Part Five:
‘Documentation Report:
     Upper Works,
  Adirondack Iron and
    Steel Company,’
   by Wesley Haynes
        ...
Documentation Report:
Upper Works,
Adirondack Iron and Steel Company
Newcomb, Essex County, New York

Prepared for:
Town o...
Executive summary
     The Upper Works of the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company, in the Town of
Newcomb, New York, has bee...
Introduction
      At the request of the Town of Newcomb Historical Society, the “Documentation Report:
Upper Works, Adiro...
1. Historic context
Overview
     Few sites better embody the diverse history of the Adirondacks than the Upper Works
of t...
Phase II: 1857-1876 “Deserted Village”
Phase III:1876-1947 Preston Ponds/Adirondack/Tahawus Club
Phase IV:1947-1992 Nation...
III-B 1899-1920: Tahawus Club. First phase of private cottage construction, several
      buildings replaced and/or incorp...
Chronology of development
                                and use of the site
Phase I. Adirondac[k] Iron and Steel Company...
1831    Six tons of ore drawn out along the Cedar Point Road [Masten, 1923].
1832    Active development commences. Site of...
Proprietors discouraged by quantities (¾ ton to 1 ton per week) produced; A.
           McIntyre proposes to D. McMartin o...
“At this place there are three families, a forge, a sawmill, about one-hundred fifty
          acres of clearing, and some...
old Boarding house
               2 Barns
               Forge & Furnace” [10]
1848       Beginning of peak years at works...
6 Coal Houses
              1 Long Wood house
              1 Store for merchandize
              1 Ice house
            ...
Phase II. “Deserted Village” (1857 - 1876)
1858       A. McIntyre and Robertson die.
1859       Directors of the Adirondac...
1865       Durant commences construction of the Adirondack Railroad at Saratoga
           [Hochschild].
1869       “The c...
1841-2 Piseco Lake Trout or Trout Club organized.
           A touring party visiting Adirondack catches twenty-seven trou...
village … in the midst of wild and picturesque scenery” convenient to Lake
        Henderson, Preston Ponds, Lake Harkness...
Honorary Members (1877-1884) included Spencer Fullerton Baird, the first head
           of the United States Fish Commiss...
Club House “painted and renovated throughout, and piazza enlarged.” [Masten
            (ADV 181)] “The building is now oc...
by Indian pass, or vice versa, usually find the way too long for a single day, but
           breaking the trip at the Upp...
•   Abbott-Geer-Nichols-Lockwood cottage, adjacent to the Crocker
                premises, built by Gordon Abbott of Bost...
1907       MacIntyre Iron Company builds Foote cottage on east side of Lake Sanford for
           use of company official...
1906-09 Magnetic surveys of ore bodies conducted, followed by “considerable” diamond
        drilling.
1908     Rossi disc...
[2] Henry Dornburgh, “Why the Wilderness is Called Adirondack” (Glens Falls: 1885)
[TDV 336-351].
      [3] Village of Adi...
2. Site survey
Overview
     The site surveyed for this study is located along a road beginning at the New Furnace
and ter...
Saw mill (by 1832)
     Location: Adjacent to river.
     Description: This or a later replacement structure was a one-sto...
Stables/Barns (begun by 1832)
     Location: Barn complex appears to have been located on east side of street, across
from...
Daniel McMartin house (1834)
   Notes: This is probably the McMartin/McIntyre, aka, Proprietor’s and/or
MacNaughton House....
In 1845, the hearth was possibly modified, “and is altogether more substantial than
anything which had been in the furnace...
Description: Unknown.
      Notes: Possibly John Cheney house.
      Sources: 1840 inventory.

Carpenter’s shop (by 1840)
...
contained nearly one-hundred readable books which were well thumbed.” [3] By 1873,
“the steps … rotted and fallen, the win...
Andrew Porteous’s sketch, notes, “Plan of houses for Adirondack”



Church of Tubal-Cain (by 1854)
     Location: On north...
•   Tool House
    •   3 Coal Kilns
    •   Long Wood house
    •   Ice house
    •   Powder house
    •   Building with S...
464   ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
DESCRIPTION OF SURVIVING BUILDINGS AND FEATURES
    The surviving buildings are listed numerically by the numbers assigned...
BUILDING #1A — PUMP HOUSE

    This small pump house appears to have been constructed during Phase IV. The
building contai...
COTTAGE # 1/1B — COE-EDMONDS-WILLIAMS-FERRIS COTTAGE (CA. 1899)

    The Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage, which appear...
2”x rafter tails in lower eaves of core and annex. Raking eaves are faced with a running-
molded eaves board in core.
    ...
Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris Cottage (#1/1B) roof plan




Photo 42. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1),
   ...
Photo 43. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1/1B),
                          view from south-southwest (Decem...
Photo 45. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1/1B),
               view from southwest (May 1991).




 Photo ...
Photo 47. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1),
                            view from northeast (December 199...
Photo 49. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1B),
 detail of wall construction, southeast corner (December 199...
COTTAGE #2 — JENNINGS-GEER-RIVES COTTAGE (CA. 1899)

     The Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage, located on the east bank of the...
Jennings-Geer-Rives Cottage (#2) roof plan




Photo 50. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2)
 view across river from ...
Photo 51. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2)
                       view across river of south facade (December 1993...
Photo 53. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2)
view across river of annex from southwest (December 1993)




         ...
COTTAGE #3 — W.R.K. TAYLOR JR. COTTAGE (1932)

    The W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage is the best-preserved of the three exampl...
2. Floor is rotted adjacent to open west wall and below roof leaks.
     3. Roof is open to the weather in numerous areas ...
Photo 92. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3),
                              view from northwest (December 1993)




 ...
Photo 94. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3),
              view from southeast (May, 1991)




      Photo 96. W.R.K...
Photo 95. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3),
      detail of deteriorated wall in recessed entrance, view from south...
COTTAGE #4 — TAYLOR COTTAGE
                       aka “Mrs. Taylor’s cottage,” “Lazy Lodge”
                   (begun 189...
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Annals of the Deserted Village (Part 4)

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ANNALS contains all of the important 20th century summaries, surveys and studies of the McIntyre iron settlement and the old Tahawus Club colony in Newcomb township, Essex County, New York. PART FOUR includes Wesley Haynes' 1994 documentation report on the Adirondack Iron & Steel Company site (including his extensive documentation photos of all the buildings then standing on the site), PLUS five site visit reports by Richard Sanders Allen (1968), Victor Rolando (1974), Doris Vanderlip Manley (1976), Duncan Hay (1978) and James P. Gold et al. (1989).

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Annals of the Deserted Village (Part 4)

