Structure leads to function


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Structure leads to function

  1. 1. Structure Leads to Function;The Cell Membrane<br />
  2. 2. The Words…<br />STRUCTURE: the shape, organization, <br /> and/or chemical makeup of an object<br />FUNCTION: what something does, its role<br />STRUCTURE always leads to FUNCTION!<br />
  3. 3. Familiar Examples…<br />Eating Utensils: Fork, Spoon, & Knife<br />These have distinct shapes that determine their use<br />
  4. 4. A few microscopic examples…<br />Microtubules<br />
  5. 5. A few microscopic examples…<br />Proteins… in all their variety<br />
  6. 6. Take Home Message?<br />STRUCTURE LEADS <br /> TO FUNCTION!!!!!<br />
  7. 7. The Plasma (cell) Membrane<br />Structure: Made up of a lipidbilayer, proteins, & cholesterol<br />
  8. 8. Plasma Membrane<br />Functions:<br />Forms the principle barrier between the inside of the cell and its environment<br />Protect the cell<br />Regulate traffic into and out of the cell<br />Support the creation of multiple concentration gradients and an electrostatic gradient between the inside and outside of the cell<br />Maintain the overall integrity of the cell, particularly in cold temperatures<br />
  9. 9. Structure of a Phospholipid<br />
  10. 10. Chemical Structure<br />The chemical makeup of a phospholipid causes multiple phospholipids to naturally align themselves in a characteristic bilayer shape (structure).<br />This is due to the chemical properties of the phospholipid: the polar,hydrophilic head and the hydrophobic tail<br />Function: hydrophilic region allows the plasma membrane to associate with water, other polar molecules, & hydrophilic proteins on the inside and outside of the cell <br />Function: hydrophobic region creates a hydrophobic barrier to keep out large and/or polar/hydrophilic molecules<br />
  11. 11. The Polar Head<br />Structure: The “head” has a positively charged nitrogen atom and a negatively charged oxygen <br />Function: The polarity of the head allows the membrane to associate easily with other polar molecules, such as H2O<br />
  12. 12. Cholesterol Functions<br />Function 1: Easily inserts into the plasma membrane between the tails of different phospholipids, thus filling in the gaps between phospholipids and helping to keep out other small molecules<br />Function 2: Pay attention… it stiffens the membrane at “normal” temperatures, but keeps the membrane fluid at cold temperatures<br />
  13. 13. Membrane Proteins<br />Have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, allowing them to associate with the plasma membrane in a variety of ways<br />Come in all different shapes and thus, perform many different functions<br />Specifically, help regulate traffic across the plasma membrane<br />
  14. 14. Types of Transport<br />There are 2 main categories of transport:<br /> Passive<br /> Active<br />
  15. 15. PASSIVE TRANSPORT<br />Does NOT require Energy<br />Gradient = “change in the value of a quantity (as temperature, pressure,or concentration) with change in a given variable and especially per unit on a linear scale” <br />
  16. 16. Facilitated Diffusion<br />A form of Passive Transport… <br />Facilitated: to help or allow<br />Channel proteins, <br />Along their concentration gradient<br />
  17. 17. Active Transport<br />Necessary when transporting a particle against (up) its concentration gradient<br />REQUIRES ENERGY<br />ATP<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. 5 levels of organization<br />1.) Protoplasmic organization <br />Unicellular organisms: protozoa <br />2.) Cellular Organization <br />Sponges <br />Cells that are functionally differentiated and exhibit a division of labor <br />3.) Tissue Level<br />Cells organized into layers which form tissue<br />
  20. 20. 4.) Organs <br />Composed of one or more tissues.<br />Have more specialized funtion than tissue<br />Flatworms: reproductive organs, eyespots, feeding structures <br />5.) System level <br />Organs work together to form systems: circulatory, digestive, reproductive, respiratory <br />
  21. 21. Types of tissue <br />Tissue: a group of similar cells specialized for the performance of a common function <br />
  22. 22. Epithelial tissue <br />Epithelial<br />Absorb: lining of small intestine <br />Transport: kidney tubules<br />Excrete: sweat glands<br />Protect: skin<br />Contain nerve cells for sensory info<br />Tastebuds <br />The structure relates to their function. <br />
  23. 23. Connective tissue <br />Connective <br />Support and bind <br />Distributed throughout an extracellular matrix <br />Loose connective tissue<br />Elastic <br />Binds skin to muscle<br />Fibrous connective tissue <br />Tendons (muscle to bone or other muscle)<br />Ligaments (bones to bones) <br />Adipose tissue: <br />Store lipids <br />Form fat <br />
  24. 24. Muscle tissue <br />Muscle Tissue <br />Allows movement <br />Skeletal<br />Smooth<br />Cardiac <br />
  25. 25. Nervous Tissue<br />Nervous Tissue <br />Impulse-conducting cells<br />Neurons <br />
  26. 26. Organs<br />Functional units of the body that are made up of more than one tissue <br />Heart<br />Lungs<br />Liver <br />Spleen <br />kidney<br />
  27. 27. Organ Systems<br />Group of organs that complete a function <br />Work together <br />Integumentary<br />Skeletal<br />Muscular<br />Nervous<br />Endocrine<br />Circulatory<br />Respiratory<br />Digestive<br />Reproductive <br />