‘bringing in’; in that it presupposes a whole into which something (or someone) can be incorporated. - …there is an implicit centred-ness to the term inclusion. - …privileges notions of the pre-existing by seeking to include the Other into a prefabricated, naturalised space. (p. 20, emphasis in original) Graham, L. J. (2006). Caught in the net: A Foucaultian interrogation of the incidental effects of limited notions of inclusion
  11. 11. Interview, teacher educator: “I think that's a really big issue because people don't live their lives in hierarchies and instalments. It’s not about: Let’s include the gay kids into the heterosexual norm. If the problem is the norm so why would you want to belong to the norm if you're not the norm?” The big issue(s)…
  12. 12. “When we talk of including, into what do we seek to include?” (Graham & Slee, 2006, p. 3) “We are still citing inclusion as our goal; still waiting to include, yet speaking as if we are already inclusive.” (Slee & Allan, 2001, p. 181) “To include is not necessarily to be inclusive.” (Graham & Slee, 2006, p. 3, emphasis in original). Included into what?
  13. 13. My reflections… • Inclusion – one-way street • The more I know, the more I don’t know
  14. 14. Emergent questions - How do teacher educators conceptualise and understand the current inclusive education system in which they and the preservice teachers are situated? - How teacher educators reconceptualise what inclusive education might mean (beyond tinkering around the edges)?
  15. 15. - How do teacher educators conceptualise their roles and enact inclusive practices with the preservice teachers to make that happen? - What are the relationship between the aspiration to include and the realisation of inclusion that is not normative assimilation? Continuing emergent questions
  16. 16. A positioned critique? My positioning: - Third generation, Chinese Malaysian, female, international student, middle class, wheelchair- user, yet-to-be identified identities - I don’t live (or want to live) in hierarchies and instalments or insert myself into the ‘norm’
  17. 17. Interview, teacher educator: “There's something different about doing something for the first time and having to try out these ideas and essentially doing it on the hoof which is really, really stressful.” Sitting on a plane as it is being built
  18. 18. • Ethnographic case study - Make the familiar, strange - Make the strange, familiar - Empathy and critique - Sitting on the plane while building it… Research “on the hoof”?
  19. 19. Thank you  Acknowledgements Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association & Taiwan Education Research Association We also acknowledge the Ngāi Tahu Educational Advisory Group for the MTchgLn programme and colleagues in the UC College of Education, Health and Human Development who are part of the MTchgLn development team and related research. The programme development has been a collaborative effort, and the structures developed for the operationalisation of the broad goal to prepare adaptive and action competent pre-service teachers reflects the knowledge and wisdom of the group. Leechin Heng, PhD Candidate School of Educational Studies and Leadership College of Education, Health and Human Development University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch
  20. 20. References Ahmed, S. (2012). On being included: racism and diversity in institutional life. London Duke University Press. Graham, L., & Slee, R. (2006). Inclusion? Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) 2006 Annual Conference, San Francisco. Graham, L. J. (2006). Caught in the net: a Foucaultian interrogation of the incidental effects of limited notions of inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(1), 3-25. Goodley, D., Lawthom, R., Clough, P., & Moore, M. (2004). Researching life stories: Method, theory and analyses in a biographical age. London: RoutledgeFalmer.