  1. 1. Part Five: ‘Documentation Report: Upper Works, Adirondack Iron and Steel Company,’ by Wesley Haynes (1994)
  2. 2. Documentation Report: Upper Works, Adirondack Iron and Steel Company Newcomb, Essex County, New York Prepared for: Town of Newcomb Historical Society Newcomb, New York Prepared by: Wesley Haynes, Consultant Technical Assistance Center Preservation League of New York State Albany, New York March 1994 This report was made possible, in part, with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts.
  3. 3. Executive summary The Upper Works of the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company, in the Town of Newcomb, New York, has been recognized as significant in the development of the American steel industry since the works ceased operation in the mid-19th century. With the important exceptions of the McIntyre-McMartin House,1 the “New” Blast Furnace, and as yet unknown archaeological potential, the built environment of the early 19th century industrial village at the Upper Works was replaced with the existing late 19th and early 20th century cottages of a private sports fishing and game preserve. Today, it is the modest and deteriorated architecture of the Tahawus Club that establishes the sense of place at the Upper Works. Apart from Arthur Masten’s anecdotal history, “Tahawus Club” (1935), the significance of this phase of use has been largely overlooked and not well understood. The existing cottages, most of which were constructed around the turn of the 20th century, post-date the establishment of the Tahawus Club’s institutional progenitor and first private preserve in the Adirondacks, the Preston Ponds Club. Unlike contemporary cottages built at other private recreational clubs in the Adirondacks where hunting and fishing were the focal activities, the cottages of the Tahawus Club are visually accessible to the public due to their location at the trailhead to Mt. Marcy. Together, industrial and recreational interpretation of the site holds great potential. This report inventories known buildings and features at the site and offers a preliminary assessment of the potential for preservation and/or restoration of the surviving features. The report references primary source material, and integrates and updates previous studies of the site, including Masten’s “The Story of Adirondac” (1923), the Adirondack Iron & Steel Co. Recording Project prepared by the Historic American Engineering Record (1978), and an assessment report prepared by the Bureau of Historic Sites, New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation in 1989. Based upon observations of conditions at the site, structural and other problems are present in each building, but most of the buildings are not beyond repair. While preservation of the McIntyre-McMartin House and “New” Blast Furnace are desirable regardless of use, the report suggests that cottages in repairable condition be stabilized to allow for future rehabilitation contingent upon use. 1 Today known as the MacNaughton Cottage. 433
  4. 4. Introduction At the request of the Town of Newcomb Historical Society, the “Documentation Report: Upper Works, Adirondack Iron and Steel Company” was prepared as the final product of a research and field study by the Technical Assistance Center of the Preservation League of New York State. The goal of this study has been to collect information pertaining to the physical characteristics of the site known as McIntyre, Adirondac[k], Upper Works, and the Preston Ponds/Adirondack/Tahawus/Upper Works Club, from 1826 to the present. The specific objectives have been to identify and document, where possible, the original dates of construction, uses, forms, plans and finishes of vanished and surviving structures, and to inventory and assess the integrity of surviving buildings and features and their potential for preservation and/or restoration. The first task has been to compile, review and integrate the substantial body of work previously written about this important site, in particular, the iron works phase. Of this, the major sources distilled have been the two books about the Upper Works by Arthur Masten. “The Story of Adirondac” (1923) and “The Tahawus Club” (1935), have served as useful guides and appear to be generally accurate, but as they were written for other purposes, they contain several gaps central to the objectives of this report and are not comprehensively referenced. The McIntyre papers in the collection at the Adirondack Museum contain a substantial amount of information not available to or unused by Masten. Additional primary and manuscript materials have been reviewed in the collections of the New York Historical Society and the Jersey City Public Library. This report starts with an overview of the site development, subdividing it into four major historical phases, and additional sub-phases. This is followed by a chronology of events, outlining the site development and occupancy with reference to vanished and surviving buildings and features. It includes all institutional and construction events encountered in research, and select personal and contextual events. As little pictorial evidence has surfaced, an attempt has been made to broaden the network of documented visitors to the site, especially prominent artists and writers, who may have sketched or described the site in manuscript materials available in accessible collections. These individuals are listed in the appendix. Catalogued maps in the collection of the Adirondack Museum have been reviewed and referenced, but additional photographs in private collections of members of the Tahawus Club have yet to be identified or reviewed. Fieldwork, conducted during the first two weeks of December 1993, included a visual survey of all exteriors and typical and accessible interiors, inspection of substrates/framing details where visible, preparation of sketch roof plans, 35mm photography, and an assessment of general conditions. Preliminary options for stabilization and recommendations for future research conclude the report. The report was prepared by Wesley Haynes, Consultant, working with the Preservation League of New York State. In addition to writing, Mr. Haynes was responsible for fieldwork, building examination, photography and most of the research. Additional research assistance was provided by Brad Edmondson. The report was coordinated by Tania Werbizky, Director of Technical Services for the Preservation League. Helena Wood prepared the final document. This report was made possible, in part, with public funds provided by the Architecture, Planning and Design Program of the New York State Council on the Arts to the Town of Newcomb Historical Society. 434
  5. 5. 1. Historic context Overview Few sites better embody the diverse history of the Adirondacks than the Upper Works of the former Adirondack Iron and Steel Company. During the course of the 165 years following the first documented human intervention, the sequential uses of the site encompass and played a catalytic role in the thematic pattern of the Adirondacks in general. From 1826 to 1857, the Upper Works developed into a small industrial village, established at the source of the iron ore. Between 1848 and 1857, pig iron puddled with wood and hammered into bars at the Upper and Lower Works was shipped to Jersey City and converted to blister steel, considered to be the finest produced in the United States. In the process of surveying the site to discover its industrial potential, the proprietors of the works sponsored the New York Natural History Survey, which used the works in 1837 as the base camp for the first scientific exploration of the Adirondack interior. The discoveries of the Survey, regarded today as significant within the development of systematic natural science, inadvertently attracted the first wave of journalists and artists by publishing the first images and reports of the High Peaks wilderness, an area virtually unknown to the world outside at this time. By the 1860s, sportsmen and tourists were attracted to the area by journalistic accounts, often spectacular in nature, of fishing, hunting and scenic wonders. Although operations at the works had by then ceased, the “deserted” or “ruined” village itself had become a picturesque curiosity. By the late 1860s, conservation-minded sportsmen who enjoyed the Adirondacks grew concerned about the impact of unbridled and overzealous hunting and fishing on game resources. When it was founded in 1876, the Preston Ponds Club, while not the first sporting organization established in the Adirondacks, appears to have been the first association in the region to articulate an objective of game management by posting and controlling a preserve. From 1876 until 1947, the former industrial village served as the club headquarters of the Preston Ponds Club and its successors, the Adirondack Club and Tahawus Club. Initially, the buildings of the village were selectively adapted or demolished; by the turn of the [20th] century, most earlier dwellings had been replaced with club cottages. Ruins of significant masonry features coexisted with the club buildings throughout its occupation. Renewed interest in mining at the site was rekindled in the early 20th century when industrial uses for titanium were being developed, but actual mining did not recommence until 1941. A new site for a village was selected on Sanford Lake between the Upper and Lower Works. The Club’s lease at the Upper Works was not renewed in 1947. The buildings were subsequently winterized and used year-round by National Lead [until they were abandoned in 1963]. Mining operations continued until 1982; [all operations ceased in 1989]. Phases of Development and Use/Historic Themes and Events Four major phases are evident upon review of the chronology of the site’s development: Phase I: 1826-1857 Adirondac[k] Iron and Steel Company Upper Works 435
  6. 6. Phase II: 1857-1876 “Deserted Village” Phase III:1876-1947 Preston Ponds/Adirondack/Tahawus Club Phase IV:1947-1992 National Lead/Kronos Phase I. 1826-1857 Adirondac[k] Iron and Steel Company, aka Newcomb’s farm, McIntyre[s], Adirondac[k] The site is developed from virgin forest into a small industrial village surrounded by open, clear-cut pastures and fields over a thirty-one year period. Sub-phases: I-A 1826-1832: Discovery and Exploration phase. No major construction apart from “iron” dam. Proprietors camp in tents and/or impermanent shanties on early surveying visits. I-B 1833-1837: Infrastructure phase. Preliminary construction including roadwork, sawmill, first forge, clearing for agriculture, and other support structures. Log boarding house and McMartin/McIntyre house built. Geological exploration begun. I-C 1838-1847: Henderson/Tahawus phase. Geological exploration continues; equipment developed to extract ore for remote testing. After 1848, pig iron puddled with wood at Adirondack and formed into bars under a hammer was shipped to Jersey City and converted to blister steel. Primary developments during this period were at the Lower Works, but a new boarding house, school house and several dwellings were built at the Upper Works. I-D 1848-1857: Peak years at Upper Works. By end of period, approximately 25 dwellings, 3 furnaces, and numerous support structures at village. Themes: industry, scientific exploration, agriculture Events: New York Natural History Survey (1837) Phase II. 1857-1876 “Deserted Village” aka “ruined village” The Upper Works is virtually abandoned, save for the [Robert] Hunter [1857-1872] and [John] Moore [1872-1877] families, hired as caretakers subsisting on farming, hunting and fishing. Buildings and structures generally decay; ruined new furnace is highlighted in several guidebooks as a picturesque attraction; vacant dwellings informally used for lodging visiting sportsmen, writers and curiosity seekers. Themes: recreation, subsistence agriculture Phase III. 1876-1947 Preston Ponds/Adirondack/Tahawus Club The Upper Works was used as the headquarters of a private fishing and hunting preserve for 71 years. The Preston Ponds Club, founded in 1876 with the stated objectives of “protection, increase and capture of fish and game,” appears to have established the earliest documented preserve in the Adirondacks by leasing the former property of the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company. Sub-phases: III-A 1876-1897: Preston Ponds/Adirondack Club. Minor repairs made to the major buildings at the Upper Works, at least one building, the Clubhouse Annex, “reconstructed,” and some vacant houses occupied, but by 1889, most earlier construction allowed to deteriorate and/or demolished. First private cottages and outlying camps constructed by end of period. 436 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  7. 7. III-B 1899-1920: Tahawus Club. First phase of private cottage construction, several buildings replaced and/or incorporated earlier structures by 1905. III-C 1921-1947: Tahawus Club. Characterized by attrition of holdings through sale to lumbering interests, acquisition by the state, and sale to National Lead. Some additional cottages added to village in the 1930s. Themes: recreation, resource conservation. Events: Theodore Roosevelt visit (III-B). Phase IV. 1947 to present, National Lead/Kronos The buildings at the Upper Works are used for a period [until 1963] to house workers at the Lake Sanford titanium mines. Theme: industry UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 437
