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Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update


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Dr. Susan C. Jones Professor of Entomology

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Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update

  1. 1. Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update Dr. Susan C. Jones Professor of Entomology
  2. 2. The Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Not caused by bad housekeeping!! BED BUGS CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE! • Insects (true bugs) • Typically feed at night • Feed only on blood • Prefer to feed on humans • Alternate hosts: rodents, bats, birds, pets (cats, dogs, etc.) • Cause significant economic, physical, & mental distress
  3. 3. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) : Correctly identify the pest + Conduct a thorough inspection + Use sanitation measures + Use non-chemical measures + Apply insecticides to targeted sites
  4. 4. --A pictorial guide for recognizing bed bugs and other household pests --Information on integrated pest management (IPM) strategies
  5. 5. – easily mistaken for bed bugs – multiple symptoms including itching (pruritus) and rash-- groups of spots; or red, inflamed skin with or without blisters – complaints of being bitten by something causing an intense itching and rash – in some people, irritation of respiratory tract and eyes Know your Pest: Carpet Beetles furniture carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipes larvae adults black carpet beetle Attagenus unicolor larva adult pestcontrol-products .com/beetle_facts.htm Larval hairs can cause dermatitis in humans
  6. 6. • Larvae feed on animal materials – woolens, carpets, furs, hides, feathers, horns, bones, hair, silk, fish meal, insect pupae, dead insects – cause surface damage, misc. holes, uneven areas • Larvae also feed on plant materials – rye meal, corn, red pepper, rice, flour, wheat • Adults feed primarily on pollen & nectar (esp. Spiraea spp. & crape myrtle); pollen is required for egg production Carpet Beetles Bridal wreath spirea Japanese spirea Crape myrtle varied carpet beetle Anthrenus verbasci James Kalisch, UNL Entomology adults larvae
  7. 7. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) : Correctly identify the pest + Conduct a thorough inspection + Use sanitation measures + Use non-chemical measures + Apply insecticides to targeted sites
  8. 8. It’s important to recognize the telltale signs of bed bugs! • Black fecal spots • Shed skins & eggshells • Live bed bugs (nymphs & adults) • Blood stains from crushed bugs • Welts on exposed skin • Distinctive “buggy” odor (in severe infestations)
  9. 9. In Electrical Outlets Behind A Hanging Picture In Carpeting In Furniture
  10. 10. Bed Bug-Sniffing Dogs • Dog and handler should be specially trained and certified • Enable rapid inspections • Useful for large-scale inspections • Expensive • Much variability among canine detection firms (10–100% accuracy; mean accuracy 44%; 15% false positives [Cooper et al. 2014 JEE 107:2171-2181]) --Active Monitoring Tool--
  11. 11. SenSci ActivVolcano • Volcano can be used alone as a passive monitoring device • Volcano with the Activ lure is an active monitoring device • Lure mimics chemicals on the surface of human skin to attract bed bugs • Lure inside packet and absorbed in a towelette (~$3 for Activ lure) • Volcano has clear underside for ease of inspection (esp. when lure isn’t used) • Low maintenance (no dust) --Active Monitoring Device-- Volcano monitor Photos courtesy of Jeffrey White (BedBug Central)
  12. 12. Sticky Trap Ineffectiveness “Failures to detect bed bugs occurred most often in apartments with the BDS [sticky] monitor.” Bed bugs were trapped by significantly more of the pitfall monitors (Black Climbup and BlackOut) compared with BDS. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Pitfall - Climbup BG Pitfall - BlackOut Sticky - BDS % Apartments Detected 88% 79% 39% (A) ClimbUp Insect Interceptor BG,(B) BlackOut BedBug Detector, and the sticky passive monitor, Bedbug Detection System (BDS), positioned in preparation for (C) inspection and (D) installation.
  13. 13. August 2010 Bed bugs are a pest of significant public health importance! CDC & EPA Joint Statement
  14. 14. Bed Bug Bites • Skin reactions (avg = 7 of 10 people) • Redness • Welts • Itching • Resemble bites from other insects & arthropods • Typically no red spot at the center (such as with fleas and black flies) • Typically occur on exposed skin • Neck and face; shoulders and arms; back; etc. • Rarely occur on the palms or soles (such as with scabies mites) • Often occur in rows or groups • Confirmation based on finding bed bug evidence
  15. 15. Health Effects from Bed Bugs • Skin reactions (7 of 10 people on avg.) • Redness • Welts • Itching • Secondary bacterial infections • Anemia • Asthma • Anaphylactic shock • Psychological effects • Sleeplessness • Agitation • Anxiety • Insecticide exposure • …
  16. 16. Histamine, an essential part of the body’s immune system, may be involved in immune system disorders & allergies. Study Results: • Bed bugs defecate lots of histamine (a component of their aggregation pheromone). • Bed bug-infested homes had much higher histamine levels (~21x) in accumulated dust compared to un- infested homes. • High histamine levels persisted 3 months after bed bug eradication. • Bed bug-produced histamine near sleeping sites may pose a serious health risk. • Airborne histamine limits have yet to be defined.
