The total range of linguistic resources
available to an individual or a community.
(range of regional, social, functional, and
(encompasses not only varieties of the
same language but also different
Do not have a perfect or nativelike
Might be called selective functionality
Language based on domain :
Languange levels in Javanese:
Pattern of Use
Asymmetri principle of multilingualism
= some languages are more valued
Ex. of Tulu Speakers
Although it is spoken by about two
millions persons, the Tulu language is
restricted in its functional range.
Kannada (local state language)
which serves as their mediumof
instruction through the secondary
- as the languageof education
administration commerce, media,
literature, regional identity, and
Ferguson = to the specialization of two
varieties of the same language.
- variety as high (H)
- variety as low (L)
Ex. In Arab classical Arabic as (H),
colloquial Arabic as (L)
In Switzerland standar Zerman
Swiss German (L)
Ex. of Arabic, Shows that H is
Church, Mosque sermons, political
speeches, university lecturer, news
broadcasts, newspaper editorials, and
L variety is used
For giving instructions to waiters,
servants, clerks, personal letters, in
conversations with friends and family,
When two or more languages exist in a
community, speakers frequently
switch from one language to another.
• Situational code switching
The switch is in response to a change
• Metaphorical code switching
The switch has a stylistic or textual
Oberwaert, an Austrian town.
- German language (H)
- Hungarian (L)
grandfather is calling his two
grandchildren to come and help him.
Grandfather : Szo ! Ide dzsiini ! Jeszt
(Well, come here! Out all this way ! )
Mind e kettuotok, not hat akkor ! ( both of
you, well now ! )
Kum here ! Nem koapsz vascsorat !
( come here ! You don’t get supper ! )
The grandfather first calls his
grandchildren in Hungarian, but when
they do not answer him, he switches
to german. Since the German
Language is associated with more
formal settings, it gives the
grandfather’s word more force.
Is there code switching or code
For example: Hindi-English
“Dial enumber naa, n’uniform’en Mr.Oseni ighe
approve encontraacti nii ne. But khamaa ren ighe
o gha ye necessary n’o submit-e photostat copies
oghe estimate n’o ka ya apply a ke pa ere. You
(“Dial this number, and inform Mr oseni that we
approved the contact already. But tell him that it
will still be necessary for him to submit photostat
copies of estimate that he firts applied with before
we pay him. You understand?”)
Is there code switching or code
For example: English/Italics
Sarah : I think everyone is here except Mere.
John : She said she might be abit late but
actually I think that’s her arriving now.
Sarah : You’re right. Kia ora Mere. Haere
mai, kei tapehen koe? (hi mere, come
in how are you?)
Mere : Kia ora e hoa. Kei te pai. Have you
started yet? (hello my friend. I’m fine)
Implications for Language
1. Revise their attitude to the status of
2. The other language is additive not replacive.
3. Unnecessary to expect like native
competence ( style, function) but english as
what learners’ need to learn.
4. Teachers need to be familiar with the other
language in the learners’ repertoires
5. For teacher, mix code is appropriate for in
group but monolingual is just for monolingual
6. Multilingualism is not only a division of labor
but also a great deal of give and take