  8. 8. Chronology of development and use of the site Phase I. Adirondac[k] Iron and Steel Company Upper Works (1826 - 1857) Background and antecedents ca. 1800 Town of North Elba first settled. 1801 First iron works in Essex County, designed to fabricate anchors, is erected on shore of Lake Champlain in Willsboro Falls by Levi Highboy and George Throop [Watson, p. 438]. 1809 Archibald McIntyre and Malcolm McMartin erect a forge along the headwaters of the Ausable River, commencing the “Elba Iron Works.” 1815 Elba Iron Works abandoned due to inferior quality of local ore and cost of shipping better ore in from Clinton County.2 1816 Town of Newcomb first settled on or near the shores of Newcomb Lake and Lake Harris [Smith, p.642 (see TDV 381-391)]. I-A. (1826 - 1832): Discovery and exploration 1826 A prospecting party looking for silver is shown an iron ore deposit by an Abenaki named Lewis Elijah. Party comprised of Malcolm McMartin, Duncan McMartin Jr. of Broadalbin, John McD. McIntyre, David Henderson of Jersey City, Dyer Thompson, and Enoch, a servant. Archibald McIntyre and prospectors begin to invest in property [Hochschild]. [Note: Dornburgh’s statement (p. 4 [TDV 337]) that A. McIntyre and D. McMartin “commenced operations in 1826 at this new field by erecting a forge and building suitable for separating ore, and also erected a log building to accommodate their men” is not substantiated in subsequent histories and appears to be inaccurate.] 1826-27 McIntyre and associates begin purchase of 105,000-acre holdings [Hochschild]. 1828 Duncan McMartin, then a State Senator, promotes legislation to appoint commission to survey and construct a road from Cedar Point (Port Henry) through Moriah and Newcomb to the western edge of Essex County [Hochschild]. 1830 Eight families permanently settled in what is the Town of Newcomb. Cedar Point Road construction in progress and a few acres cleared near ore beds. A. McIntyre, D. McMartin, Henderson and Randolph Taylor from Pennsylvania, possibly a prospective contractor, visit site, guided by Iddo Osgood of North Elba, one of the commissioners for laying out the new road. Party camps near site of future boarding house [Masten, 1923]. 2 According to Mary MacKenzie (ADV 26-37), the Elba Works continued operating until 1817. 438
  9. 9. 1831 Six tons of ore drawn out along the Cedar Point Road [Masten, 1923]. 1832 Active development commences. Site of works surveyed and located by D. McMartin after June. McIntyre describes mine as “Mammoth Ore Bed,” and reports “saw mill (in operation), the erection of a two-story log house (well finished for the country), a forge for a hammer & two fires (nearly finished) and a coal house, with a blacksmith shop, and some little stabling,” present by October [Hochschild]. Cholera epidemic in upstate New York; labor hard to obtain. A. McIntyre visits site in November [Masten, 1923]. I-B. (1833-1837): Infrastructure & experiments (McMartin period) 1833 A. McIntyre lists planned work in January 2 letter to D. McMartin, including: l. dam Lake Henderson; 2. road from works to State Road; 3. clear and cultivate; 4. build good store with counting room and bed room or rooms; 5. enquire about Doolittle’s Patent Kiln for Charcoal; 6. survey route of road to Clear Pond and estimate cost; 7. keep 2 men blasting; 8. put boarding house in complete repair, adding a kitchen, cellar; 9. keep sawmill at work; … 12. get sufficient number of Bloomers; 13. make a good road up Main Street. A. McIntyre refers to Upper Works as “McIntyre” in letter to D. McMartin on February 16; name continues to be used to around 1848 [Masten 1923]. Henderson reports to A. McIntyre on September 8: “I found the place [iron works] very much altered in appearance for the better — an excellent road from the landing to the settlement, and a straight level street from the house to the saw mill, good and dry, nearly completed.” 1834 D. McMartin’s health fails, sends son Daniel to works to continue his work, and invalid son Archibald to works for his health. A. McMartin reports to D. McMartin on June 23 that “they have got up the frame for a plain dwelling house on the opposite side of the road from the lime kiln, and have got up part of the store frame and will raise the whole building tomorrow or next day. ... Daniel has not moved into his house yet, but still lives in the south end of the Large boarding house. The house will not be ready before the first or middle of next week. The second coat of paint was put on, on Saturday. ... The boarding house is kept very well indeed under the superintendence of Mr. and Mrs. Wilder.” UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 439
  10. 10. Proprietors discouraged by quantities (¾ ton to 1 ton per week) produced; A. McIntyre proposes to D. McMartin on September 9 that the company’s assets be liquidated. [1] 1836 William C. Redfield exploration of ironworks property under leadership of D. McMartin; party included Henderson, David C. Colden of Jersey City, Abraham van Santvoord, Ebenezer Emmons, a geologist, and James Hall, probably Emmons’ assistant. 1837 Puddling furnace built [Hochschild]. A. McIntyre helps organize visit of members of New York Natural History Survey. In June, Charles Cromwell Ingham, assigned as illustrator to the Survey, writes to colleague Thomas Cole, “I hope to be able to join a party that is going to McIntyre’s settlement. … A good deal of time we will camp out, as there is but one house on the place.” Members of the Survey, led by Emmons and including Hall, Redfield, Henderson, and Ebenezer Emmons Jr., make first recorded ascent of Mt. Marcy on August 5. D. McMartin dies October 3. McMartin interest in works, disposed of prior to death, is transferred to A. McIntyre’s nephew, Archibald Robertson of Philadelphia. Henderson also becomes proprietor and takes charge of mining operation, with Andrew Porteous appointed superintendent. [1]. I-C. (1838-1851): Growth (Henderson/Porteous period) 1838 “Old” blast furnace built near the head of the village street, a short distance from the iron dam [Hochschild]. 1839 Adirondack Iron and Steel Company incorporated [Hochschild], with A. McIntyre, Henderson, Robertson, Peter McMartin, and Luke Hemenway, directors. Adirondack Railroad incorporated. Railroad not built [Hochschild]. Emmons begins a detailed geological survey of property in May. Blast furnace built during the previous year does not work properly. Stone masonry proves costly to build and maintain, but weather does not permit Porteous to commence brickmaking [A.McI. to A.P., August 1, September 27, and December 19]. 1840 A. McIntyre directs Porteous to sled in bricks to rebuild furnace in March. Prospectus in Emmons geological report describes village of McIntyre: “Five comfortable dwelling houses (one of them is used as a boarding house, and can accommodate a family, and 30 boarders), a store-house, a blacksmith and carpenter’s shops, two barns, &c., &c., a good saw-mill, a forge with two fires and one trip hammer, and coal houses;” (100,000 bushels of charcoal capacity) present [Hochschild]. 1841 Brick-making commences at Adirondac. 440 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  11. 11. “At this place there are three families, a forge, a sawmill, about one-hundred fifty acres of clearing, and some fifteen men making brick and farming, etc.” at Adirondac [N.J. Beach to Emily (Beach), June 14]. 1843 East branch of Hudson is diverted into west branch to provide adequate water supply for Adirondac [Porter]. 1844 Second blast furnace built six miles south of McIntyre;3 McIntyre now sometimes called “Upper Works,” while new area called Lower Works [Hochschild]. Colden visits works with English actor William Charles Macready. 1845 Tilting hammer and other equipment to work steel into small bars probably installed [Hochschild]. Joseph Dixon becomes interested in McIntyre iron [Masten, 1923]. Henderson killed, September 3. 1846 Nails are inventoried in list of supplies brought to Adirondac. 1847 A. McIntyre writes, possibly referring to Adirondac, of “Shanties, which will be required for the large number of men, who will be employed during the summer may be covered with bark in May, but the two first mentioned must be covered with boards. … I suggest pine for clapboards and spruce for timbers” [A.McI. to A.P., February 12]. Pixley, or Pickslay, an English steel manufacturer from the Sheffield works, visits site, tests ore, and suggests name “Tahawus” for Lower Works [A.McI. to A.P., May 12, referenced in Masten 1935]. McIntyre Bank is in operation [A.McI. to A.P., November 10]. New Boarding House (later Club House) constructed. Draft specifications call for it to measure 50 x 37 feet, with a 22 x 18 foot kitchen. Staircase had been specified to have been built of St. Domingo mahogany, which was crossed out and written over “walnut” [Masten 1935]. Painting invoice September 16 identifies following buildings at “Adirondac”: Boarding House School House Store House opposite Old Blacks. Shop Cheney house Beedy house Snyder house Kellog house Andrew Porteous house Sargent house 3 The 1844 furnace was a replacement for an 1838 furnace; it was built at the Upper Works, not “six miles south of McIntyre (i.e., the Upper Works).” UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 441
  12. 12. old Boarding house 2 Barns Forge & Furnace” [10] 1848 Beginning of peak years at works. Sackets Harbor and Saratoga Railroad Company chartered, with a branch line to mine planned. Although not built, improvements stimulated at Upper Works [Hochschild]. Post Office established, and McIntyre formally renamed Adirondac. [Masten 1935] Adirondack Steel Manufacturing Company erects steel manufacturing plant in Jersey City, producing blister steel from charcoal pig iron from McIntyre [Hochschild]. 1850 Adirondack Iron and Steel Company reorganized, retaining name [Hochschild]. 1851 Adirondack Iron and Steel Company awarded gold medal in London for first steel of American manufacture [Masten 1923]. 1851 “Advantages of the Works and Property of the Adirondac Iron & Steel Co.” (Philadelphia: Howell Evans, 1851) [AML], a prospectus, is published. Describes village (Adirondac, Adirondack and McIntyre used variously within report), includes “a large, new and admirably located smelting furnace, built in the most substantial and approved manner, with all the modern improvements — besides the old furnace, a forge, cupola furnace, saw mill, and mill for pounding the ore — three large charring ovens, five coal houses, storehouse, shops, a large boarding house, about twenty-five dwelling houses, school house, barns, stables, wharves, boats, &c., &c. There are about 500 acres of land cleared and under cultivation.” 1854 “The Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New-York” (New York: W.E. & J. Sibell, 1854) [AML], a second prospectus, is published. Inventories assets at the Upper Works as follows: 1 Cupola Furnace 1 Blast Furnace 1 Forge and Puddling Furnace 1 Stamping Mill 1 Mill for driving small machinery 1 Saw Mill 1 Grist Mill, or Mill for grinding food 1 hay Scales 2 Kilns for “roating” [roasting] ore 1 Brick House 1 Granary 1 Tool House 1 Blacksmith shop 1 Carpenter shop 3 Coal Kilns 442 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  13. 13. 6 Coal Houses 1 Long Wood house 1 Store for merchandize 1 Ice house 1 Powder house 1 Large Boarding house 16 Dwelling houses for workmen 1 School House 3 Large Barns several Cow Stables and Cattle Sheds 1 Piggery 1 Building with Steaming apparatus 1 Blast Furnace, just completed 36 feet square, 48 feet high; a new wheel house, carpenter shop, and two large coal houses are connected to it. At “Tahawas” (located about 11 miles south, aka Lower Works), the 1854 prospectus inventories the following assets: 1 Warehouse for merchandize Iron Warehouse 1 Blacksmith shop 1 Saw Mill 1 Large Boarding house, with large Barn and Sheds 3 Dwelling houses for workmen 1 School house 1 Lime Kiln I-D. (1852- 1857): Decline and abandonment 1852 Alexander Ralph, a relative of Henderson, succeeds Porteous as Superintendent. 1853 Property purchased by syndicate led by Benjamin C. Butler, a lumberman from Luzerne [Masten 1923]. 1855 Butler syndicate defaults; property reverts to McIntyre et al. [Masten 1923]. 1856 Dam at Adirondac and sawmill at Tahawus destroyed by Hudson River flooding [Hochschild].4 1857 Panic of 1857. Works apparently shut down [Hochschild]. Sackets Harbor and Saratoga Railroad Company reorganized as the Lake Ontario and Hudson River Railroad Company [Hochschild]. 4 Seely provided documentary evidence that the 1856 date for the catastrophic flood was in error. The documentary evidence gives a date of October 1857. See the note at the front of this volume. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 443