  17. 17. • So far, no studies have shown that bed bugs are able to spread human diseases. • But cimicids (bed bug relatives) can transmit disease to birds or bats. • Certain human diseases can survive in laboratory bed bugs—a worrying sign. • Even without spreading disease, bed bugs can cause many health problems.
  18. 18. What’s the status of the bed bug epidemic in Ohio?
  19. 19. OSU’s Ohio Statewide Bed Bug Surveys (2011 and 2016) Survey regarding bed bug-related issues emailed or mailed to pest management companies and individuals licensed (category 10A) to treat for bed bugs in Ohio – 2011 survey • Response Rate = 225/632 = 35.6% – 2016 survey • Response Rate = 329/1041 = 31.6% pest management professionals (PMPs)
  20. 20. Hamilton Franklin Cuyahoga Butler Stark Cleveland Cincinnati Columbus Toledo Dayton Akron Canton 2011 Top counties for bed bugs: • Franklin (2nd in pop. size) • Hamilton (3rd in pop. size) • Montgomery (5th in pop. size) • Butler (8th in pop. size) • Cuyahoga (1st in pop. size) Note: 2011 heat map scale is 4-5X higher than 2005 scale (1000–4000) Estimated Total Number of Bed Bug Treatments by Licensed PMPs in Each County
  21. 21. Cleveland Cincinnati Columbus Toledo Dayton Akron Canton Hamilton Franklin Cuyahoga Butler Stark LorainErieOttawa Allen Delaware Marion Top counties for bed bugs: 1) Franklin (ranked 2nd in pop. size ) 2) Cuyahoga (ranked 1st in pop. size) 3) Lucas (ranked 6th in pop. size) 4) Hamilton (ranked 3rd in pop. size) 5) Summit (ranked 4th in pop. size) Portage Estimated Total Number of Bed Bug Treatments by Licensed PMPs in Each County 2016Note: 2016 heat map scale is 8-10X higher than 2005 scale (1000–4000)
  22. 22. OSU Survey: Bed Bug Treatment Sites 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 2011 2016 Average % of Work Done at Site Types (Gov. Subsidized) (Not Subsidized) Residences made up the largest share of bed bug work, especially multi-unit residences.
  23. 23. Some Basics of Bed Bug Management • Early detection and treatment are very important. • Bed bug control typically is much faster and less expensive when the infestation is detected early.
  24. 24. Unfed adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long 0.2 inch The Bed Bug Life Cycle Total developmental time (egg to adult): 21 days @ 86F 120 days @ 65F
  25. 25. Life History Characteristics Show That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly Skyrocket … (Early Detection and Treatment are Very Important)  Eggs  Glued in place  1 – 12 eggs / day / female  A single female can produce ~150 eggs  Hatch in 6 – 17 days  Adults (males & females)  Require repeated blood meals  Can live 12 – 18 months  Can survive months of starvation  Nymphs (immature bugs)  Five nymphal stages  Require a blood meal in order to grow
  26. 26. BED BUG HABITS • Cannot fly • Can walk very fast • Typically hide during the day in dark, protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices) • Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces • Can cling tightly to surfaces • Typically avoid contact with human skin (on-person infestations are uncommon except in severe infestations, wheelchairs, persons confined to bed)
  27. 27. •All stages of bed bugs moved extensively within and between apts. •Bugs moved from infested apts. to units on the same floor, above floor, and below floor •Bed bugs dispersed away from hosts and toward hosts •Female bugs appeared to be more active dispersers than males
  28. 28. In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily spread to units that are adjacent, below, and above the infested unit.
  29. 29. •Bed bugs were internally self-marked by feeding on a blood meal (rabbit or chicken blood) •Protein marks persisted over time, through molts, and when marked bugs fed on other blood types •Protein marking can eliminate or reduce handling time for mark-release-recapture technique using external markers
  30. 30. Bed bugs are very good hitchhikers! • luggage • furniture • bedding • backpacks, purses, briefcases • clothing • … Bed bugs can be moved from one place to another by hiding in:
  31. 31. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in walker & wheelchair Photos courtesy of General Pest Control Co.
