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Macromolecule powerpoint


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Macromolecule powerpoint

  1. 1. Cellular Membranes (macromolecules = background information)
  2. 2. Vocab you need to know: <ul><li>FLASHCARDS: </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer: molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer </li></ul><ul><li>PREFIX SHEET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono: one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poly: many, more than one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Di: two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro: water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobic: afraid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philic: love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleo: nucleus </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. FLASH CARD ALERT <ul><li>MACROMOLECULE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A molecule containing a large amount of atoms. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Carbohydrates
  5. 5. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy for cellular respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural purposes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. carbohydrate <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically in a 1:2:1 ratio </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. FLASH CARD ALERT <ul><li>POLYSACCHARIDE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than two MONOSACCHARIDE combined through dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MONOSACCHARIDE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple sugar. Building blocks of more complex sugars: glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISACCHARIDE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sugar produced by two monosaccharide molecules as a result of dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Carbohydrate <ul><li>Monomer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides: glucose, frutose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polymer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides: glycogen (animal starch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants store excess sugar in starch </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Carbohydrate polysaccharide <ul><li>Chitin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard exterior shells of crabs and lobsters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides structure and durability in plants </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Fill out chart for carbohydrate
  11. 11. Lipids
  12. 12. Lipids <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling molecule </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. FLASH CARD ALERT <ul><li>HYDROPHOBIC: repels water </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROPHILIC: loves water </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lipids <ul><li>Important animal functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterproof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buoyant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulate: trap heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earwax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seaweed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blubber/fat </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. So do you think lipids are hydrophobic or hydrophilic? (is the oil in the beaker a lipid)
  16. 16. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly carbon and hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many lipids form when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Monomer/Polymer: None! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid base units are not considered to be monomers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Fill out chart for Lipids
  19. 20. Proteins
  20. 21. Proteins <ul><li>Function: essential part of all organisms, participate in every process in cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form bone and muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate cell processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in and out of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help fight disease </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Protein <ul><li>Monomer: amino acid </li></ul><ul><li>Polymer: amino acid chain </li></ul>
  22. 23. Proteins <ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form DNA </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Protein <ul><li>Structure: four levels of organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids can be twisted/folded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one chain folded around each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of Amino Acids that are linked by peptide bonds </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Fill out chart for Proteins
  25. 26. Nucleic Acids
  26. 27. Nucleic Acid <ul><li>Function: Store and transmit hereditary or genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, RNA </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Nucleic Acid <ul><li>Structure: consists of 3 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monomer: nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Polymer: polynucleotide, nucleic acid </li></ul>
  28. 29. Fill out chart for Nucleic Acid
  29. 30. FLASHCARD ALERT <ul><li>THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES ARE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate </li></ul></ul>