  14. 14. Phase II. “Deserted Village” (1857 - 1876) 1858 A. McIntyre and Robertson die. 1859 Directors of the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company meet in April and appoint a committee comprised of James R. Thompson, Oliver S. Strong and J. McD. McIntyre to look after company affairs, with Thompson, a nephew of Henderson, as agent in the sale of the company [9] Robert Hunter, who had been a brickmaker at the works, is made guardian and occupies “double house hereafter known as Cocktail Hall” [Masten 1935 (ADV 177)].5 T. Addison Richards, “The Adirondack Woods and Waters,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine Vol. XIX, published in September, contains an illustration of the iron works.6 [TDV 159-171] Benson J. Lossing visits Adirondac and describes it as “the little deserted village” [TDV 186]. 1860 Lake Ontario and Hudson River Railroad Company reorganized as the Adirondac Estate and Railroad Company [Hochschild]. 1863 Dr. Thomas Clark Durant purchases property of the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company and reorganizes the Adirondac Estate and Railroad Company as the Adirondack Company [Hochschild]. 1863 Naturalist and writer John Burroughs visits and describes site. The Lower Works contained only the remains of the dam and a long, low mound suggesting an earth work. The Upper Works village was inhabited by [Robert] Hunter, his wife, and five or six children, hired by the company to “see that things were not wantonly destroyed but allowed to go to decay properly and decently. He had a substantial roomy frame house and any amount of grass and woodland. He had good barns and kept considerable stock” as a subsistence farmer. “There were about thirty buildings in all, most of them small frame houses with a door and two windows opening into a small yard in front and a garden in the rear, such as are usually occupied by the laborers in a country manufacturing district. There was one large two story boarding house, a school house with a cupola and bell in it, and numerous sheds and forges, and a saw-mill. … Nearby a building filled with charcoal was bursting open and the coal going to waste on the ground. The smelting works were also much crumbled by time. The schoolhouse was still used. … The district library contained nearly one-hundred readable books, which were well thumbed.” [TDV 203, 204] [8] 5 Seely notes that, when the October 1857 freshet struck the McIntyre works, Robert Hunter was already “the only inhabitant in the vicinity.” The house in which Hunter and his family lived is known today as the MacNaughton Cottage. 6 The drawing that is captioned “The Adirondack Iron-Works” bears almost no resemblance to any other image of either the New Furnace or the iron workers’ village made in the mid-19th century. 444 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  15. 15. 1865 Durant commences construction of the Adirondack Railroad at Saratoga [Hochschild]. 1869 “The cellars of their dwellings, in many instances, are excavated in the massive ore beds” in the village of Adirondac, observes historian Winslow C. Watson. [TDV 273] 1871 Durant runs out of money; railroad construction ceases three miles above North Creek (26 miles away), and assets of the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company revert to its heirs [Hochschild]. 1873 Seneca Ray Stoddard visits site, and subsequently describes the “new forge” as a “huge building in a dilapidated condition, but the great stone furnace, forty feet square at its base, stands firm as and solid as when made; a few rods beyond this is the ruined village, where a scence [sic] of utter desolation met our view. … On either side [of the grass grown street] once stood neat cottages and pleasant homes, now stained and blackened by time; broken windows, doors unhinged, falling roof, rotting sills and crumbling foundations, pointed to the ruin that must surely come. At the head of the street was the old furnace, a part of one chimney still standing, and another shattered by the thunder bolt lay in ruins at its feet. The water-wheel … lay motionless. … Huge blocks of iron, piles of rusty ore, coal bursting from the crumbling kilns, great shafts broken and bent, rotting timbers, stones and rubbish lay in one common grave, over which loving nature had thrown a shroud of creeping vines. Near the center of the village was a large house said at one time to have accommodated one hundred boarders, now grim and silent; near by the left stood the pretty school house; the steps. … rotted and fallen, the windows were almost paneless, the walls cracked and rent asunder where the foundation had dropped away, and the doors yawned wide.” They entered the door of the large house, passed through the sounding hall to the rear of the building, and found it occupied by the Moores, “an old Scotchman7 and family, who took care of the property and took in strangers that chanced to come in that way, myself among that number.” Party spent night in “one of the deserted houses.” [Note: Stoddard republishes this description through 1914.] [TDV 299, 300, 302] [5] Phase III. Preston Ponds/Adirondack/Tahawus Clubs (1876-1947) Background and antecedents 1837 Learning of the Emmons survey, Charles Fenno Hoffman (1806-1884), guided by John Cheney, visits village of McIntyre in September in his attempt to be the first journalist to report on the source of the Hudson. 1839 Hoffman’s “Wild Scenes in the Forest” published in London. [TDV 34-68] 7 The “old Scotchman” was probably Robert Hunter, not John Moore. Stoddard blended the account of his first visit, in 1870, with his second visit, in 1873. Hunter was custodian when Stoddard first visited. Street referred to Hunter as “an intelligent Scotchman.” UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 445
  16. 16. 1841-2 Piseco Lake Trout or Trout Club organized. A touring party visiting Adirondack catches twenty-seven trout in one evening [N.J. Beach to Emily Beach, 14 June 1841]. 1843 Hoffman’s “Wild Scenes in the Forest” published in New York. 1844 Colden visits iron works with English actor William Charles Macready and party camps out. 1846 Joel T. Headley, a Protestant minister, visits Upper Works and climbs Mt. Marcy with John Cheney. 1849 Richard H. Dana visits the Upper Works on hike through Indian Pass. [TDV 132- 145, 146-158] Headley’s “The Adirondack: or Life in the Woods” is published, emphasizing the region’s salubrious qualities. [TDV 87-114] 1852 Piseco Lake Trout or Trout Club disbands due to scarcity of trout, probably from over-fishing. 1857 North Woods [Izaak] Walton Club established by group of upstate sportsmen (formerly called the Brown’s Track Association) on Third Lake, Fulton Chain. Club establishes temporary camps on several lakes in Fulton Chain. Samuel H. Hammond’s “Wild Northern Scenes: or Sporting Adventures with the Rifle and the Rod” published, promoting the Adirondacks’ abundant fish and game and advocating legislation for its protection. 1858 A stone hut, “intended for the use and comfort of visitors to Tahawus” [i.e., Mt. Marcy] is erected in a nook of the heel at the south end of the summit August 19 by “F.S.P., M.C., and F.M.N. of New York [Carson, p.64 (from Lossing, TDV 194)]. 1859 Lossing, guided by Mitchell Sabattis and William Preston, spends night of August 31 in hut atop Marcy, noting previous visits that month by at least two other parties [Carson, p.64 (again, from Lossing)]. New York State Governor Horatio Seymour shoots one of the last native Adirondack moose near Jock’s Lake. 1869 William H.H. Murray’s “Adventures in the Wilderness: or, Camp-Life in the Adirondacks” published. 1870s Fulton Chain swarmed by sports fishermen. 1871 Blooming Grove Park Association establishes first game preserve (12,000 acres) in the United States in Pike County, Pennsylvania, “one of the wildest and most picturesque portions of the State. [6] 1872 Yellowstone Park created without provisions for hunting or fishing. 1874 Seneca Ray Stoddard (1844-1917) publishes first edition of “The Adirondacks Illustrated” (Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co.). Describes Upper Works as an “old 446 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  17. 17. village … in the midst of wild and picturesque scenery” convenient to Lake Henderson, Preston Ponds, Lake Harkness, Lake Andrews (“specially noted for its quantities of trout”), Calamity Pond, Lake Colden, Avalanche Lake, and Mt. Marcy. [TDV 39] Quotes occupant John Moore as saying, “We come here to hunt and fish, wife and I, and the less people come the better it will please us, but if people will come, we will try to take care of them in the proper season,” without charge. [5] 1877-78 Several former members of the North Woods Walton Club, organized as the Bisby Club, lease 320 acres in Brown’s Tract “to preserve the forest from incursions of civilization” and “where they might fish and hunt without molestation by the general public.” Bisby Club members include Richard U. Sherman, one of New York State’s Commissioners of Fisheries, Verplanck Colvin, former Governor Horatio Seymour, and Seth Green. [7] 1885 NYS creates the Adirondack Forest Preserve to control the watershed in eastern and central New York, but fails to protect forests. 1887 Adirondack Mountain Reserve established, headquartered at St. Hubert’s. AMR purchased Ausable Lakes and most of the Great Range to protect area from uncontrolled logging. 1889 Uncontrolled logging in the Adirondacks and inadequacies of the forest preserve law are the subject of a series of articles in the New York Times in the fall. 1890 Adirondack League Club establishes preserve in western Adirondacks, intending to manage forestry and game. 1891 Congress passes the Forest Reserve Act, establishing a system of national forests. 1892 New York State creates the Adirondack Park to protect the forest. 1904 New York State Forest, Fish and Game Commission estimates that fifty-five private preserves, owned by clubs and individuals, constitute nearly 750,000 acres, or a third, of all private land within the park. III-A (1876-1898): Preston Ponds/Adirondack Clubs 1876 James R. Thompson and a few of his friends informally organize the Preston Ponds Club on February 17, having as its object “the protection, increase and capture of fish and game in and about the Preston Ponds in the County of Essex, and the promotion of social intercourse among its members.” Club leases from Thompson the three Preston ponds located three miles northwest of the Upper Works for two years. John Moore employed as “guardian of the ponds.” [9] Donaldson appears to be incorrect as identifying the Preston Ponds Club as the first organization formed in the Adirondacks for sporting purposes; it does, however, appear to control an early, possibly first, private club preserve for this purpose. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 447