  32. 32. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in shoe tread
  33. 33. Bed Bugs In Public Facilities • Brought in by visitors, staff, etc. • Brought in on clothing, coats, shoes, purses, briefcases, wheelchairs, walkers, etc. • Bugs then crawl into the facilities’ chairs, carpeting, equipment, etc. • A single bed bug does not warrant panic or business closure! – Early identification is very important – Capture a bug for positive identification
  34. 34. Tips for Employees That Make Home Visits • Minimize items to be carried inside • Don’t sit on beds, upholstered furniture, or the floor • Do a self-inspection immediately after departing (thoroughly inspect shoes) • Change into fresh clothing ASAP (consider keeping a change of clothes at work) • Bag used items (seal the bag) • Dissolvable laundry bags are an option • Disinfect clothing by laundering & drying Tyvek boot covers Tyvek coveralls
  35. 35. Disinfect Items by Laundering & Drying (kills all bed bug life stages) Launder clothing • Wash in hot water (>120ºF) • Keep dry items in drier on medium-hot setting for >30 mins.
  36. 36. • Continuous freezing (for small items) in chest freezer or refrigerator- freezer unit with disabled “frost-free” setting • ~19°F [-7°C] for 3 weeks • ~5°F [-15°C] for 4 days) There are limitations to using cold temperatures for bed bugs:
  37. 37. Did you check for signs of bed bugs in your hotel/motel room when you last traveled?
  38. 38. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS Make it STANDARD PRACTICE to check for bed bugs in hotel/motel rooms! • Pull back the bedding and look for black fecal spots on mattress & box springs (especially seams) • Carefully examine the underside of the bed skirt • Look for bb signs along bed frame (especially head board) • Open nightstand drawers and look for bb signs along inner and outer edges • Look for bb signs along baseboards DON’T STAY IN A ROOM THAT HAS BB SIGNS
  39. 39. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS • Keep clothes in your zipped suitcase • Don’t keep clothes in hotel chest-of-drawers • OK to hang clothes in closet • Don’t store your suitcase on the bed, floor, or upholstered furniture • Keep your suitcase on the luggage rack (after first inspecting it for bb signs) Reduce the chances of getting bed bugs from hotel/motel rooms! • The bathroom (tub) is the best place to store your items!
  40. 40. *The Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK * •Bed bugs were drawn to dirty clothing rather than clean clothing. •Dirty clothes in a hotel room may attract resident bed bugs and thereby spread an infestation to travelers.
  41. 41. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) : Correctly identify the pest + Conduct a thorough inspection + Use sanitation measures + Use non-chemical measures + Apply insecticides to targeted sites
  42. 42. Here’s a VERY important DIY measure: Remove clutter! • Clutter offers many hiding places for bed bugs • Clutter makes bed bugs difficult to detect • Clutter makes bed bugs difficult to treat
  43. 43. • Clothes dryer (dry items kept for 30 min. @ >120ºF [49°C]) • Vacuuming (heavy-duty vacuum) • Steaming (hand-held steamer) • Continuous freezing (small items) in chest freezer or refrigerator-freezer unit with disabled “frost-free” setting • ~19°F [-7°C] for 3 weeks • ~5°F [-15°C] for 4 days) DIY sanitation measures can help reduce the number of bed bugs: Jones and Boggs. 2001. OSU Fact Sheet HYG-2158
  44. 44. Vacuuming to contain bed bugs Jones and Boggs. 2001. OSU Fact Sheet HYG-2158.
  45. 45. Reasons why residents should not dispose of furniture, mattresses, etc.: • Bed bugs will fall off the furniture as it is being moved, hence spreading the problem. • Infested furniture usually can be treated. • Bed bugs can quickly infest replacement furniture. • Items placed in dumpsters often are picked up and reused, thereby spreading bed bugs to other households.
