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Cell membranes


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Cell membranes

  1. 1. Cell MembranesOsmosis and Diffusion<br />
  2. 2. PREFIX – SUFFIX ADDITIONS <br />Hypo – under, beneath, lacking <br />Hyper – over, above, excess <br />Iso – equal <br />Tonic – stretching, tone <br />
  3. 3. Functions of Membranes<br />1. Protect cell<br />2. Control incoming and outgoing substances<br />Maintain ion concentrations of various substances<br />FLASH CARD ALERT!!! <br />4. SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE - allows some molecules in, others are kept out<br />
  4. 4. Phospholipid Bilayer<br />
  5. 5. Fluid Mosaic Model<br />
  6. 6. Solutions<br />Solutions are made of solute and a solvent<br />FLASH CARD ALERT!!!! <br />SOLVENT - the liquid into which the solute is poured and dissolved. We will use water as our solvent in Lab #4<br />SOLUTE - substance that is dissolved or put into the solvent. Salt and sucrose are solutes.<br />
  7. 7. Methods of Transport Across Membranes<br />1. Diffusion<br />2. Osmosis<br />3. Facilitated Diffusion<br />4. Active Transport<br />
  8. 8. FLASH CARD ALERT!!! <br />1. DIFFUSION -passive transport of molecules - no energy expended<br />2. OSMOSIS- Passive transport of WATER across membrane<br />3. FACILITATED DIFFUSION- Use of carrier proteins to carry polar molecules or ions across membrane<br />4. ACTIVE TRANSPORT requires energy to transport molecules AGAINST A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT. energy is in the form of ATP<br />
  9. 9. Where does that ATP come from? <br />
  10. 10. Diffusion<br />Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.<br />DIFFUSION = MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES<br />OSMOSIS = MOVEMENT OF WATER. <br />
  11. 11. Diffusion<br />
  12. 12. Facilitated Diffusion <br />
  13. 13. Passive – Does not require energy <br /> Uses carrier proteins <br />Molecules combine with carrier proteins. These molecules speed up the passage over the membrane. <br />Glucose<br />
  14. 14. Osmosis<br />
  15. 15. Tonicity is a relative term<br />FLASH CARD ALERT!!! <br />Hypotonic Solution - One solution has a lower concentration of solute than another.<br />Hypertonic Solution - one solution has a higher concentration of solute than another.<br />Isotonic Solution - both solutions have same concentrations of solute.<br />
  16. 16. Plant and Animal Cells put into<br /> various solutions<br />
  17. 17. Carrier Proteins <br />CARRIER PROTEINS – bind to a specific type of diffusing molecule. They have a highly specific hydrophilic region to which the solute molecule binds. This binding cause the protein to undergo a change in shape that moves the solute across the bilayer and release it on the other side<br />
  18. 18. Active Transport <br />Active transport is the transport of molecules by carrier proteins AGAINST a concentration gradient.<br />REQUIRES ENERGY IN THE FORM OF ATP<br />
  19. 19. Types of Transport<br />
  20. 20.<br />