  18. 18. Honorary Members (1877-1884) included Spencer Fullerton Baird, the first head of the United States Fish Commission and an early “fish culturist;” Robert Barnwell Roosevelt, uncle of Theodore Roosevelt, another early fish culturist; Seth Green, another early fish culturist, and honorary member of the Bisby Club; and Verplanck Colvin. Founding Members (1877) included artist Lockwood DeForest of New York; Frederic H. Betts of New York; Charles L. Atterbury; Abiel Abbot Low Jr., of New York; and Rutherford Stuyvesant. 1877 Name “Preston Ponds Club” considered too limiting in scope; renamed Adirondack Club, incorporated in March, and obtains a twenty-year lease from MacIntyre Iron Co. over the entire 105,000-acre holding. [9] James R. Thompson, President; William E. Pearson, Secretary; Thomas J. Hall of New York City, Secretary; Francis H. Weeks, George W. Folsom, and William H. Powers comprised Executive Committee. [Stoddard] Number of active members limited to twenty, “composed of men of high social position and noted philanthropy,” according to Stoddard. “The objects of the Club are protection, stocking, increase and capture of fish and game in and about the territory owned by the Adirondack Iron and Steel Co., in Essex County, which has been leased for a term of years for that purpose — and the promotion of social intercourse among its members. The headquarters will be at the Ruined Village. The declared policy of the Club is to stop the indiscriminate slaughter of game and fish in this region. … Visitors will ordinarily have no difficulty in finding accommodations.” [Stoddard; description repeated through 1884 edition]. Moore dismissed. Myron Buttles made Superintendent of Upper Works, and David Hunter, son of Robert Hunter, made Superintendent of Lower Works. [10] $150 appropriated for repairs to the boarding house (later known as the Club House). [10] Club planned to lease farms at Lower Works to acceptable parties, but never developed. [10] Boarding house remodeled for use as a club house, including new chimney on north side (club room), and old barns in front removed. Tank with troughs capable of holding 100,000 fry installed in the kitchen or long room in the rear of the Club House under Seth Green’s supervision. Soon abandoned for a hatchery built at the river near the falls. [9] 13,000 California salmon and 40,000 lake trout placed in Lake Henderson in April. Black bass introduced in Lake Sanford, and speckled trout stocked elsewhere. [10] Bull and cow moose from Nova Scotia placed in 50 acre breeding pen on ridge behind the Club House. [10] 448 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  19. 19. Club House “painted and renovated throughout, and piazza enlarged.” [Masten (ADV 181)] “The building is now occupied, during the summer, by members of the Adirondack Club, who have put it in good repair.” [Stoddard (TDV 301)] 1878 Francis H. Weeks obtains permission “to repair the house now called the Hunter House8 for his own exclusive use;” first cottage occupied by a member. [ADV 147] [9] 1880 McIntyre, Henderson and Robertson heirs appoint Thompson as Trustee to hold and administer property. [9] Building adjoining Club House, known as the Annex in 1923, is to be reconstructed for better accommodation. Construction of a six-boat boathouse on river at head of Lake Sanford is authorized. [10] 1881 Annex referred to as “new Club House,” and equipped with lockers, [10] two fireplaces, running water and bath; double porch entirely over front. (1926). 1884 Club Executive Committee purchases George W. Folsom camp on Preston Ponds for $125. (Replaced by newer building ca. 1913.) [9] >1884 Alexander Taylor Jr. builds log camp at Lake Colden, which was later purchased by Club, and was standing in 1923. [9] 1885 Ruined village “is now the headquarters of the Adirondack Club, who have leased and hold the surrounding territory as a preserve for the use of themselves and friends, where, it is understood, uninvited guests are not welcome.” Entry is constant through 1886. [Stoddard] 1887 Thompson succeeded as trustee by James MacNaughton of Albany, a grandson of A. MacIntyre. Stoddard revises 1885 entry: “To-day but little appears of the ruined village. All but two or three of the buildings that stood there in 1873 have been removed or destroyed. The ancient schoolhouse now does duty as a fish hatchery, and the old kilns are overgrown with vines and shrubbery. … This is now the headquarters of the Adirondack Club, who have leased and hold the surrounding territory as a game and fish preserve for the use of themselves and friends, and while their rules proclaim them a ‘close corporation,’ no one understanding the circumstances can find reasonable objection. Stringent rules apply to all members of the club. No member is permitted to hunt or fish outside the season as established by law, or hunt at all except on regularly appointed occasions. The small house at Tahawus and the large building at the Upper Works are under competent management, and although primarily intended for accommodations of the club, provide excellent fare for the chance visitor. Price for accommodations is fixed at $3.00 per day for all persons except guides and servants, and no person not a member of the club or their guests, will be entertained for more than a single night unless under pressing conditions. Parties who go through to Avalanche Pass from the north and return 8 Today called the MacNaughton Cottage. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 449
  20. 20. by Indian pass, or vice versa, usually find the way too long for a single day, but breaking the trip at the Upper Works divides it evenly enough. Those who come are made welcome and entertained at the Club House in excellent shape. Myron Buttles is a walking encyclopedia of fact and figures, tireless in discharge of his duty as manager, and unremitting in his attention as host.” Entry remains constant through 1892. [Stoddard] 1890 Buttles dies, replaced by Hunter as superintendent with summer headquarters at Upper Works. [9] 1891 Regulations state: “Members may erect private houses or camps on club premises, or fit up any vacant houses thereon, provided, however, that no such house or camp shall be erected or vacant house occupied without the previous consent in writing, of the Executive Committee; and provided further, that at any time after the expiration of two years, from the time of granting such permission, the club may, on six month’s notice, purchase any house or camp, on payment to the member erecting or refitting the same, the amount necessarily expended by him in the construction or refitting thereof. Such private houses or camps shall be deemed in all respects the private property of the member erecting or refitting the same.” 1891-? Alexander Taylor Jr. (member 1891-?), of Mamaroneck, N.Y., builds Taylor- Bonner-Terry cottage, first cottage for private occupation, at the head of the street on the west side. 1893 Stoddard revises 1889 entry: “The Adirondack Club, whose headquarters are at the Upper Adirondack Works. Once there were extensive buildings at this place. … Meals can be had here or entertainment for a night, if the traveler wishes, although uninvited visitors are not encouraged.” Entry remains unchanged through 1900 edition. 1894 Trust arrangement fails. Judgment in suit brought by some heirs results in sale of the property to McIntyre Iron Company and issuance of stocks, with James MacNaughton as president. McIntyre Iron Company, a holding company, is authorized to buy, sell and lease lands, open and work mines or quarries, manufacture iron, steel and lumber, mill grain and tan hides. [9; Porter] 1897 Adirondack Club becomes moribund. [9] MacNaughton declines to renew original ten-year lease. [10] III-B (1898 - 1920): Tahawus Club 1898 Tahawus Club formed, largely through efforts of Alexander Taylor Jr., replacing Adirondack Club. Large turnover in membership. New families from Boston; earlier Philadelphia families defect to Ausable Club. [10] 1899 President George Wheelock informed the members of the Club at the annual meeting that the first year had been a success, and that four new cottages were ordered to be built over the winter. These probably were among the following: 450 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  21. 21. • Abbott-Geer-Nichols-Lockwood cottage, adjacent to the Crocker premises, built by Gordon Abbott of Boston, who was elected a director that year. • Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage built by E. Holloway Coe of New York. • Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage on the east side of the river, built by Walter Jennings of New York, who was elected a director at the meeting. • James-Terry-Savage cottage, located adjacent to the site of the old Store House, built by Dr. Walter B. James of New York, but never occupied by him. Michael Breen assumes charge of Lower Works. [9] 1900 In November, Wheelock reports “four additional cottages have been built and occupied during the past season, so that we now have eight cottages on the premises in the immediate vicinity of the Club. … A new water supply system … from the Calamity Pond stream, drawn from a point of sufficient altitude and at a distance of two-thirds of a mile from the Club, has been installed at an expense of $1,800. … The dock at Lake Henderson has been completely rebuilt. … Lake Sandford boat house and landing stage were altered and enlarged to accommodate more boats, the bridge across the river renewed, new target range prepared and fixed in a safe position above the cottages, and a proper foot bridge to it thrown across.” George I. Nichols of New York builds Nichols-Ordway-Debevoise cottage east of street and near river [Masten 1935]. 1901 Theodore Roosevelt visits; stays at MacNaughton cottage. [9] Stoddard belatedly revises entry used since 1893: “The Tahawus Club has leased the hunting and fishing privileges from the MacIntyre Iron Co., consisting of nearly 90,000 acres, extending to the Upper Ausable Lake on the east and from the Lower Works to include Lake Tear-of-the-Clouds and Lake Colden to north, with headquarters at the Upper Works. … Uninvited visitors are not encouraged.” Entry remains constant through 1905 edition. 1901-? Dr. George E. Brewer builds Brewer-Williams cottage near site of old schoolhouse, south of Club House and north of gate. 1905 Arthur Masten builds “Gabbro” on the ridge below the gate, west of the barn; destroyed by fire in 1926; rebuilt in 1927. 1906 Witherbee, Sherman & Company, owners of mining property near Port Henry, purchases property; new company called Tahawus Iron Company. [9] Stoddard revises 1901 entry. “The Tahawus Club … will provide fare for the chance visitor, primarily intended for accommodation of Club members.” Entry remains constant through 1914 edition. 1906-09 Extensive explorations of ore conducted, and new road opened from Lake Sanford to the East River Falls. [9] UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 451
  22. 22. 1907 MacIntyre Iron Company builds Foote cottage on east side of Lake Sanford for use of company officials. 1908 Champlain & Sanford Railroad Company organized, proposing route from Lake Sanford to Addison Junction near Ticonderoga to avoid state-owned land. [9] 1910 Wallace T. Foote, principal proponent at Witherbee, Sherman & Company for re- opening mining operations, dies. [9] 1914 Schoolhouse [fish hatchery] which stood on the west bank of the river just below falls is broken up and carried downstream in freshet. [10] III-C (1921-1947): Tahawus Club/ Tahawus Purchase/Upper Works Club 1921 New York State Conservation Commission acquires Lake Colden gore from Club. Considerable tracts of land sold to Finch, Pruyn & Co. for logging, with Tahawus Club reserving rights to hunt and fish thereon for a limited number of years. 10,874 acres remain in ownership of MacIntyre Iron Co. in vicinity of Lake Sanford and the Club House. [9] 1923 New York State Conservation Commission acquires Indian Pass gore from Club. 1926 David Hunter dies; replaced by Breen as superintendent. 1932 W.R.K. Taylor builds cottage on east side of street, on site of studio to north of “Lazy Lodge” (1935), which had been built by Alexander Taylor Jr. for his daughter. ±1932 E. Farrar Bateson builds cottage across street from original site of schoolhouse on main street. 1933 Annex to Taylor/Bonner/Terry cottage, “Lipstick Lodge,” built. [10] Seely and Jessup cottages on Lake Sanford are completed. [10] Tahawus Club taken over by Tahawus Purchase Inc. 1941 Club re-forms as Upper Works Club, sells 6,000 acres to National Lead Co., and leases Adirondac site for six years. [4] 1947 National Lead does not renew lease with Club; Club relocates to Lower Works vicinity, resumes Tahawus Club name. [4] Phase IV. Titanium Pigment Co./National Lead (1941 to present) Background 1892 Auguste J. Rossi, a French metallurgist employed to study and improve methods of smelting titaniferous ores. Study results in patents on methods of smelting and manufacture of various titanium alloys. [Stephenson] 1893 Rossi publishes “Titaniferous Ores in the Blast Furnace,” AIME Trans. 21:832- 67. 452 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  23. 23. 1906-09 Magnetic surveys of ore bodies conducted, followed by “considerable” diamond drilling. 1908 Rossi discovers suitability of titanium oxide as a white paint pigment following further investigation of McIntyre ore. [Stephenson] 1912-14 15,000 to 20,000 tons of ore shipped as a result of temporary mining operations. Concentrating plant and/or magnetic separator built on east shore of Lake Sanford, but hauling of ore proves too costly. [9; Porter] 1916 Owners of McIntyre mine form Titanium Pigment Co. [4] 1921 National Lead Company acquires control of Titanium Pigment Co. [4] 1941 Titanium Division of the National Lead Company of New York (or a subsidiary, Titanium Pigment Corporation) purchases iron mines in September (Time Magazine) or April (Wall Street Journal) from MacIntyre Iron Co. for mining of ilmenite to be used in manufacturing of titanium paint pigments at plants in St. Louis and Sayerville, New Jersey. 1942 MacIntyre Development (Titanium Division) of National Lead Company and E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, with assistance from the Federal Office of Production Management, begins mining operations for titanium and vanadium in July after a year of construction. Forty buildings constructed; eight miles of highway built. Magnetite separated from ilmenite by magnetic process. Engineers live in “tents and ghost-city shanties” during start-up. ±1944 Railroad constructed from North Creek. 1945 Tahawus is a community of 300 persons, 84 modern insulated housing units, two apartment buildings (one 12 units, the other 15 units), boarding house, 80-person dormitory, restaurant, recreation hall, movie hall, pool room, post office, and store. Children bussed to school in Newcomb. >1947 Buildings at Upper Works are used by workers at mines. 1963 Requiring more space for mining, buildings at Tahawus — including churches, houses and apartments — are moved to Winebrook subdivision on eastern edge of Newcomb hamlet. [Pope] [NL employees are also removed from Upper Works houses; site is abandoned.] 1982 Ilmenite mining ceases. 1986 Harold C. Simmons of Dallas gains control of NL Industries. 1989 NL Industries close the mine. 1990 NL Chemical Inc. becomes Kronos Inc. of Houston. Sources: Chronology [1] Harold K. Hochschild, “The MacIntyre Mine: From Failure to Fortune” (Blue Mountain Lake, NY: 1962) [ADV 12-25]. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 453