  46. 46. Encase mattresses & box springs! • Be sure to encase both the mattress & box springs • Specialized encasements trap bed bugs and eggs • May take 1 year to “starve bugs out” • Restricts any new bug activity to the exterior of the encasement, where bugs can be more easily treated • Be careful not to tear or damage encasements and make sure the zipper stays closed • Some exs: Clean Rest, Mattress Safe, National Allergy Supply, Protect-A-Bed, … Measures to help reduce the number of bed bugs
  47. 47. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) : Correctly identify the pest + Conduct a thorough inspection + Use sanitation measures + Use non-chemical measures + Apply insecticides to targeted sites
  48. 48. Bed Bug Treatment Approaches • Heat treatment (whole structure, container) • Important to include residual insecticide product(s) • Insecticide treatment (dusts, liquids, aerosols) • Residual insecticide products are essential • Accompanied by non-chemical methods • Fumigation (sulfuryl fluoride) • Important to include residual insecticide product(s)
  49. 49. Active Ingredient (insecticide class) Product Name(s) Imidacloprid + ß-cyfluthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Temprid® SC Acetamiprid + bifenthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Transport® Mikron Transport® GHP Thiamethoxam + λ-cyhalothrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Tandem® Dinotefuran + diatomaceous earth (neonicotinoid + silica dioxide) Prescription Treatment Alpine® Dust Alpine® PI Chlorfenapyr (halogenated pyrrole) Phantom® SC Phantom® PI Amorphous silica gel CimeXa™ Clothianidin + metofluthrin + PBO (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid + synergist) CrossFire® Some newer insecticides for use against bed bugs:
  50. 50. Bed bugs are developing resistance to newer insecticides… • Field collected bed bugs showed high levels of resistance to 4 neonicotinoids: •Acetamiprid (1 of 2 AIs in Transport) •Imidacloprid (1 of 2 AIs in Temprid) •Thiamethoxam (1 of 2 AIs in Tandem) •Dinotefuran (1 of 2 AIs in Alpine) • Pyrethroid-resistant populations can quickly become resistant to neonicotinoids • Of 10 field strains, reduced susceptibility was detected in 3 strains exposed to chlorfenapyr (Phantom; a halogenated pyrrole) and 5 strains exposed to bifenthrin (Talstar; a pyrethroid). • Susceptibility to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin seems to be correlated despite the different insecticide classes.
  51. 51. Fungus – Newly Marketed Biopesticide
  52. 52. Aprehend™ fungal biopesticide • • Spray-on formula based on an insect- infecting fungus found in nature • Fungus quickly spreads from infected bed bugs to uninfected bed bug Product cost: $150 Sprayer cost: $130 Charging the battery can be challenging. Be sure to follow the directions AND carry an extension cord! --Jeff White, Bed Bug Central NOTE: OSU does not endorse specific products or services.
  53. 53. Aprehend™ application • Sprayed strategically in areas with high bed bug traffic • Need to use other products for mattress, cracks, etc. NOTE: OSU does not endorse specific products or services.
  54. 54. Observations re. Aprehend • After treatment, bed bugs were noted in odd locations • Bugs found in sink, dining room • Multiple companies reporting this phenomenon Slide courtesy of Jeff White, Bed Bug Central
  55. 55. 2016 Alcohol Insecticide Dust or Powder OTC Fogger “Natural” Products Home Cleaner/ Disinfectant Professional Pesticide 2011 Alcohol Insecticide Dust or Powder OTC Insecticide Aerosol or Liquid OTC Fogger Professional Pesticide OTC Insecticide Aerosol or Liquid OTC foggers, alcohol, home cleaners, and “natural” products all increased as share of misused products.
  56. 56. Percent (mean ± SE) of moribund and dead adult bed bugs at day 7 after having been sprayed with various alcohol products. You will not kill many bed bugs by spraying alcohol products. (You may drown some with a thorough soaking). Amount of spray
  57. 57. OSU’s Bed Bug Field Guide • Free mobile app • Bed bug identification, biology, and IPM strategies at your fingertips Coming Soon… Collaboration between: • EduTechnologic • OSU Urban Entomology team Funding provided by: • EPA Region 5 • Ohio Dept. Agriculture (ODA)
  58. 58. Some useful resources on bed bugs
  59. 59. Features: • Household insect ID card w bed bug tips for printing • Q&A • Abstracts of research publications
  60. 60. Features: • Advice for specific groups (hospitality, social work, schools, etc.) • COBBTF conference presentations • Links to resources specific to Central Ohio
  61. 61. cuyahoga-county-bed-bug-task-force Features: • CCBBTF conference presentations • Links to resources specific to Cleveland area
  62. 62. Features: • Fact sheets and resources in numerous languages • Video tutorials
  63. 63. bugging-you/bed-bugs Features: • Numerous downloadable fact sheets, pamphlets, handouts, etc. with illustrations • Spanish-language fact sheets and resources
  64. 64. Features: • Many video tutorials NOTE: OSU does not endorse specific products or services.
  65. 65. Acknowledgments • Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force • Ohio Pest Management Association • OSU Statistical Consulting Service • Tae Lee • Alden Siperstein • Alex Tyrpak • Sarah Casey • Olimpia Ferguson
  66. 66. Thank You! Sleep tight, and don’t let the … … well, you know the rest
  67. 67. Questions?