  24. 24. [2] Henry Dornburgh, “Why the Wilderness is Called Adirondack” (Glens Falls: 1885) [TDV 336-351]. [3] Village of Adirondac–Tahawus Club district (?) [4] James P. Gold et al., “An Assessment Report, Tahawus/Adirondack Iron and Steel Company: Upper Works, Town of Newcomb, Essex County, New York” (unpublished typescript, Bureau of Historic Sites, Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation: 1989). [5] Seneca Ray Stoddard “The Adirondacks Illustrated” (Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co., 1874). [6] “Fall Sport at Blooming Grove Park,” American Sportsman, December 27, 1873, III, 201. [7] H. J. Cookingham, “The Bisby Club and the Adirondacks,” American Field, March 10, 1883, XVIII, 172. [8] John Burroughs, “Wake-Robin” (2nd ed.; Boston, 1891) [TDV 202-206], 102. [9] Arthur H. Masten, “The Story of Adirondac” (privately published, 1923) [ADV 39- 153]. [10] Arthur H. Masten, “Tahawus Club, 1898-1933” (privately published, 1935) [ADV 155-222] 454 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  25. 25. 2. Site survey Overview The site surveyed for this study is located along a road beginning at the New Furnace and terminating at the New York State trailhead to Mount Marcy. The site is bordered by a steep ridge to the west and the East Branch of the Hudson River to the east. The site includes structures on the east bank of the river, but these were not inspected at close range due to difficulty in crossing the river. The built environment of this site contains extant features constructed over a period of approximately 100 years, beginning in the 1830s. The earliest features, the McMartin/McIntyre house and the New Furnace, were constructed in Phase I. With the exception of a concrete block pumphouse (Building #1-A), which was probably constructed in Phase IV, the remaining fifteen buildings are related to the Club occupation of the site. The following inventory of structures is presented in three sections: 1. The documented vanished buildings and structures are listed first. 2. These are followed by survey notes of the extant structures at the site, including photographs and comments on history and condition. This section also includes an assessment of general conditions. 3. The third section lists other related extant structures excluded from the survey. VANISHED BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES The following list of vanished buildings and structures is arranged chronologically. Principal sources referred to are: 1840 Inventory (“Reports and Documents Relative to the Iron Ore Veins, Water Power and Wood Land, &c. &c. In and Around the Village of McIntyre, in the Town of Newcomb, Essex County, State of New York,” New York: P. Miller, Jan. 1, 1840 [AML]). 1847 Inventory (Painting Invoice 9/16) 1851 Inventory (“Advantage of the Works and Property of the Adirondac Iron & Steel Co.,” Philadelphia: Howell Evans, 1851 [AML]). 1854 Inventory (“The Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New-York,” New York: W.E. & J. Sibell, 1854 [AML]). “Iron” dam (possibly by 1826) Location: Across river at Upper Works. Description: Not known. Notes: In 1856, the dam at the Upper Works was destroyed by flooding of the Hudson River.9 9 See the note at the front of this volume on the “1856 flood,” which actually occurred in 1857; per Masten, only “the upper dam at Adirondac” (of the three dams shown on an 1854 map) was destroyed. Benson Lossing, visiting the Upper Works in 1859, included drawing captioned “The Iron Dam” in his book, “The Hudson.” 455
  26. 26. Saw mill (by 1832) Location: Adjacent to river. Description: This or a later replacement structure was a one-story, gable-roofed, open- sided, braced-timber framed structure, approximately five bays long and one bay wide, located parallel to the river. The roof appears to have been clad with vertical boards nailed to purlins or breathers, capped with ridgeboards. [1] Notes: In 1847, a Mr. Taylor builds a sawmill at the Upper or Lower Works. Sources: 1. Updated photograph in Masten, “Tahawus Club,” opposite p. 12. 2. A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, February 12, 1847. Log house, aka old boarding house (by 1832; extended 1833) Location: Not known. Description: Possibly a two-story, gable-roofed log house with a chimney at the north end, “well finished for the country.” Notes: In 1833, a one-story, gable-roofed log wing with a chimney at the south end was added to the south, possibly over a cellar, and described as a “comfortable and convenient dwelling attached to the South End of the log house.” Probably the building referred to in 1840 as “large boarding house accommodating a family and 30 boarders” [4], and in 1847 as “old Boarding house” [5]. Sources: 1. Log cabin and south wing as pictured in “View of Adirondack [Group] from the Newcomb Farm,” in Emmons 1842, vol. II, based on sketch by Henderson. 2. A. McIntyre, diary entry, October 24, 1832, quoted in Hochschild, p. 4. 3. O. Henderson to A. McIntyre, September 8, 1833. 4. 1840 inventory. 5. 1847 inventory. Forge for a hammer & two fires (1832) Location: Probably near the head of the village street, a short distance from the “iron” dam, adjacent to the “old” furnace. Description: Blooming forge, probably built of stone. Source: “Nearly finished,” A. McIntyre diary entry, October 24, 1832, quoted in Hochschild, p. 4. Coal house (by 1832) Location: Not known. Description: Not known. Source: A. McIntyre, diary entry, October 24, 1832, quoted in Hochschild, p. 4. Blacksmith shop (by 1832) Location: Not known. Description: Not known. Source: A. McIntyre, diary entry, October 24, 1832, quoted in Hochschild, p. 4. 456 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  27. 27. Stables/Barns (begun by 1832) Location: Barn complex appears to have been located on east side of street, across from the schoolhouse, near the south entrance to the village [4]. Later referred to as in front of the new boarding house [5]. Description: Unknown. Notes: By 1840, possibly enlarged/replaced with two barns [2]. By 1854, “3 Large Barns, several Cow Stables and Cattle Sheds, and 1 Piggery present” [3]. In 1863, barns described as good, and apparently actively used [6]. In 1877, “old barns” in front of the boarding house were removed. In 1879, a brick barn 100 feet south of the club house was in good condition; it remained standing until 1901. Sources: 1. “Some little stabling,” A. McIntyre diary entry, October 24, 1832, quoted in Hochschild, p. 4. 2. 1840 inventory. 3. 1854 inventory. 4. Lossing. 5. Masten, “Tahawus Club.” 6. Burroughs. Charring kilns? (1832 or 33?) Location: Unknown. Description: “Charring kilns to be built thickness of length of brick (if brick) or 8 inches and 10 feet high.” [1]. “Enquire about Doolittle’s Patent Kilne for Charcoal” [2]. Sources: 1. Lengthy description in A McIntyre to D. McMartin, March 20, 1832. “Charring kilns” not identified in subsequent inventories; possibly a description of the forge, coal house or lime kilns? 2. A. McIntyre to D. McMartin, January 2, 1832. Street from the house to the saw mill (1833) Road from the landing to the settlement (1833) Description: Corduroy road? Notes: Corduroy road by 1840 [2]. Sources: 1. D. Henderson to A. McIntyre, September 8,1833. 2. A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, January 22, 1840. Lime kiln (by 1834) [1] Location: Not known. Description: Not known. Notes: Pendleton limestone proved to be ill-suited for lime; proprieters considered importing lime to works in 1840 [2]. Sources: 1. A. McMartin to D. McMartin, June 23,1834. 2. A. McIntyre to A. Porteous,January 22,1840. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 457
  28. 28. Daniel McMartin house (1834) Notes: This is probably the McMartin/McIntyre, aka, Proprietor’s and/or MacNaughton House. See extant buildings. Sources: A. McMartin to D. McMartin, 23 June 1834. Dwelling house (1834) Location: Across road from the lime kiln [1]. Description: Plain, frame construction[ 1]. Notes: Not the D. McMartin House [1]. Sources: A. McMartin to D. McMartin, 23 June 1834. Storehouse (1834) Location: Probably on west side of road, north of site of annex. Description: Frame [2]. Possibly had “a counting room and bed or bed rooms” [3]. Notes: Remained standing in 1883 or later [1]. Sources: 1. Masten, 1935. 2. A. McMartin to D. McMartin, June 23, 1834. 3. A. McIntyre to D. McMartin, January 2, 1833. Puddling furnace (1837) [1] Location: Not known. Description: Not known. Notes: Possibly replaced in 1845: “Mr. Rufsel the refiner is now with the mason erecting a puddling furnace fed by spruce.” [2]. Sources: 1. Dornburgh. 2. D. Henderson to A. McIntyre, June 14, 1845, from Adirondac. Andrew Porteous house [1] (by 1838)[2] Location: Not known. Description: Not known. Sources: 1. 1840 inventory. 2. “I shall be anxious to hear from you frequently in relation to our business, and particularly … [your] removal into your house at the works.” A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, November 10, 1838. “Old” blast furnace, aka quarter furnace (1838) Location: Near the head of the village street, a short distance from the “iron” dam. Description: The first chimney of the furnace, constructed of fieldstone, appears not to have survived the first year due to poor mortar [1] and/or quality of stonework. First rebuilt in 1840, possibly by a mason from New Jersey [2], lined with brick [3] and using lime on chimney parts exposed to the weather and clay elsewhere [4]. 458 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  29. 29. In 1845, the hearth was possibly modified, “and is altogether more substantial than anything which had been in the furnace before — being of massive blocks of stone closely fitted together in place of the patchwork of former hearths.” [5]. Notes: By 1863, “smelting works were also much crumbled by time” [6]. By 1873, “At the head of the street was the old furnace, a part of one chimney still standing, and another shattered by the thunder bolt lay in ruins at its feet” [7]. In 1989, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation reported: “The stone furnace stack is collapsed, wooden blowing cylinders, water wheels, etc. have rotted away, leaving isolated pieces of iron hardware scattered around. It is not clear which of the visible remains are associated with the blooming forge and which are part of the blast furnace.” See building #1A for visible remains. Sources: 1. “The chimney ought not be rebuilt until it can be rebuilt with our own clay. Clay ought probably be got out and piled this season for uses next spring. … I shall not regret the loss of the chimney.” A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, August 1, 1839. 2. “Probable that Henderson will send up mason from New Jersey to erect chimney and properly fire it.” A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, January 22, 1840. 3. A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, March 3, 1840. 4. A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, February 6, 1840. 5. D. Henderson to A. McIntyre, September 1, 1844. 6. Burroughs [TDV 204]. 7. Stoddard [TDV 300]. 8. NYSOPRHP. 9. Joseph M. Thatcher, “Technology Evaluation, Tahawus,” in Gold et al., NYSOPRHP, pp. 37-38. Cheney house [1] (by 1839) [2] Location: Unknown. Description: Unknown. Notes: Possibly one of dwellings previously mentioned. Sources: 1. 1847 Inventory. 2. “It is worthy of consideration whether a [kitchen similar to one at A. Porteous house] ought not be added to the house occupied by John Cheney. Let this be avoided however unless you deem it important to be done.” A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, January 25, 1839. Stamping and separating house? (1839?) Location: Unknown. Description: “An ample house and machinery for stamping and separating must be built in the spring.” [1] Sources: A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, January 3, 1839. Unidentified dwelling house (by 1840) Location: Unknown. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 459
  30. 30. Description: Unknown. Notes: Possibly John Cheney house. Sources: 1840 inventory. Carpenter’s shop (by 1840) Location: Unknown. Description: Unknown. Sources: 1840 inventory. Coal houses (by 1840) Location: Probably adjacent to forge/old furnace. Description: Capacity 100,000 bushels of charcoal in 1840 [1]. Six coal houses present in 1854, some near new furnace. Notes: By 1863, “a building filled with charcoal was bursting open and the coal going to waste on the ground” [2]. Sources: 1. 1840 inventory. 2. Burroughs [TDV 204]. Tahawus blast furnace (1844) Location: Lower Works. Description: Not available. Tilting hammer (1845) Location: Lower Works? Description: Unknown. Notes: Included equipment to work steel into small bars. Sources: “The forge with new hammer — healing[?] furnace, etc., will not be ready until first week of June.” D. Henderson to A. McIntyre, April 18, 1845. Several houses (by 1847) Several houses listed in the 1847 inventory may have already been mentioned; nothing else is known of these houses: • House opposite “Old Blacks.” Shop (by 1847) • Beedy house (by 1847) • Snyder house (by 1847) • Kellog house (by 1847) • Sargent house (by 1847) Schoolhouse (by 1847) Location: West side of street, south of new boarding house. Description: One-story, frame, gable-roofed schoolhouse with cupola, shingle- or shake-clad walls, and chimney at west end. Notes: Discussed as early as 1839 [1] but first mentioned in 1847 inventory [2]. In 1863, “schoolhouse with cupola and a bell in it … still used. … The district library 460 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  31. 31. contained nearly one-hundred readable books which were well thumbed.” [3] By 1873, “the steps … rotted and fallen, the windows were almost paneless, the walls cracked and rent asunder where the foundation had dropped away, and the doors yawned wide.” [4] In 1878 or 1879, the schoolhouse was modified as a fish hatchery and relocated to the west bank of the river just below the falls [5]. In 1914, the building was broken up and carried downstream in freshet [5]. Sources: 1. “It appears to me that we ought not to convert the upper flat of the store into a meeting or school house.” A. McIntyre to A. Porteous, March 16, 1839. 2. 1847 Inventory. 3. Burroughs [TDV 204]. 4. Stoddard [TDV 300]. 5. Masten, 1935 [ADV 189]. New Boarding House aka Club House (1847) Location: West side of street, across from and south of McMartin/McIntyre house. Description: Massive two story, frame, gable-roofed core with end chimneys, four bays deep, with one-and-one-half story kitchen ell perpendicular to west. Main ridge parallel with street. Core measured 50 x 37 feet; kitchen 22 x 18 feet. Contained a walnut staircase [1]. Notes: In 1877, $150 appropriated for repairs to the boarding house, remodeled as the club house, including a new chimney on north side (club room), painting and renovating throughout, and enlargement of the piazza. Tank with troughs capable of holding 100,000 fry were installed in the kitchen or long room in the rear of the club house under Seth Green’s supervision, but soon abandoned for a hatchery built at the river near the falls. In 1879, a chimney was proposed to be added to the south side of club house for an open fireplace. Sources: 1. Draft specifications. 2. Undated photograph “Upper Works Clubhouse, occupied by the Adirondack Club in 1877,” view from southeast, reproduced in Hochschild, p. 17 [Stoddard, 1888]. 3. Undated photograph “Village Street about 1900,” view from southeast, reproduced in Masten, 1935, opp. p. 32. 16 Dwelling houses for workmen (by 1854) Location: Unknown. Description: Described by Burroughs in 1863 as “small frame houses with a door and two windows opening into a small yard in front and a garden in the rear, such as are usually occupied by the laborers in a country manufacturing district” [2]. By 1873, “On either side [of the grass grown street] once stood neat cottages and pleasant homes, now stained and blackened by time; broken windows, doors unhinged, falling roof, rotting sills and crumbling foundations, pointed to the ruin that must surely come” [3]. Sources: 1. 1854 Inventory. 2. Burroughs. 3. Stoddard. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 461
  32. 32. Andrew Porteous’s sketch, notes, “Plan of houses for Adirondack” Church of Tubal-Cain (by 1854) Location: On north side of road connecting new furnace and Lake Hamish [1]. Description: [2] Sources: 1. “Ground Plan of Beds and Veins of Magnetic Oxide of Iron: etc.” [1854] [Note that this map shows the church as being on the south side of the road, not the north.] 2. Watercolor view [by Robert H. Robertson, 1910], Adirondack Museum. Miscellaneous buildings (by 1854) Nothing is known of the following buildings, except that they were listed in the 1854 inventory: • Mill for driving small machinery • Grist Mill • Hay Scales • 2 Kilns for roa[s]ting ore • Brick House • Granary 462 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  33. 33. • Tool House • 3 Coal Kilns • Long Wood house • Ice house • Powder house • Building with Steaming Apparatus Blast Furnace — aka ‘New’ Furnace — dependencies (1854) Location: On east side of road, 0.6 miles south of Upper Works. Description: Connected to the furnace were a new wheel house, carpenter shop, [casting house, covered charging bridge,] and two large coal houses. By 1873, the “new forge” [casting house?] described as a “huge building in a dilapidated condition, but the great stone furnace, forty feet square at its base, stands firm as and solid as when made” [2]. Notes: Furnace first fired August 20, 1854. Sources: 1. 1854 Inventory. 2. Stoddard [TDV 299]. Club House Annex (1880) Location: On the west side of the road between the Abbott cottage and McMartin/McIntyre house. Notes: Reconstructed in 1880 from a house adjoining the Club House for better accommodation. Referred to as “new Club House,” equipped with lockers in 1881. [1] Called the “Annex” in 1906. [2] In 1926, described as having two fireplaces, running water and bath, and double porch entirely over front. [3] Sources: 1. Masten. 2. 1906 Survey. 3. 1926 Survey. George W. Folsom camp (by 1884) Location: Preston Ponds. Description: Unknown. Notes: Club Executive Committee purchased it for $125 in 1884. In 1913, replaced by a newer building. Sources: Masten. Alexander Taylor Jr. camp (after 1884) Location: Lake Colden. Description: Log camp. Notes: Later purchased by Club. Reported standing in 1923. Sources: Masten. UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 463
  34. 34. 464 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  35. 35. DESCRIPTION OF SURVIVING BUILDINGS AND FEATURES The surviving buildings are listed numerically by the numbers assigned by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, which start on the north end of the east side of the village street (along the river), go south, then cross to the west side and go north. Roof plans, showing the general layout of each structure, and photographs for each building appear after the individual narrative descriptions. East side 1a. Pump house 1-1b. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris Cottage 2. Jennings-Geer-Rives Cottage 3. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. Cottage 4. Mrs. Taylor’s Cottage (“Lazy Lodge”) 5. Abbott-Geer-Nichols-Lockwood Cottage 6. McMartin/McIntyre House (MacNaughton Cottage) 7. Nichols-Ordway-Debevoise Cottage 8. Bateson Cottage West side 9. Brewer-Williams Cottage Former clubhouse, annex site 10, 10a. James(?)-Terry-Savage Cottage and shed 11. “New” cottage 12. Taylor-Bonner-Terry Cottage 12a. “Lipstick Lodge” (Terry Cottage annex) UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 465
  36. 36. BUILDING #1A — PUMP HOUSE This small pump house appears to have been constructed during Phase IV. The building contains inoperative mid-20th century electrical equipment. The building is not visually related to other extant features at the site. Historical: No information has been found. [Note: In 2002, Tahawus Club member Anne Knox, whose family first brought her to the Upper Works for the summer in 1926, recalled that the only telephone at the Upper Works during the Tahawus Club occupation was located inside the pump house.] Architectural: The one-story concrete block building is located on a steeply sloped site above the west bank of the river to the north of Cottage #1. The building measures 12 x 14’ at the base. The foundation, which is partially cantilevered to the east, and the roof are constructed of concrete slabs, which serve as the finish floor and ceiling respectively. A two-panel door is in the doorway, which faces west, and windows contain two-over-two double-hung sash. An iron cylinder, which appears to have been fabricated of plate iron during Phase I for a blooming forge, is located to the west of the pump house. Conditions: The concrete floor slab and adjacent blocks are spalled and eroded from apparent periodic flooding and rebar corrosion at the southeast corner. Photo 112. Building #1A, view from northwest (December 1993) 466 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  37. 37. COTTAGE # 1/1B — COE-EDMONDS-WILLIAMS-FERRIS COTTAGE (CA. 1899) The Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage, which appears to be located on the site of an earlier Phase I or Phase III-A structure, is an example of a cottage begun in Phase III-B and enlarged with subsequent additions. The cottage retains its general appearance as fully evolved when it was illustrated in plan in the 1923 survey with the exception of the removal of its rustic verandah. The core exhibits serious structural deterioration at the ridge and west sill, and many of its additions are near collapse. Historical: The cottage was built around 1899 by E. Holloway Coe (member 1899- 1916) of New York. Subsequent owners or occupants were Walter D. Edmonds (novelist, born 1903, author of “Drums Along the Mohawk,” and member 1916 to ca. 1926), Thomas Williams (member 1916-1933), and Morris Douw Ferris (member 1924- ) who occupied the cottage in 1935. The cottage was identified as “Coes” in the 1906 survey. In 1926, the 36,780 cubic feet “Coe cottage” was described as having “two fireplaces, plumbing and 8’ porch two sides.” Architectural: Sited on a steeply sloped bank, the first floor level of the original T- shaped core is entered on grade with the road at the west end and elevated on vertical logs the height of a full story at its east end. The area within the vertical logs was infilled subsequent to the building’s original construction. A fully excavated basement, which is atypical of Phase III construction and probably incorporates the foundation of an earlier structure, is located below the southern section of the core. Above the basement, other visible structural characteristics and finishes are typical. The 1½-story cottage core is massed below a transverse gable roof with its main ridge running north-south (parallel to the road) and containing dormers. Enclosed porches are appended to the north and east walls of the core, and it is connected to a small, gable-roofed one-story annex located in the southeast corner (NYSOPRHP #1B). A verandah, identified in the 1923 survey and evidenced by ghosts and fragments on the core, formerly wrapped the west, south and west end of the north facades. The roadway has encroached upon the west facade where the verandah previously stood. Site: The main, west entrance to the first floor is approximately on grade with the road. The site slopes steeply downward to the east, providing a series of finished rooms in the rear at the basement level. Exterior Features Foundation: The walls of the basement below the south section of the core are constructed of quarry-faced random ashlar (probably Phase I) below common-bond brick (Phase III). Openings are rectilinear. The exterior is partially reinforced with a concrete retaining wall above grade. Elsewhere, the building is supported by log posts atop fieldstone footings. Annex is built upon fieldstone curb wall. Structure: Where exposed in the excavated basement, the first floor is heavily framed with unpeeled log joists carried by sawn or hewn girders and sills (identical to Brewer- Williams cottage). Annex floor is framed with log joists approximately 2’ above earth in crawl space. Wall framing is not evident, but sheathing is attached with wire nails. Exposed UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 467
  38. 38. 2”x rafter tails in lower eaves of core and annex. Raking eaves are faced with a running- molded eaves board in core. Chimneys: Two brick chimneys are present, one along the secondary ridge of the core, and one against the south wall of the rear. Roof: Geometrically complex form, surfaced with wood shingles. Verandahs: Early or original verandah was rustic based upon fragment surviving on north facade, but elsewhere removed. Enclosed shed-roofed porches in rear at the first floor level are carried by peeled log stilts. These were added after original construction of the rear. Walls: Clad with shingles stained red-brown. Windows: Two-over-two double-hung sash where visible in core; four-over-four double-hung sash in annex. Doors: Covered with plywood at west. Interior Features Floors: Matched hardwood strip flooring. Walls and Ceilings: Matched beaded board, painted. Other: Six-panel (three-over-three) doors with stamped iron knobs in fascia surrounds. Stamped iron hardware. Conditions 1. The main north-south ridge is deflected. 2. The sill and plate of the west wall are deflected, and the west wall is settled. Sections of the first floor and joists are rotted along the west edge south of the door. 3. The floors of the enclosed porches in the northeast comer have collapsed, and the exposed hewn east sill is rotted at its south connection. Most other structural elements of the porches appear to be unsound. 4. The wood shingle roof is waterlogged and open to the weather above the rear porches and annex. 5. The interior of the first and second floors was not accessible, but where visible through windows, first floor wainscoting appears to be intact with limited water damage. Wainscoting, flooring, and floor framing in basement and annex are more extensively water damaged. 468 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  39. 39. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris Cottage (#1/1B) roof plan Photo 42. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1), west facade (December 1993). UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 469
  40. 40. Photo 43. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1/1B), view from south-southwest (December 1993). Photo 44. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1/1B), view from southeast, with cottage 1B in foreground (May 1991). 470 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  41. 41. Photo 45. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1/1B), view from southwest (May 1991). Photo 46. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1), view from east (December 1993). UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 471
  42. 42. Photo 47. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1), view from northeast (December 1993). Photo 48. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1), view from north-northwest (December 1993). 472 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  43. 43. Photo 49. Coe-Edmonds-Williams-Ferris cottage (Cottage # 1B), detail of wall construction, southeast corner (December 1993). UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 473
  44. 44. COTTAGE #2 — JENNINGS-GEER-RIVES COTTAGE (CA. 1899) The Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage, located on the east bank of the river, appears to be representative of Phase III-B construction. The small annex, connected by a rustic covered walkway, is an unusual surviving feature. The west and south features of the cottage do not appear to have been altered or enlarged from their original condition. Although no major structural deficiencies are visible from across the river, the building is in fragile condition. Historical: The Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage was built around 1899 by Walter Jennings (member 1900-1926) of New York, who was elected a director at the 1899 meeting. Subsequent owners or occupants were Marshall Geer (member 1913-1926) and Bayard Rives (member 1926- ). The annex does not appear to have been present in 1906, when the cottage was identified as “Jennings.” In 1926, the 22,446 cubic feet “Jennings cottage” with its 3,640 cubic feet annex was described as having “two fireplaces, plumbing, porch and bridge.” The cottage was occupied by Rives in 1935. Architectural: The cottage was originally approached by a foot bridge which is no longer extant. The two-story, gable-roofed cottage, located adjacent to the riverbank, is connected to the one-story hip-roofed annex to its east by a partially extant covered walkway. The annex is not clearly visible from the opposite shore. Site: The main, south entrance to the first floor is several feet above adjacent grade. The site slopes gradually downward to the west. Exterior Features Foundation: Not visible. [A 2004 archeological survey by the New York State Museum concluded that this cottage had been built on the pre-existing foundation of a Phase I iron forge.] Structure: Framing is not visible. Exposed rafter tails in lower eaves of cottage. Raking eaves are faced with a running-molded eaves board in core. Chimneys: One concrete block chimney is present near center of west slope of cottage roof. Roof: Relatively simple massings surfaced with wood shingles. Verandahs: An early or original verandah, which previously wrapped around the west and south facades and connected the cottage to the footbridge and rustic covered walkway to annex, is no longer present but evident in ghosts. Walls: Clad with shingles stained red-brown. Windows: Two-over-two double-hung sash where visible in core. Doors: Not visible. Interior Features Floors: Not visible. Walls and Ceilings: Matched beaded board, painted. Conditions: Rustic covered walkway is near collapse, and annex appears to be ruinous. 474 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  45. 45. Jennings-Geer-Rives Cottage (#2) roof plan Photo 50. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2) view across river from southwest (December 1993) UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 475
  46. 46. Photo 51. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2) view across river of south facade (December 1993) Photo 52. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2) detail of west dormer and south eaves from southwest (December 1993) 476 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  47. 47. Photo 53. Jennings-Geer-Rives cottage (Cottage #2) view across river of annex from southwest (December 1993) UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 477
  48. 48. COTTAGE #3 — W.R.K. TAYLOR JR. COTTAGE (1932) The W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage is the best-preserved of the three examples of Phase III- C construction on the site. Historical: The cottage was built in 1932 by W.R.K. Taylor Jr. (member 1929-1933) replacing a small cabin constructed in Phase III-B and used as a studio by a daughter of Alexander Taylor. Architectural: The one-story cottage, constructed during the last years of Phase III, contains two unconnected units, each with a living room approached from its own entrance. Unlike the earlier cottages, this dwelling was planned to accommodate indoor plumbing. The main ridge of the transverse gable roof runs north-south, with the entrance to the south unit massed beneath the west end of the transverse gable. The entrance to the north unit is made through a shed-roofed rustic porch which is present in fragments. A rustic verandah, which is now completely collapsed, was attached to the east facade overlooking the river. Site: The floor of the building is located on grade with the road at the west edge. The site slopes steeply downward to the east between the road and the river. Exterior Features Foundation: The building stands on log-post stilts on fieldstone and concrete footings. Structure: The floor, roof, walls and partitions are lightly framed with nominal dimension lumber throughout. Shiplap sheathing is fastened with wire nails. Exposed nominal dimension 2”x rafter tails are faced with plain fascia eaves board on raking eaves. Chimneys: Three brick chimneys are present, located on the center of the south facade, west of center on the north wall, and near the center of the base of the east roof slope. Exterior fireplace chimneys are constructed in typical corbelled setback manner of Phase III. Fireplace hearths are faced with fieldstone. Roof: The roof massing is of relatively simple form, and surfaced with wood shingles. Verandahs: Debris remains of a rustic verandah formerly constructed on log stilts are located to the east of the cottage, and a small rustic porch is located on the north facade. Walls: Wood shingles stained reddish brown. Windows: Two-over-two double-hung sash. Doors: Stock unit with two vertical panels surmounted by four glass panes. Interior Features Floors: Matched hardwood strip floor. Walls and Ceilings: Painted matched beaded board wall finish in living south room, and plasterboard walls and ceilings elsewhere. Other: Two-panel stock millwork door units in fascia surrounds. Conditions 1. The south end of the west wall has been pushed in by vandals and is open to the elements. 478 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  49. 49. 2. Floor is rotted adjacent to open west wall and below roof leaks. 3. Roof is open to the weather in numerous areas on west slope. Leaks have damaged isolated areas of interior finishes. 4. Masonry of south chimney is deteriorated. 5. East verandah is collapsed and north porch is unsound. 6. Interior partitions are extensively vandalized. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. Cottage (#3) roof plan Photo 91. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3), west (principal) facade (December 1993) UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 479
  50. 50. Photo 92. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3), view from northwest (December 1993) Photo 93. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3), detail of chimney and rustic porch on north facade, view from northwest (December 1993) 480 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  51. 51. Photo 94. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3), view from southeast (May, 1991) Photo 96. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3), view toward southwest of south sitting room (December 1993). UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 481
  52. 52. Photo 95. W.R.K. Taylor Jr. cottage, (Cottage #3), detail of deteriorated wall in recessed entrance, view from southwest (December 1993) 482 ANNALS OF THE DESERTED VILLAGE
  53. 53. COTTAGE #4 — TAYLOR COTTAGE aka “Mrs. Taylor’s cottage,” “Lazy Lodge” (begun 1890s, enlarged and renovated 1906-1910) This cottage, which originated from a small, possibly Phase III-A core, retains its general configuration and finish as enlarged and renovated in Phases III-B and III-C. The cottage incorporates at least three distinct construction campaigns and possesses some early interior finishes which are not typical of Phase III-B. The cottage has a major sill problem along its east edge, and is missing its original verandah. Historical: Masten reported that “Lazy Lodge” was built in 1906-1910 by Alexander Taylor Jr. (member 1891-?) of Mamaroneck who had earlier built the Taylor-Bonner-Terry cottage (#12). The building appears to have incorporated an earlier core of undocumented origin which was occupied by [William F.?] King (a member 1898-1905) in the 1906 survey. Subsequent owners and occupants were W.R.K. Taylor (member 1910-1933) and Mrs. W.R.K. Taylor (member 1922-1923). In 1926, the 17,560 cubic feet “Mrs. Taylor’s cottage” was described as having two fireplaces, plumbing, and porches measuring 20x20’ and 10x16’. The cottage was referred to as “Lazy Lodge” in 1935. The interior appears to have been subdivided into two units during Phase IV. Architectural: The earliest phases appear to be the cottage’s south and center sections, to which were added the north end and two small gable-roofed bathroom additions. The walls of the center section were originally finished with wallpapered plaster on sawn lath, which was subsequently covered with wainscoting. The floor in this area appears to have been replaced at that time. With the exception of the bathroom addition at the south end, the building attained its existing configuration by the time of the 1923 survey. The cottage core is massed below a transverse gable roof, with a low pitched, chalet-form roof perpendicular to the road at the south end, intersected by a secondary gable roof and interrupted by shallow-pitched shed roofs at the south and parallel to the road. A rustic verandah remains standing at the south end of the east facade, and a collapsed rustic verandah was previously attached to the east wall overlooking the river. Site: The main, west entrance to the first floor is approximately on grade with the road. The site slopes steeply downward to the east. Exterior Features Foundation: The building is supported by log post stilts atop concrete or fieldstone footings. Structure: Three types of floor framing are present. The center section is heavily framed with unpeeled log joists tenoned into hewn sills. The south section (below the “chalet” roof) is framed with rough-sawn lumber mortised into hewn girders and sills. The north end and bathroom additions are lightly framed with nominal dimension 2” lumber. Interior partitions in the center and south sections are framed with rough-sawn full- dimension 2x4” lumber; elsewhere, partitions are framed with nominal 2x4” lumber. Butt- joint sheathing is attached with wire nails. Roofs in the center and south sections are UPPER WORKS DOCUMENTATION REPORT 483

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